Prehistoric Men
Free

Prehistoric Men

By Robert J. (Robert John) Braidwood
Free
Book Description
Table of Contents
  • Prehistoric Men
  • Preface
  • Preface to the Third Edition
  • Contents
  • HOW WE LEARN about Prehistoric Men
    • SCIENTISTS WHO FIND OUT ABOUT PREHISTORIC MEN
    • ARCHEOLOGISTS
    • SOME OTHER SCIENTISTS
    • HOW THE SCIENTISTS FIND OUT
    • ARCHEOLOGICAL INFORMATION
    • EVERYTHING BEGINS TO FIT TOGETHER
  • THE CHANGING WORLD in which Prehistoric Men Lived
    • CHANGES IN ENVIRONMENT
    • GLACIERS CHANGE THE WEATHER
    • OTHER CHANGES
  • Prehistoric Men THEMSELVES
    • DO WE KNOW WHERE MAN ORIGINATED?
    • MEN AND APES
    • BRAINS, HANDS, AND TOOLS
    • WHEN SHALL WE CALL MEN MEN?
    • THE EARLIEST MEN WE KNOW
    • PEKING MEN AND SOME EARLY WESTERNERS
    • WHAT HAPPENED TO JAVA AND PEKING MEN
    • TWO ENGLISHMEN WHO WEREN’T OLD
    • TYPICAL “CAVE MEN”
    • OTHER MEN CONTEMPORARY WITH THE NEANDERTHALOIDS
    • EARLY MODERN MEN
    • THE FIRST MODERNS
    • DIFFERENCES IN THE EARLY MODERNS
    • WHAT THE DIFFERENCES MEAN
    • SUMMARY OF PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF FOSSIL MEN
  • Cultural BEGINNINGS
    • WHAT IS CULTURE?
    • SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
    • PREHISTORIC CULTURES
    • WHY LITTLE HAS LASTED FROM EARLY TIMES
    • “EOLITHS”
    • THE ROAD TO STANDARDIZATION
    • PEBBLE TOOLS
    • CORE-BIFACE TOOLS
    • FLAKE TOOLS
    • CHOPPERS AND ADZE-LIKE TOOLS
    • DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE TOOL-MAKING TRADITIONS
    • THE MEANING OF THE DIFFERENT TRADITIONS
    • AN OLDER INTERPRETATION OF THE WESTERN TRADITIONS
    • TRADITIONS ARE TOOL-MAKING HABITS, NOT CULTURES
    • LIFE IN EARLIEST TIMES
    • WHAT THE PEKING CAVE-FINDS TELL US
  • MORE EVIDENCE of Culture
    • THE CAVE LAYERS
    • AN “INDUSTRY” DEFINED
    • THE EARLIEST EUROPEAN CAVE LAYERS
    • THE ACHEULEAN INDUSTRY
    • FLAKE INDUSTRIES FROM THE CAVES
    • THE LEVALLOISIAN AND MOUSTERIAN
    • THE MIXING OF TRADITIONS
    • OTHER SUGGESTIONS OF LIFE IN THE EARLY CAVE LAYERS
    • TOOLS FROM AFRICA AND ASIA ABOUT 100,000 YEARS AGO
    • CULTURE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE LAST GREAT GLACIAL PERIOD
  • EARLY MODERNS
    • A NEW TRADITION APPEARS
    • BLADE TOOLS
    • THE EARLIEST BLADE TOOLS
    • SPECIAL TYPES OF BLADE TOOLS
    • OTHER KINDS OF TOOLS
    • THE BEGINNING OF ART
    • CAVE PAINTINGS
    • LIFE AT THE END OF THE ICE AGE IN EUROPE
    • MICROLITHS
    • LATER BLADE-TOOL INDUSTRIES OF THE NEAR EAST AND AFRICA
    • NETHER AFRICA
    • THE FAR EAST
    • THE NEW WORLD BECOMES INHABITED
    • THE NEW ERA
  • End and PRELUDE
    • CHANGES AT THE END OF THE ICE AGE
    • THE READJUSTMENTS COMPLETED IN EUROPE
    • SOUTH AND CENTRAL EUROPE PERHAPS AS READJUSTED AS THE NORTH
    • HOW MUCH REAL CHANGE WAS THERE?
    • CHANGES IN OTHER AREAS?
