Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific Between 1896 and 1899, v. 2
Plant-Dispersal
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Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific Between 1896 and 1899, v. 2 Plant-Dispersal

By H. B. Guppy
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Book Description
Table of Contents
  • OBSERVATIONS OF A NATURALIST IN THE PACIFIC BETWEEN 1896 AND 1899
  • PREFACE
  • LIST OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES QUOTED IN THIS VOLUME, WITH AN ENUMERATION OF THE AUTHOR’S BOTANICAL PAPERS
  • CONTENTS
  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
  • ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS
  • CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
  • CHAPTER II THE FLORAS OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS FROM THE STANDPOINT OF DISPERSAL BY CURRENTS
  • CHAPTER III THE LESSON OF THE BRITISH FLORA
  • CHAPTER IV THE LESSON OF THE BRITISH FLORA (continued)
  • CHAPTER V THE FIJIAN STRAND-FLORA
    • The Fijian Strand-flora THE INLAND EXTENSION OF THE BEACH PLANTS
    • THE GROUPING OF THE FIJIAN LITTORAL PLANTS.
    • THE MODES OF DISPERSAL OF THE FIJIAN STRAND-PLANTS.
  • CHAPTER VI THE TAHITIAN STRAND-FLORA (From materials supplied mainly by the work of Drake del Castillo)
    • Summary of the Chapter.
  • CHAPTER VII THE HAWAIIAN STRAND-FLORA
  • CHAPTER VIII THE LITTORAL PLANTS AND THE CURRENTS OF THE PACIFIC
    • Summary of the Chapter.
  • CHAPTER IX THE GERMINATION OF FLOATING SEEDS
    • Summary of the Chapter.
  • CHAPTER X THE RELATION OF THE BUOYANCY OF SEEDS AND SEEDVESSELS TO THE DENSITY OF SEA-WATER
    • Summary of the Chapter.
  • CHAPTER XI ADAPTATION AND MEANS OF DISPERSAL
  • CHAPTER XII THE CAUSES OF THE BUOYANCY OF SEEDS AND FRUITS OF LITTORAL PLANTS WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS
    • The First Group.
    • EXPLANATION OF THE DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE CAUSES OF SEED-BUOYANCY
    • The Second Group.
    • The Third Group.
    • The structure of the buoyant seeds and seedvessels of the littoral plants of the British flora.
    • Summary of the Chapter.
  • CHAPTER XIII ADAPTATION AND SEED-BUOYANCY
    • Summary of the Chapter.
  • CHAPTER XIV THE RELATION BETWEEN LITTORAL AND INLAND PLANTS
    • Grouping of the Plant-Genera of the Islands of the Tropical Pacific that possess both Littoral and Inland Species.
    • Section I
    • Section II
  • CHAPTER XV THE RELATION BETWEEN LITTORAL AND INLAND PLANTS (continued)
    • Section III
    • Erythrina.
    • Canavalia.
    • Mezoneuron.
    • Sophora.
    • Ochrosia (Apocyneæ).
    • Summary of Chapter (see end of Chapter XVI.).
  • CHAPTER XVI THE RELATION BETWEEN LITTORAL AND INLAND PLANTS (continued)
    • Section IV
    • Pandanus.
    • Barringtonia.
    • Section V.
    • Section VI.
    • The conclusions to be drawn from the discussion of the relations between the littoral and inland species of the same genus in the Pacific islands. (Chapters XIV., XV., XVI.)
    • Summary of Chapters XIV., XV., XVI.
  • CHAPTER XVII THE STORIES OF AFZELIA BIJUGA, ENTADA SCANDENS, AND CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA
    • Afzelia bijuga (Gray).
    • Summary relating to Afzelia bijuga.
    • Entada scandens (Benth.).
    • Summary relating to Entada scandens
    • Cæsalpinia
  • CHAPTER XVIII THE ENIGMAS OF THE LEGUMINOSÆ OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XIX THE INLAND PLANTS OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS Preliminary Comparison of the Physical Conditions of Hawaii, Fiji, and Tahiti
    • Introductory Remarks.
    • Comparison of the Areas and Altitudes of Hawaii, Fiji, and Tahiti.
    • Comparison of the Climates of Hawaii, Fiji, and Tahiti.
    • The Rainfall.
    • Summary of the Chapter.
  • CHAPTER XX THE EPOCHS IN THE FLORAL HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS The Age of Ferns
    • Introductory Remarks
    • The Age of Ferns.
  • CHAPTER XXI THE ERAS OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS The Age of Compositæ.
    • The Endemism of the Pacific Island Floras.
    • Synopsis of the Eras of the Flowering Plants in the Tropical Pacific.
    • The First Era of the Flowering Plants, being the Age of the Endemic Genera.
    • The Endemic Genera of Compositæ.
    • Summary of Chapter.
  • CHAPTER XXII THE ERA OF THE ENDEMIC GENERA (continued) The Compositæ and Lobeliaceæ (continued) The Age of the Tree-Lobelias
    • The Lobeliaceæ of the Hawaiian Islands.
    • The Lobeliaceæ of the Tahitian or East Polynesian Region.
    • The Hawaiian Endemic Genera excepting those of the Compositæ and Lobeliaceæ.
    • The Endemic Genera of the Fijian Islands.
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXIII THE ERA OF THE NON-ENDEMIC GENERA OF FLOWERING PLANTS The Mountain-Floras of the Pacific Islands as illustrated by the Non-endemic Genera
    • The Age of the Endemic Genera of Flowering Plants.
    • The Mountain-Floras of the Pacific Islands.
    • The Mountain-Flora of Hawaii as illustrated by the Non-endemic Genera.
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXIV THE MOUNTAIN-FLORAS OF THE TAHITIAN AND FIJIAN REGIONS
    • The Mountain-Flora of the Tahitian Region as Illustrated by the Non-Endemic Genera
    • The Fijian Coniferæ.
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXV THE ERA OF THE NON-ENDEMIC GENERA OF FLOWERING PLANTS (continued) The Age of the Malayan Plants as represented in the Low-level Flora of Hawaii and in the Bulk of the Floras of the Fijian and Tahitian Regions
    • The Age of Wide Dispersal over the Tropical Pacific.
    • The Widely-dispersed Genera which possess only Peculiar Species in Hawaii.
    • Pittosporum (Pittosporeæ).
    • Reynoldsia (Araliaceæ).
    • Gardenia (Rubiaceæ).
    • Psychotria (Rubiaceæ).
    • Cyrtandra (Gesneraceæ).
    • Freycinetia (Pandanaceæ).
    • SAPINDUS AND PHYLLANTHUS.
    • Pritchardia (Palmaceæ).
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXVI THE MALAYAN ERA OF THE NON-ENDEMIC GENERA OF FLOWERING PLANTS (continued) The Age of Wide Dispersal over the Tropical Pacific (continued)
    • Elæocarpus (Tiliaceæ).
    • Dodonæa (Sapindaceæ).
    • Metrosideros (Myrtaceæ)
    • Alyxia (Apocynaceæ).
    • The Last Stage of the General Dispersal of Plants of the Malayan Era.
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXVII THE MALAYAN ERA OF THE NON-ENDEMIC GENERA OF FLOWERING PLANTS (continued) The Age of Local Dispersal
    • Synopsis of the Chapter.
    • Hawaii.
    • The Hawaiian Residual Genera.
    • Hawaiian Genera found in Tahiti to the Exclusion of Fiji.
    • Hawaiian Genera found in Fiji to the Exclusion of Tahiti.
    • The Absentees from Hawaii.
    • Tahiti.
    • The Tahitian Residual Genera.
    • Tahitian Genera found in Hawaii to the Exclusion of Fiji.
    • Tahitian Genera found in Fiji to the Exclusion of Hawaii.
    • The Absentees from Tahiti
    • Fiji The Fijian Genera not found in either the Tahitian or Hawaiian Regions
    • Sterculia
    • Trichospermum (Sterculiaceæ)
    • Micromelum (Rutaceæ)
    • Cananga odorata (Anonaceæ)
    • Geissois (Saxifragaceæ)
    • Begonia
    • Dolicholobium (Rubiaceæ)
    • Lindenia (Rubiaceæ)
    • Limnanthemum (Gentianaceæ)
    • Ceratophyllum demersum
    • Dracontomelon (Anacardiaceæ)
    • Canarium (Burseraceæ)
    • Couthovia (Loganiaceæ)
    • Veitchia (Palmaceæ)
    • Hibbertia (Dilleniaceæ)
    • Myrmecodia and Hydnophytum (Rubiaceæ)
    • Myristica
    • Rhaphidophora (Araceæ)
    • Gnetum (Gnetaceæ)
    • Elatostema (Urticaceæ)
    • Scirpodendron costatum (Cyperaceæ)
    • Lemnaceæ
    • Marsilea (Marsileaceæ)
    • Summary of the Chapter
  • CHAPTER XXVIII THE POLYNESIAN AND HIS PLANTS
    • Man and the Seed
    • The Food-Plants of the Polynesians and Pre-Polynesians
    • THE POLYNESIAN WEEDS
    • Aleurites Moluccana (The Candle-Nut Tree)
    • Inocarpus Edulis (The Tahitian Chestnut)
    • Gyrocarpus Jacquini
    • Serianthes myriadenia
    • Leucæna Forsteri
    • Mussænda frondosa
    • Luffa insularum
    • