The China of Chiang K'ai-Shek A Political Study
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The China of Chiang K'ai-Shek A Political Study

By Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger
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Table of Contents
  • THE CHINA OF CHIANG K'AI-SHEK: A Political Study
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • CONTENTS
  • INTRODUCTION
    • The Chinese Political Inheritance: Some Continuing Aspects
    • China at the Outbreak of War
    • The Beginning of Active Hostilities
    • The Hankow Period
    • The Chungking Period
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter I THE CONSTITUTION
    • The Yüeh Fa of 1931
    • The Draft Permanent or Double Five Constitution
    • The Issue of Constitutional Change
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter II THE POLITICAL ORGANS OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
    • The Five-Power Constitution
    • The Supreme National Defense Council
    • The President of the National Government
    • The Council of State
    • The Executive Yüan
    • The Military Affairs Commission
    • The Judicial, Legislative, Examination and Control Yüan
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter III CONSULTATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANS
    • The People's Political Council
    • The Administrative Pattern
    • The Political Ministries
    • Social and Cultural Agencies
    • The Economic Ministries
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter IV PROVINCIAL, LOCAL, AND SPECIAL-AREA GOVERNMENT
    • The Provinces
    • Local Government
    • The Communist Zone
    • Guerrilla Governments
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter V THE KUOMINTANG
    • The Party Constitutional System
    • Party Organization
    • The Kuomintang Bid for Leadership
    • Intra-Kuomintang Politics
    • The New Life Movement and Other Affiliates
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter VI THE COMMUNIST AND MINOR PARTIES
    • The Chinese Communists: Party and Leaders
    • Communism: Patriotism or Betrayal?
    • The National Salvation Movement
    • The Third Party
    • The Chinese National Socialist Party
    • Social Democrats and La Jeunesse
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter VII GOVERNING INSTITUTIONS OF THE JAPANESE AND PRO-JAPANESE
    • The Japanese Army as a Chinese Government
    • The Problem of Puppet States
    • The Provisional and Reformed Governments
    • The Reorganized National Government of Wang Ch'ing-wei
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter VIII EXTRA-POLITICAL FORCES
    • The Foundations of Chinese Government
    • Mass Education
    • Rural Reconstruction
    • The Chinese Industrial Cooperatives
    • Unorganized Pressure
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • Chapter IX SUN YAT-SEN AND CHIANG K'AI-SHEK
    • Sun Yat-sen
    • The San Min Chu I
    • Chiang K'ai-shek
    • Chinese Appraisals of Chiang
    • The Ideology of Chiang
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • CONCLUSION
    • The Chief Alternatives in China
    • The United States in Chinese Politics
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • APPENDIX I. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS
  • A. THE GOVERNMENT DRAFT OF THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION[1]
    • Chapter I. General Provisions
    • Chapter II. Rights and Duties of the Citizens
    • Chapter III. The People's Congress
    • Chapter IV. The Central Government
      • Section 1. The President
      • Section 2. The Executive Yuan
      • Section 3. The Legislative Yuan
      • Section 4. The Judicial Yuan
      • Section 5. The Examination Yuan
      • Section 6. The Censor Yuan
