Initiative in Evolution
Free

Initiative in Evolution

By Walter Kidd
Free
Book Description
Table of Contents
  • INITIATIVE IN EVOLUTION
  • PREFACE.
  • CONTENTS.
  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
  • CHAPTER I. FROM KNOWN TO UNKNOWN
    • The Historian a Biologist.
    • Darwin.
    • Geology.
    • Anthropology.
    • The Sources of Rivers.
    • Genealogy.
    • Detection of a Crime.
    • A Parable.
    • The Forward Way.
  • CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE POSITION
    • Three Blows to Darwin.
    • Bateson.
    • Two Parables.
    • Weismann.
    • Weismann’s Twelve Points.
    • Lighthouse Value.
    • Romanes on Weismann.
    • Germinal Selection.
    • Authority.
  • CHAPTER III. THE PROBLEMS PRESENTED.
    • Two Questions.
    • What the Problems are not.
    • The Problems Considered.
    • Correlation.
  • CHAPTER IV. INITIAL VARIATIONS AND TOTAL EXPERIENCE.
    • Total Experience.
    • Discontinuous Environments.
    • Mould and Sieve.
  • CHAPTER V. METHOD OF PROOF.
    • Thesis.
    • Procedure.
  • CHAPTER VI. EVIDENCE FROM ARRANGEMENT OF HAIR.
    • Ex Uno Disce Omnes.
    • Steps of the Inquiry.
    • How the Hair is Arranged on the Forearm.
    • The Dynamics of Hair-Pattern.
    • From Lemur to Ape.
    • From Ape to Man.
  • CHAPTER VII. THE EVOLUTION OF PATTERNS OF HAIR.
    • The Side of the Horse’s Neck.
    • The Normal Arrangement of Hair.
    • Fourteen Varieties.
  • CHAPTER VIII. CAN MUSCULAR ACTION CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF HAIR IN THE INDIVIDUAL?
    • Hairs of Human Eyebrows.
    • Evidence from Artists.
    • Eyebrows Interpreted by Wrinkles.
    • Some Examples.
    • A Conflict of Forces.
    • A Side-Issue.
  • CHAPTER IX. HABITS AND HAIR OF UNGULATES.
    • Horses.
    • Lessons from the Domestic Horse.
    • Some Habits of the Horse.
    • The Domestic Ass and Mule.
    • Horse and Zebra Compared.
  • CHAPTER X. HABITS AND HAIR OF UNGULATES.
    • Oxen.
    • Oxen.
    • A Cow’s Habits.
    • Light Occupations of the Cow.
  • CHAPTER XI. HABITS AND HAIR OF CARNIVORES.
    • Cats.
    • Lion.
    • Snout of the Cats
    • Lion’s Neck.
    • Lion’s Back.
  • CHAPTER XII. HABITS AND HAIR OF CARNIVORES.
    • Dogs.
    • Some of the Dog’s Habits.
    • Lying Attitude.
  • CHAPTER XIII. HABITS AND HAIR OF PRIMATES.
    • Hair and Habits of Man.
    • Hair of the Back of Man.
    • Passive Habits.
    • Hair of the Chest.
    • Interpretation of Records.
    • Struggles of the Platysma.
  • CHAPTER XIV. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
    • The Giraffe.
    • Habits.
    • Hair Patterns.
    • Bongo—Tragelaphus euryceros.
    • Kiang—Thibetan Wild Ass.
    • Llama—L.
    • The Parti-coloured Bear—Æluropus Melanoleucus.
    • Two-Toed Sloth—Cholæpus didactylus.
  • CHAPTER XV. EXPERIMENTAL.
    • Progress of Inquiry.
    • The Nature of Experiment.
    • Experiments for the Present Purpose.
    • Undesigned Experiments.
    • Harness on Horses.
    • Examples of the Effects of Pressure.
    • The Selected Example—Ventral Surface of Horse’s Neck.
    • The Normal Arrangement on the Ventral Surface of the Horse’s Neck.
    • Cart Horses.
    • Analogy.
    • Effects of Pressure by Harness.
    • The Proof of Transmission of Pattern.
    • Objections.
  • CHAPTER XVI. FIRST SUMMARY.
    • Causation.
    • To Some Critics.
  • CHAPTER XVII. VARIETIES OF EPIDERMIS.
    • Stimuli and Response.
    • Skin of Palm and Sole.
    • Some Chosen Examples of Palms and Soles.
    • Examples of Ridge-covered Palms and Soles.
    • Primates.
    • Palm and Sole of Man.
  • CHAPTER XVIII. ARRANGEMENT OF THE PAPILLARY RIDGES.
    • The Hand of Man.
    • Reasons for Arrangement Observed.
    • Foot of Man.
    • Lower Animals.
    • Some Undesigned Experiments in Ridges.
    • Direction of Ridges.
  • CHAPTER XIX. FLEXURES OF THE PALM AND SOLE.
    • Description of Flexures.
    • Chief Types.
    • Meaning.
  • CHAPTER XX. THE EVOLUTION OF A BURSA.
    • Bursæ Described.
    • Human Bursæ Enumerated.
    • Examination of Two Still-born Children.
    • Examination of Living Primates.
    • Dead Specimens.
    • Further Undesigned Experiments.
    • The Significance of the Proceeding.
  • CHAPTER XXI. THE PLANTAR ARCH.
    • A Crumbling Arch.
    • Non-Arboreal Man.
    • How the Arch was Built.
    • An Unique Phenomenon.
    • Equipment.
    • Description of the Arch.
  • CHAPTER XXII. MUSCLES.
    • Anatomists’ Views of Muscles.
    • Initiative in Muscles.
    • Cross-Roads in Evolution.
    • New Muscles.
    • Unstriped Muscles.
    • A Remarkable Example.
    • Facial Muscles of Expression.
    • Three Stages.
    • The Fly-shaker Muscle.
    • Other Muscles.
    • Muscles of Primates.
    • Hand and Foot of Man.
    • Peroneus Tertius.
  • CHAPTER XXIII. INNERVATION OF THE HUMAN SKIN.
    • Observed Facts.
    • Some Aspects of the Nervous System.
    • Origin of Cold, Warm, Pain and Touch Spots.
    • Cold and Pain.
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXIV. THE BUILDING OF REFLEX ARCS.
    • Some Illustrations.
    • Abraham.
    • Mohammed.
    • Columbus.
    • Napoleon.
    • Migrations.
    • Some Changes in Habits of Man.
    • Primate Ancestry.
    • Insects, Mollusca, Birds.
    • Insectivores.
    • The Place of the Nervous System in Evolution.
    • Some Neural Phenomena.
    • Facilitation.
    • Raw Materials of the Central Nervous System.
    • Integration of Raw Materials.
    • Evidence.
    • Direct Evidence.
    • Indirect Evidence.
    • Facilitation.
    • The Scratch Reflex.
    • Purposes of Reflexes.
    • Scratch Reflex of the Cat.
  • SUMMARY.
  • INDEX.
    • FOOTNOTES:
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