    • REAL CHANGE AND PRELUDE IN THE NEAR EAST
    • QUESTIONS ABOUT CAUSE
    • PRECONDITIONS FOR THE REVOLUTION
    • CULTURAL “RECEPTIVENESS” AND PROMISING ENVIRONMENTS
    • AN OLD THEORY AS TO THE CAUSE OF THE REVOLUTION
    • THE OLD THEORY TOO SIMPLE FOR THE FACTS
    • ABOUT STAGES AND ERAS
    • THE TWO EARLIEST ERAS OF THE FOOD-PRODUCING STAGE
    • NUCLEAR AREAS
    • THE NUCLEAR NEAR EAST
    • THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE NUCLEAR NEAR EAST
    • THE ERA OF INCIPIENT CULTIVATION AND ANIMAL DOMESTICATION
    • INCIPIENT ERAS AND NUCLEAR AREAS
    • ARCHEOLOGICAL DIFFICULTIES IN SEEING THE INCIPIENT ERA
    • SITES WITH ANTIQUITIES OF THE INCIPIENT ERA
    • THE NATUFIAN, AN ASSEMBLAGE OF THE INCIPIENT ERA
    • NATUFIAN ANTIQUITIES IN OTHER MATERIALS; BURIALS AND PEOPLE
    • THE KARIM SHAHIR ASSEMBLAGE
    • WERE THE NATUFIAN AND KARIM SHAHIR PEOPLES FOOD-PRODUCERS?
    • SUMMARY
  • THE First Revolution
    • THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOOD-COLLECTORS AND FOOD-PRODUCERS
    • THE FOOD-PRODUCING ECONOMY
    • WAS FOOD-PRODUCTION A “REVOLUTION”?
    • GAPS IN OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE NEAR EAST
    • EARLIEST SITES OF THE VILLAGE FARMERS
    • THE GAP BETWEEN KARIM SHAHIR AND JARMO
    • JARMO, IN THE KURDISH HILLS, IRAQ
    • ARCHITECTURE: HALL-MARK OF THE VILLAGE
    • HASSUNA, IN UPPER MESOPOTAMIAN IRAQ
    • OTHER EARLY VILLAGE SITES IN THE NUCLEAR AREA
    • THE IRANIAN PLATEAU AND THE NILE VALLEY
    • SPREAD IN TIME AND SPACE
    • THE SPREAD OF THE VILLAGE-FARMING COMMUNITY WAY OF LIFE INTO EUROPE
    • THE WAYS TO EUROPE
    • THE EARLIEST FARMERS OF ENGLAND
    • THE EUROPEAN ACHIEVEMENT
  • THE Conquest of Civilization
    • WHAT “CIVILIZATION” MEANS
    • CIVILIZATION IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT FOOD-PRODUCTION
    • WHY DIDN’T CIVILIZATION COME TO ALL FOOD-PRODUCERS?
    • WHERE CIVILIZATION FIRST APPEARED IN THE NEAR EAST
    • THE HILLY-FLANKS ZONE VERSUS THE RIVER LANDS
    • THE RIVERS MUST BE CONTROLLED
    • CONTROL OF THE RIVERS THE BUSINESS OF EVERYONE
    • THE GERM OF CIVILIZATION IN EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA
    • THE ARCHEOLOGICAL SEQUENCE TO CIVILIZATION IN IRAQ
    • CLASSIC SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA FIRST OCCUPIED
    • THE UBAIDIAN ACHIEVEMENT
    • THE WARKA PHASE IN THE SOUTH
    • THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION
    • ART AND WRITING
    • FROM PREHISTORY TO HISTORY
  • End of PREHISTORY
    • METAL USERS REACH ENGLAND
    • MORE INVASIONS
    • “THIS ENGLAND”
    • CREMATION BURIALS BEGIN
    • REVERBERATIONS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE
    • THE COMING OF IRON
    • HILL-FORTS AND FARMS
    • THE SECOND PHASE
    • THE THIRD PHASE
    • THE END OF PREHISTORY
    • BRITAIN AS A SAMPLE OF THE GENERAL COURSE OF PREHISTORY IN EUROPE
  • Summary
    • THE DRAMA OF THE PAST
    • THE SECOND ACT
    • THE FIRST GREAT CLIMAX OF THE SECOND ACT
    • THE THIRD ACT
    • WHY BOTHER WITH PREHISTORY?
  • List of Books
    • BOOKS OF GENERAL INTEREST
    • GEOCHRONOLOGY AND THE ICE AGE
    • FOSSIL MEN AND RACE
    • GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    • GENERAL PREHISTORY
    • THE NEAR EAST
  • Index
  • Transcriber’s Note
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