Ceylon; an Account of the Island Physical, Historical, and Topographical with Notices of Its Natural History, Antiquities and Productions, Volume 1
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Ceylon; an Account of the Island Physical, Historical, and Topographical with Notices of Its Natural History, Antiquities and Productions, Volume 1

By Sir James Emerson Tennent
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  • The Project Gutenberg eBook, Ceylon; an Account of the Island Physical, Historical, and Topographical with Notices of Its Natural History, Antiquities and Productions, Volume 1 (of 2), by James Emerson Tennent
    • E-text prepared by Carnegie Mellon University, Juliet Sutherland, Leonard Johnson, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team
  • CEYLON
    • AN ACCOUNT OF THE ISLAND
      • PHYSICAL, HISTORICAL, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL
      • NOTICES OF ITS NATURAL HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES AND PRODUCTIONS
    • PHYSICAL, HISTORICAL, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL
    • NOTICES OF ITS NATURAL HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES AND PRODUCTIONS
    • SIR JAMES EMERSON TENNENT, K.C.S. LL.D. &c.
      • FOURTH EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED
      • VOLUME I.
        • LONDON
        • 1860
      • LONDON
      • 1860
    • FOURTH EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED
    • VOLUME I.
      • LONDON
      • 1860
    • LONDON
    • 1860
    • CONTENTS
      • OF
    • OF
    • THE FIRST VOLUME.
      • PART I.
        • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
      • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
      • CHAPTER I.
        • GEOLOGY.—MINERALOGY.—GEMS.
      • GEOLOGY.—MINERALOGY.—GEMS.
      • CHAP. II.
        • CLIMATE.—HEALTH AND DISEASE.
      • CLIMATE.—HEALTH AND DISEASE.
      • CHAP. III
        • VEGETATION.—TREES AND PLANTS.
      • VEGETATION.—TREES AND PLANTS.
      • PART II.
        • ZOOLOGY.
      • ZOOLOGY.
      • CHAPTER I.
        • MAMMALIA.
      • MAMMALIA.
      • CHAP. II.
        • BIRDS.
      • BIRDS.
      • CHAP. III.
        • REPTILES.
      • REPTILES.
      • CHAP. IV.
        • FISHES.
      • FISHES.
      • CHAP. V.
        • MOLLUSCA, RADIATA, AND ACALEPHÆ.
      • MOLLUSCA, RADIATA, AND ACALEPHÆ.
      • CHAP. VI.
        • INSECTS.
      • INSECTS.
      • CHAP. VII.
        • ARACHNIDE, MYRIOPODA, CRUSTACEA, ETC.
      • ARACHNIDE, MYRIOPODA, CRUSTACEA, ETC.
      • PART III.
        • THE SINGHALESE CHRONICLES.
      • THE SINGHALESE CHRONICLES.
      • CHAPTER I.
        • SOURCES OF SINGHALESE HISTORY—THE MAHAWANSO.
      • SOURCES OF SINGHALESE HISTORY—THE MAHAWANSO.
      • CHAP. II.
        • THE ABORIGINES.
      • THE ABORIGINES.
      • CHAP. III.
        • CONQUEST OF WIJAYO, B.C. 543.—ESTABLISHMENT OF BUDDHISM, B.C. 307.
      • CONQUEST OF WIJAYO, B.C. 543.—ESTABLISHMENT OF BUDDHISM, B.C. 307.
      • CHAP. IV.
        • THE BUDDHIST MONUMENTS.
      • THE BUDDHIST MONUMENTS.
      • CHAP. V.
        • SINGHALESE CHIVALRY.—ELALA AND DUTUGAIMUNU.
      • SINGHALESE CHIVALRY.—ELALA AND DUTUGAIMUNU.
      • CHAP. VI.
        • THE INFLUENCES OP BUDDHISM ON CIVILISATION.
      • THE INFLUENCES OP BUDDHISM ON CIVILISATION.
      • CHAP. VII.
        • FATE OF THE ABORIGINES.
      • FATE OF THE ABORIGINES.