    • Section 1. The President
    • Section 2. The Executive Yuan
    • Section 3. The Legislative Yuan
    • Section 4. The Judicial Yuan
    • Section 5. The Examination Yuan
    • Section 6. The Censor Yuan
    • Chapter V. The Local Institutions
      • Section 1. The Provinces
      • Section 2. The Districts
      • Section 3. The Municipalities
    • Section 1. The Provinces
    • Section 2. The Districts
    • Section 3. The Municipalities
    • Chapter VI. National Economic Life
    • Chapter VII. Education
    • Chapter VIII. The Enforcement and Amendment of the Constitution
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • B. THE SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL CONGRESS[1]
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • C. ACT OF THE LEGISLATIVE YÜAN, APRIL 31, XXVI (1937) GOVERNING THE ELECTION OF REPRESENTATIVES TO THE NATIONAL CONGRESS[1]
    • Chapter I. General Principles
    • Chapter II. District Election
    • Chapter III. Professional Election
    • Chapter IV. Special Elections
      • Section 1. Elections in the Provinces of Liaoning, Kirin, Heilungkiang and Jehol
      • Section 2. Elections in Mongolia and Tibet
      • Section 3. Representatives from Overseas
      • Section 4. Elections in the Army, Navy, and Air Forces
    • Section 1. Elections in the Provinces of Liaoning, Kirin, Heilungkiang and Jehol
    • Section 2. Elections in Mongolia and Tibet
    • Section 3. Representatives from Overseas
    • Section 4. Elections in the Army, Navy, and Air Forces
    • Chapter V. Election of the Chief Election Office and of the Election Inspectors
    • Chapter VI. Election and Forfeited Election
    • Chapter VII. Law Suits Concerning Election Affairs
    • Chapter VIII. Supplement
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • D. THE PROGRAM OF RESISTANCE AND RECONSTRUCTION[1]
    • A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES:
    • B. DIPLOMACY:
    • C. MILITARY AFFAIRS:
    • D. POLITICS:
    • E. ECONOMICS:
    • F. MASS MOVEMENT:
    • G. EDUCATION:
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • E. AN OUTLINE OF WAR-TIME CONTROLMENT[1]
    • THE CONTROL YÜAN:
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • F. A CHART OF THE CONTROL YÜAN FROM JULY 1937 TO JUNE 1940[1]
    • THE READJUSTMENT:
    • THE FUNCTIONS:
    • THE PRESENT ORGANIZATION:
    • THE WORK:
    • THE MINISTRY OF AUDIT:
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • G. REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE VARIOUS CLASSIFICATIONS OF HSIEN[1]
    • A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • B. THE Hsien GOVERNMENT (hsien chêng-fu)
    • C. THE Hsien PEOPLE'S COUNCIL (hsien ts'ang-chêng hui)
    • D. FINANCES OF A Hsien
    • E. Ch'ü
    • F. Hsiang[3]
    • G. THE Hsiang PEOPLE'S COUNCIL
    • H. FINANCE OF THE Hsiang
    • I. Pao AND Chia
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • H. A CHART OF GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION
  • APPENDIX II. DOCUMENTS ON PARTY POLITICS
  • A. A CHART OF KUOMINTANG ORGANIZATION
  • B. CONSTITUTION OF THE SAN MIN CHU I YOUTH CORPS, YEAR XXVII (1938)[1]
    • Chapter I. General Principles
    • Chapter II. Membership
    • Chapter III. System of Organization
    • Chapter IV. The Corps Leader
    • Chapter V. The All-Corps Representative Assembly and Other Meetings of Representatives
    • Chapter VI. The Central Headquarters
    • Chapter VII. The Branch Corps
    • Chapter VIII. The Divisional Corps
    • Chapter IX. The Sectional Corps
    • Chapter X. The Divisional Troop
    • Chapter XI. The Sectional Troop
    • Chapter XII. The Election of Officers and Their Term of Service
    • Chapter XIII. Discipline
    • Chapter XIV. Fees
    • Chapter XV. Amendments, etc.
