Cambridge International AS & A Level Complete Biology

Cambridge International AS & A Level Complete Biology

By Stephanie Fowler, Glenn Toole, Susan Toole, Beverlyn Nathan, Aniruddha Chakraborty, Padmajyothi Sripada, Krista Restivo
US$ 46.49
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Book Description

Ensure students achieve top exam marks, and can confidently progress to further study, with an academically rigorous yet accessible approach from Cambridge examiners. With full syllabus match, extensive practice and exam guidance this new edition embeds a comprehensive understanding of scientific concepts and develops advanced skills for strong assessment potential.

Be confident of full syllabus support with a comprehensive syllabus matching grid and learning objectives drawn directly from the latest syllabus (9700), for first examination from 2022. Written by Cambridge examiners, this new edition if packed with focused and explicit assessment guidance, support and practice to ensure your students are fully equipped for their exams.

With a stretching yet accessible approach Cambridge International AS & A Level Complete Biology develops advanced problem solving and scientific skills and contextualizes scientific concepts to ensure your students are ready to progress to further study. All answers are available on the accompanying answer support site.

Take your students exam preparation further and ensure they get the grades they deserve with additional exam-focused support available in the Enhanced Online Student Book and the Exam Success Guide.

Table of Contents
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • AS Level
    • 1 Cell structure
      • 1.1 The microscope in cell studies
        • a. Using a light microscope: an introduction
        • b. Making temporary preparations
        • c. Drawing cells
        • d. Making measurements and calculating magnification of image
        • e. Resolution and the electron microscope in cell studies
        • f. Images of cells and cell structures
      • 1.2 Cells as the basic units of living organisms
        • a. An introduction to cells
        • b. The structure of an animal cell and a plant cell
        • c. Organelles surrounded by double membranes
        • d. Cell structures within eukaryotic cells (1)
        • e. Cell structures within eukaryotic cells (2)
        • f. Comparing eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 2 Biological molecules
      • 2.1 Testing for biological molecules
        • a. An introduction to biological molecules
        • b. Reducing and non-reducing sugars, starch, lipids and proteins
      • 2.2 Carbohydrates and lipids
        • a. Monosaccharides and disaccharides
        • b. The polysaccharides starch and glycogen
        • c. The polysaccharide cellulose
        • d. Triglycerides and phospholipids
      • 2.3 Proteins
        • a. Amino acids and polypeptides
        • b. Protein structure
        • c. Fibrous and globular proteins
      • 2.4 Properties of water
        • a. The role of water in living organisms
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 3 Enzymes
      • 3.1 Mode of action of enzymes
        • a. Enzyme structure and mechanism of action
        • b. Investigating the progress of enzyme-catalysed reactions
        • c. Using a colorimeter
      • 3.2 Factors that affect enzyme action
        • a. Temperature and pH
        • b. Enzyme and substrate concentration
        • c. Effects of inhibitors on enzyme action
        • d. Immobilised enzymes
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 4 Cell membranes and transport
      • 4.1 Fluid mosaic membranes
        • a. The fluid mosaic model of membrane structure
        • b. Components of cell surface membranes
      • 4.2 Movement into and out of cells
        • a. Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion
        • b. Osmosis and water potential
        • c. Osmosis and cells
        • d. Investigating simple diffusion and osmosis
        • e. Surface area and volume
        • f. Active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 5 The mitotic cell cycle
      • 5.1 Replication and division of nuclei and cells
        • a. Chromosome structure and the mitotic cell cycle
        • b. Mitosis, stem cells and tumour formation
      • 5.2 Chromosome behaviour in mitosis
        • a. Mitosis in plant and animal cells, and cytokinesis
        • b. Developing practical skills in experimental and microscope work
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 6 Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
      • 6.1 Structure of nucleic acids and replication of DNA
        • a. Nucleotides and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
        • b. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) structure
        • c. Semi-conservative replication of DNA
        • d. Extension: Evidence for semi-conservative DNA replication
      • 6.2 Protein synthesis
        • a. The gene and the genetic code of a protein
        • b. Transcription
        • c. Translation
        • d. Gene mutations
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 7 Transport in plants
      • 7.1 Structure of transport tissues
        • a. Plant anatomy: roots, stems, and leaves
        • b. The distribution of xylem and phloem in root and stems
        • c. The distribution of xylem and phloem in leaves
        • d. Xylem vessel elements
        • e. Phloem sieve tube elements and companion cells
      • 7.2 Transport mechanisms
        • a. Transport of water from the root to the xylem
        • b. Movement of water in the xylem
        • c. Adaptations of the leaves of xerophytic plants
        • d. Phloem tissue and the transport of assimilates
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 8 Transport in mammals
      • 8.1 The circulatory system
        • a. The mammalian circulatory system: structure and function of capillaries
        • b. Structure and functions of arteries and veins
        • c. Structure and functions of red and white blood cells
        • d. Blood plasma, tissue fluid and the role of water in transport
      • 8.2 Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
        • a. Haemoglobin and the oxygen dissociation curve
        • b. The role of red blood cells in transporting carbon dioxide
      • 8.3 The heart
        • a. The internal and external structure of the heart
        • b. The cardiac cycle
        • c. Control of the cardiac cycle
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 9 Gas exchange
      • 9.1 The gas exchange system
        • a. The structure of the human gas exchange system
        • b. Functions of tissues and cells in maintaining a healthy system
        • c. Gas exchange in the alveoli
        • d. Identifying cells, tissues and organs in the gas exchange system