      • CHAP. VIII.
        • EXTINCTION OF THE GREAT DYNASTY.
      • EXTINCTION OF THE GREAT DYNASTY.
      • CHAP. IX
        • KINGS OF THE LOWER DYNASTY.
      • KINGS OF THE LOWER DYNASTY.
      • CHAP. X.
        • DOMINATION OF THE MALABARS.
      • DOMINATION OF THE MALABARS.
      • CHAP. XI.
        • THE REIGN OF PRAKRAMA BAHU.
      • THE REIGN OF PRAKRAMA BAHU.
      • CHAP. XII.
        • FATE OF THE SINGHALESE MONARCHY.
        • ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE, A.D. 1505.
      • FATE OF THE SINGHALESE MONARCHY.
      • ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE, A.D. 1505.
      • PART IV.
        • SCIENCES AND SOCIAL ARTS.
      • SCIENCES AND SOCIAL ARTS.
      • CHAPTER I.
        • POPULATION, CASTE, SLAVERY, AND RAJA-KARIYA.
      • POPULATION, CASTE, SLAVERY, AND RAJA-KARIYA.
      • CHAP. II.
        • AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION, CATTLE, AND CROPS.
      • AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION, CATTLE, AND CROPS.
      • CHAP. III.
        • EARLY COMMERCE, SHIPPING, AND PRODUCTIONS.
      • EARLY COMMERCE, SHIPPING, AND PRODUCTIONS.
      • CHAP. IV.
        • MANUFACTURES.
      • MANUFACTURES.
      • CHAP. V.
        • WORKING IN METALS.
      • WORKING IN METALS.
      • CHAP. VI.
        • ENGINEERING.
      • ENGINEERING.
      • CHAP. VII.
        • THE FINE ARTS.
      • THE FINE ARTS.
      • CHAP. VIII.
        • SOCIAL LIFE.
      • SOCIAL LIFE.
      • CHAP. IX.
        • SCIENCES.
      • SCIENCES.
      • CHAP. X.
        • SINGHALESE LITERATURE.
      • SINGHALESE LITERATURE.
      • CHAP. XI.
        • BUDDHISM AND DEMON-WORSHIP.
      • BUDDHISM AND DEMON-WORSHIP.
      • PART V.
        • MEDIÆVAL HISTORY.
      • MEDIÆVAL HISTORY.
      • CHAPTER I.
        • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.
      • CHAP. II.
        • INDIAN, ARABIAN, AND PERSIAN AUTHORITIES.
      • INDIAN, ARABIAN, AND PERSIAN AUTHORITIES.
      • CHAP. III.
        • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE CHINESE.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE CHINESE.
      • CHAP. IV.
        • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE MOORS, GENOESE, AND VENETIANS.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE MOORS, GENOESE, AND VENETIANS.
      • ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FIRST VOLUME
    • PART I.
      • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
    • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • GEOLOGY.—MINERALOGY.—GEMS.
    • GEOLOGY.—MINERALOGY.—GEMS.
    • CHAP. II.
      • CLIMATE.—HEALTH AND DISEASE.
    • CLIMATE.—HEALTH AND DISEASE.
    • CHAP. III
      • VEGETATION.—TREES AND PLANTS.
    • VEGETATION.—TREES AND PLANTS.
    • PART II.
      • ZOOLOGY.
    • ZOOLOGY.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • MAMMALIA.
    • MAMMALIA.
    • CHAP. II.
      • BIRDS.
    • BIRDS.
    • CHAP. III.
      • REPTILES.
    • REPTILES.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • FISHES.
    • FISHES.
    • CHAP. V.
      • MOLLUSCA, RADIATA, AND ACALEPHÆ.
    • MOLLUSCA, RADIATA, AND ACALEPHÆ.
    • CHAP. VI.
      • INSECTS.
    • INSECTS.
    • CHAP. VII.
      • ARACHNIDE, MYRIOPODA, CRUSTACEA, ETC.
    • ARACHNIDE, MYRIOPODA, CRUSTACEA, ETC.