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • C. THE DUTIES AND GENERAL ACTIVITIES OF THE SAN MIN CHU I YOUTH CORPS (CH'ÊN CH'ÊNG)[1]
    • Outline
    • A. The Duties and Nature of the Corps
      • 1. The Duties
      • 2. The Activities
      • 3. The Nature
    • 1. The Duties
    • 2. The Activities
    • 3. The Nature
    • B. The Growth and the Plan concerning the Intensification of the Works of the Corps
      • 1. The Growth
      • 2. Plan concerning the Intensification of Activities
    • 1. The Growth
    • 2. Plan concerning the Intensification of Activities
    • C. The General Activities of the Corps
      • 1. Organization
      • 2. The Training
      • 3. Publicity
      • 4. Social Work
      • 5. Financial Assistance
    • 1. Organization
    • 2. The Training
    • 3. Publicity
    • 4. Social Work
    • 5. Financial Assistance
    • D. General Discussion of the Two Years' Activities of the Corps and the Principles Governing the Nation's Youth
      • 1. Discussion of the Corps' Past Work
      • 2. Principles Guiding the Nation's Youth
    • 1. Discussion of the Corps' Past Work
    • 2. Principles Guiding the Nation's Youth
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • D. THE HSIAO-TSU (SMALL GROUP) TRAINING PROGRAM[1]
    • Introduction
    • A. Organization
    • B. Conferences
    • C. Guidance and Examination
    • D. Appendix
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • E. PARTY CONSTITUTION OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY[1]
    • Chapter I. Title
    • Chapter II. The Members
    • Chapter III. The Organization
    • Chapter IV. Branch Party Organs
    • Chapter V. City and Country District Party Organs
    • Chapter VI. Hsien and Municipal Party Organs
    • Chapter VII. Provincial Party Organs
    • Chapter VIII. The National Party Convention[4]
    • Chapter IX. The National Party Congress
    • Chapter X. The Central Party Committee[5]
    • Chapter XI. The Central Control Committee[6]
    • Chapter XII. The Party Discipline
    • Chapter XIII. Party Finance
    • Chapter XIV. Special Party Groups [Corps][7]
    • Chapter XV. Relationship with the Communist Youth Corps[8]
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • APPENDIX III. MATERIALS ON POLICY
  • A. REPLY TO QUESTIONS (CHIANG K'AI-SHEK)[1]
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • B. WHAT I MEAN BY ACTION, OR A PHILOSOPHY OF ACTION (CHIANG K'AI-SHEK)[1]
    • The Truths We Must Endeavor to Grasp Anew
    • Action Is Life Itself: the Tireless Pertinacity of Nature Our Example
    • Action Is Not Mere Motion
    • Action Is Nature at Work in Man: the Whole Universe Is the Scene of Action
    • The Broadest Sense of Life
    • The Revolution Demands Action of All Men at All Times
    • The Meaning of Ease
    • Sincerity the Root of Action and Goodwill
    • The Laws of Action
      • One: The Starting Point
      • Two: Ordered Unfolding of Plans
      • Three: Unswerving Aim at the Target
      • Four: The Even Texture of a Life of Action
    • One: The Starting Point
    • Two: Ordered Unfolding of Plans
    • Three: Unswerving Aim at the Target
    • Four: The Even Texture of a Life of Action
    • Formation and Constancy of Purpose
    • Action Engenders Knowledge
    • Comrades in Revolution! Resolve Anew!
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • C. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE VARIOUS CLASSIFICATIONS OF HSIEN (CHIANG K'AI-SHEK)[1]
    • A. Readjustments in the Relations among the Various Administrative Party and Political Organizations of the Hsien
    • B. Political Organizations
    • C. People's Organs through Which Popular Political Opinions May Be Expressed
    • Explanation
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • D. A DISCUSSION OF MAO TSÊ-TUNG'S COMMENTS ON THE PRESENT STATE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (CH'ÊN KUO-HSIN)[1]
    • I. The Question of Unexpected Political "Coups"
    • II. Is the German-Soviet Pact Casual?
    • III. Why the German-Soviet Pact?
    • IV. A Discussion on the "New Front" as Made in a Chinese Story-Teller's Way
    • V. A Single Enemy? Or a Single Ally?
    • VI. A Reasonless Conclusion
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • E. CHINA'S LONG-RANGE DIPLOMATIC ORIENTATION (WANG CH'UNG-HUI)[1]
    • 1. Outline of China's Foreign Policy
    • 2. China's Stand Vis-à-Vis Japan
    • 3. Non-Recognition of Puppet Regimes
    • 4. China's Foreign Relations Based on Nine-Power Treaty
    • FOOTNOTE:
  • GLOSSARY
  • INDEX
  • TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE:
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