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 10 Infectious diseases
      • 10.1 Infectious diseases
        • a. Pathogens and infectious disease
        • b. Transmission, prevention and control of HIV
        • c. Transmission, prevention and control of TB
        • d. Transmission, prevention and control of cholera
        • e. Transmission, prevention and control of malaria
      • 10.2 Antibiotics
        • a. The action of penicillin and resistance of antibiotics
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 11 Immunity
      • 11.1 The immune system
        • a. The mode of action of phagocytes
        • b. B-lymphocytes and the immune response
        • c. Specific immunity: T-lymphocytes and the immune response
      • 11.2 Antibodies and vaccination
        • a. Antibodies and monoclonal antibodies
        • b. Types of immunity and vaccination
        • c. Vaccination programmes
      • Exam-style and Practice Questions
  • A Level
    • 12 Energy and respiration
      • 12.1 Energy
        • a. The need for energy
        • b. ATP as the universal energy currency; energy values of respiratory substrates
        • c. Measurement of respiration and respiratory quotient
      • 12.2 Respiration
        • a. An overview of respiration: glycolysis
        • b. The link reaction and the Krebs cycle of aerobic respiration
        • c. Oxidative phosphorylation
        • d. The mitochondrion
        • e. Respiration in anaerobic conditions
        • f. Investigating rates of respiration
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 13 Photosynthesis
      • 13.1 Photosynthesis as an energy transfer process
        • a. Two main stages of photosynthesis
        • b. The chloroplast
        • c. The chromatography of chloroplast pigments
        • d. Chloroplast pigments and light absorption
        • e. The light-dependent stage
        • f. The light-independent stage
      • 13.2 Investigation of limiting factors
        • a. Light intensity, CO2 concentration, and temperature
        • b. Carrying out investigations on chloroplast suspensions
        • c. Carrying out investigations on whole plants
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 14 Homeostasis
      • 14.1 Homeostasis in mammals
        • a. The importance and principles of homeostasis
        • b. The structure of the human kidney
        • c. The structure of the nephron
        • d. Ultrafiltration and selective reabsorption
        • e. The kidneys and osmoregulation
        • f. Osmoregulation and water reabsorption in the collecting ducts
        • g. Hormones and cell signalling
        • h. The regulation of blood glucose concentration
        • i. Test strips and biosensors to measure glucose concentrations
      • 14.2 Homeostasis in plants
        • a. Stomata and the opening and closing of stomata
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 15 Control and coordination
      • 15.1 Control and coordination in mammals
        • a. The endocrine system and the nervous system
        • b. Neurones
        • c. Sensory receptor cells
        • d. The nerve impulse
        • e. Transmission of an impulse in a myelinated neurone
        • f. The structure of a cholinergic synapse
        • g. Synaptic transmission
        • h. Striated muscle and the neuromuscular junction
        • i. The sarcomere and sliding filament model
        • j. Muscle contraction
      • 15.2 Control and coordination in plants
        • a. The Venus fly trap, auxins, and gibberellins
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 16 Inheritance
      • 16.1 Passage of information from parents to offspring
        • a. The role of meiosis
        • b. The stages of meiosis
        • c. Meiosis as a source of genetic variation
      • 16.2 The roles of genes in determining the phenotype
        • a. Genetic terminology
        • b. Monohybrid crosses involving dominance
        • c. The test cross
        • d. Codominance and multiple alleles
        • e. Dihybrid inheritance
        • f. Sex linkage and autosomal linkage
        • g. Epistasis
        • h. The chi-squared (χ2) test
        • i. Albinism, haemophilia and sickle cell anaemia
        • j. Huntington’s disease and stem elongation
      • 16.3 Gene control
        • a. Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes, and the lac operon
        • b. Regulation of transcription in eukaryotes
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 17 Selection and evolution
      • 17.1 Variation
        • a. Contribution of the environment to phenotypic variation
        • b. Continuous and discontinuous variation
        • c. The t-test, mean and sample standard deviation
        • d. The t-test, a worked example
      • 17.2 Natural and artificial selection
        • a. Natural selection
        • b. Environmental factors and natural selection
        • c. Processes affecting allele frequencies
        • d. The Hardy–Weinberg principle
        • e. Selective breeding in milk cattle
        • f. Crop improvement by selective breeding
      • 17.3 Evolution
        • a. Evolutionary relationships
        • b. Speciation
        • c. Extension: examples of adaptation of organisms to their environment
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 18 Classification, biodiversity and conservation
      • 18.1 Classification
        • a. Taxonomy and the species concept
        • b. Domains and kingdoms
      • 18.2 Biodiversity
        • a. Biodiversity at different levels
        • b. Extension: Ecology and ecosystems
        • c. Ecological techniques
        • d. Ecological analysis: Spearman’s rank correlation
        • e. Pearson’s linear correlation and Simpson’s index of diversity
      • 18.3 Conservation
        • a. Why species become extinct
        • b. Maintaining and protecting biodiversity
        • c. Methods of protecting endangered species
        • d. Assisted reproduction and controlling alien species
      • Exam-style and practice questions
    • 19 Genetic technology
      • 19.1 Principles of genetic technology
        • a. Obtaining genes for genetic engineering; gel electrophoresis
        • b. Gene cloning and the polymerase chain reaction
        • c. Gene cloning and the polymerase chain reaction
        • d. Gene transfer and gene expression
        • e. Gene editing and microarray analysis
        • f. Biological databases
      • 19.2 Genetic technology applied to medicine
        • a. Treating disease with recombinant proteins
        • b. Genetic screening
        • c. Gene therapy
      • 19.3 Genetically modified organisms in agriculture
        • a. Soybean, cotton, and salmon
        • b. Ethical and social implications
      • Exam-style and practice questions
  • Summary-test answers
  • Glossary
  • Index
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