    • PART III.
      • THE SINGHALESE CHRONICLES.
    • THE SINGHALESE CHRONICLES.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • SOURCES OF SINGHALESE HISTORY—THE MAHAWANSO.
    • SOURCES OF SINGHALESE HISTORY—THE MAHAWANSO.
    • CHAP. II.
      • THE ABORIGINES.
    • THE ABORIGINES.
    • CHAP. III.
      • CONQUEST OF WIJAYO, B.C. 543.—ESTABLISHMENT OF BUDDHISM, B.C. 307.
    • CONQUEST OF WIJAYO, B.C. 543.—ESTABLISHMENT OF BUDDHISM, B.C. 307.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • THE BUDDHIST MONUMENTS.
    • THE BUDDHIST MONUMENTS.
    • CHAP. V.
      • SINGHALESE CHIVALRY.—ELALA AND DUTUGAIMUNU.
    • SINGHALESE CHIVALRY.—ELALA AND DUTUGAIMUNU.
    • CHAP. VI.
      • THE INFLUENCES OP BUDDHISM ON CIVILISATION.
    • THE INFLUENCES OP BUDDHISM ON CIVILISATION.
    • CHAP. VII.
      • FATE OF THE ABORIGINES.
    • FATE OF THE ABORIGINES.
    • CHAP. VIII.
      • EXTINCTION OF THE GREAT DYNASTY.
    • EXTINCTION OF THE GREAT DYNASTY.
    • CHAP. IX
      • KINGS OF THE LOWER DYNASTY.
    • KINGS OF THE LOWER DYNASTY.
    • CHAP. X.
      • DOMINATION OF THE MALABARS.
    • DOMINATION OF THE MALABARS.
    • CHAP. XI.
      • THE REIGN OF PRAKRAMA BAHU.
    • THE REIGN OF PRAKRAMA BAHU.
    • CHAP. XII.
      • FATE OF THE SINGHALESE MONARCHY.
      • ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE, A.D. 1505.
    • FATE OF THE SINGHALESE MONARCHY.
    • ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE, A.D. 1505.
    • PART IV.
      • SCIENCES AND SOCIAL ARTS.
    • SCIENCES AND SOCIAL ARTS.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • POPULATION, CASTE, SLAVERY, AND RAJA-KARIYA.
    • POPULATION, CASTE, SLAVERY, AND RAJA-KARIYA.
    • CHAP. II.
      • AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION, CATTLE, AND CROPS.
    • AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION, CATTLE, AND CROPS.
    • CHAP. III.
      • EARLY COMMERCE, SHIPPING, AND PRODUCTIONS.
    • EARLY COMMERCE, SHIPPING, AND PRODUCTIONS.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • MANUFACTURES.
    • MANUFACTURES.
    • CHAP. V.
      • WORKING IN METALS.
    • WORKING IN METALS.
    • CHAP. VI.
      • ENGINEERING.
    • ENGINEERING.
    • CHAP. VII.
      • THE FINE ARTS.
    • THE FINE ARTS.
    • CHAP. VIII.
      • SOCIAL LIFE.
    • SOCIAL LIFE.
    • CHAP. IX.
      • SCIENCES.
    • SCIENCES.
    • CHAP. X.
      • SINGHALESE LITERATURE.
    • SINGHALESE LITERATURE.
    • CHAP. XI.
      • BUDDHISM AND DEMON-WORSHIP.
    • BUDDHISM AND DEMON-WORSHIP.
    • PART V.
      • MEDIÆVAL HISTORY.
    • MEDIÆVAL HISTORY.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.
    • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.
    • CHAP. II.
      • INDIAN, ARABIAN, AND PERSIAN AUTHORITIES.
    • INDIAN, ARABIAN, AND PERSIAN AUTHORITIES.
    • CHAP. III.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE CHINESE.
    • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE CHINESE.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE MOORS, GENOESE, AND VENETIANS.
    • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE MOORS, GENOESE, AND VENETIANS.
    • ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FIRST VOLUME
    • NOTICE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
    • NOTICE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
    • NOTICE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
    • INTRODUCTION.
    • PART I.
    • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
    • CHAPTER I
      • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.—GEOLOGY.—MINERALOGY.—GEMS, CLIMATE, ETC.
    • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.—GEOLOGY.—MINERALOGY.—GEMS, CLIMATE, ETC.
    • CHAP. II.
      • CLIMATE.—HEALTH AND DISEASE.
    • CLIMATE.—HEALTH AND DISEASE.
    • CHAP. III.
      • VEGETATION.—TREES AND PLANTS.
    • VEGETATION.—TREES AND PLANTS.
    • PART II.
      • ZOOLOGY.
    • ZOOLOGY.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • MAMMALIA.
      • NOTE (A.)
    • MAMMALIA.
    • NOTE (A.)
    • CHAP. II.
      • BIRDS.
      • List of Ceylon Birds.
      • NOTE.
    • BIRDS.
    • List of Ceylon Birds.
    • NOTE.
    • CHAP. III.
      • REPTILES.
    • REPTILES.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • FISHES.
      • NOTE (A.)
        • INSTANCES OF FISHES FALLING FROM THE CLOUDS IN INDIA.
      • INSTANCES OF FISHES FALLING FROM THE CLOUDS IN INDIA.
      • NOTE (B.)
        • MIGRATION OF FISHES OVER LAND.
      • MIGRATION OF FISHES OVER LAND.
      • NOTE (C.)
        • CEYLON FISHES.
      • CEYLON FISHES.
    • FISHES.
    • NOTE (A.)
      • INSTANCES OF FISHES FALLING FROM THE CLOUDS IN INDIA.
    • INSTANCES OF FISHES FALLING FROM THE CLOUDS IN INDIA.
    • NOTE (B.)
      • MIGRATION OF FISHES OVER LAND.
    • MIGRATION OF FISHES OVER LAND.
    • NOTE (C.)
      • CEYLON FISHES.
    • CEYLON FISHES.
    • CHAP. V.
      • CONCHOLOGY, ETC.
      • I. THE SHELLS OF CEYLON.
      • 2 RADIATA.
    • CONCHOLOGY, ETC.
    • I. THE SHELLS OF CEYLON.
    • 2 RADIATA.
    • CHAP. VI
      • INSECTS.
    • INSECTS.
    • CHAP. VII
      • ARACHNIDA—MYRIOPODA—CRUSTACEA, ETC.
    • ARACHNIDA—MYRIOPODA—CRUSTACEA, ETC.
    • PART III.
      • THE SINGHALESE CHRONICLES.
    • THE SINGHALESE CHRONICLES.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • SOURCES OF SINGHALESE HISTORY.—THE MAHAWANSO AND OTHER NATIVE ANNALS.
      • NOTE (A.)
        • ANCIENT MAP OF CEYLON.
      • ANCIENT MAP OF CEYLON.
      • NOTE (B.)
        • NATIVE SOVEREIGNS OF CEYLON.
      • NATIVE SOVEREIGNS OF CEYLON.
    • SOURCES OF SINGHALESE HISTORY.—THE MAHAWANSO AND OTHER NATIVE ANNALS.
    • NOTE (A.)
      • ANCIENT MAP OF CEYLON.
    • ANCIENT MAP OF CEYLON.
    • NOTE (B.)
      • NATIVE SOVEREIGNS OF CEYLON.
    • NATIVE SOVEREIGNS OF CEYLON.
    • CHAP. II.
      • THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF CEYLON.
      • NOTE.
        • DESCRIPTION IN THE MAHAWANSO OF THE LANDING OF WIJAYO.
      • DESCRIPTION IN THE MAHAWANSO OF THE LANDING OF WIJAYO.
    • THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF CEYLON.
    • NOTE.
      • DESCRIPTION IN THE MAHAWANSO OF THE LANDING OF WIJAYO.
    • DESCRIPTION IN THE MAHAWANSO OF THE LANDING OF WIJAYO.
    • CHAP. III
      • THE CONQUEST OF CEYLON BY WIJAYO, B.C. 543, AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BUDDHISM, B.C. 307.
    • THE CONQUEST OF CEYLON BY WIJAYO, B.C. 543, AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BUDDHISM, B.C. 307.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • THE EARLY BUDDHIST MONUMENTS.
    • THE EARLY BUDDHIST MONUMENTS.
    • CHAP V.
      • SINGHALESE CHIVALRY.—ELALA AND DUTUGAIMUNU.
    • SINGHALESE CHIVALRY.—ELALA AND DUTUGAIMUNU.
    • CHAP. VI.
      • THE INFLUENCE OF BUDDHISM ON CIVILISATION.
    • THE INFLUENCE OF BUDDHISM ON CIVILISATION.
    • CHAP. VII
      • FATE OF THE ABORIGINES.
    • FATE OF THE ABORIGINES.
    • CHAP. VIII
      • EXTINCTION OF THE "GREAT DYNASTY."
    • EXTINCTION OF THE "GREAT DYNASTY."
    • CHAP. IX.
      • KINGS OF THE "LOWER DYNASTY."
    • KINGS OF THE "LOWER DYNASTY."
    • CHAP. X.
      • THE DOMINATION OF THE MALABARS.
    • THE DOMINATION OF THE MALABARS.
    • CHAP XI.
      • THE REIGN OF PRAKRAMA BAHU.
    • THE REIGN OF PRAKRAMA BAHU.
    • CHAP. XII.
      • FATE OF THE SINGHALESE MONARCHY.—ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE, A.D. 1501.
    • FATE OF THE SINGHALESE MONARCHY.—ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE, A.D. 1501.
    • PART IV.
      • SCIENCES AND SOCIAL ARTS
        • OF
      • OF
      • THE ANCIENT SINGHALESE.
    • SCIENCES AND SOCIAL ARTS
      • OF
    • OF
    • THE ANCIENT SINGHALESE.
    • CHAPTER I
      • POPULATION.—CASTE.—SLAVERY AND RAJA-KARIYA.
    • POPULATION.—CASTE.—SLAVERY AND RAJA-KARIYA.
    • CHAP. II.
      • AGRICULTURE.—IRRIGATION.—CATTLE AND CROPS.
    • AGRICULTURE.—IRRIGATION.—CATTLE AND CROPS.
    • CHAP. III
      • EARLY COMMERCE, SHIPPING, AND PRODUCTIONS.
    • EARLY COMMERCE, SHIPPING, AND PRODUCTIONS.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • MANUFACTURES.
    • MANUFACTURES.
    • CHAP. V.
      • WORKING IN METALS.
    • WORKING IN METALS.
    • CHAP. VI.
      • ENGINEERING.
    • ENGINEERING.
    • CHAP. VII.
      • THE FINE ARTS.
    • THE FINE ARTS.
    • CHAP. VIII.
      • DOMESTIC LIFE.
    • DOMESTIC LIFE.
    • CHAP. IX.
      • ASTRONOMY, ETC.
    • ASTRONOMY, ETC.
    • CHAP. X.
      • SINGHALESE LITERATURE.
    • SINGHALESE LITERATURE.
    • CHAP. XI.
      • BUDDHISM AND DEMON-WORSHIP.[1]
    • BUDDHISM AND DEMON-WORSHIP.[1]
    • PART V.
      • MEDIÆVAL HISTORY.
    • MEDIÆVAL HISTORY.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.
      • NOTE (A).
    • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.
    • NOTE (A).
    • CHAP. II
      • INDIAN, ARABIAN, AND PERSIAN AUTHORITIES.
    • INDIAN, ARABIAN, AND PERSIAN AUTHORITIES.
    • CHAP. III.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE CHINESE.
      • NOTE.
    • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE CHINESE.
    • NOTE.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE MOORS, GENOESE, AND VENETIANS.
    • CEYLON AS KNOWN TO THE MOORS, GENOESE, AND VENETIANS.
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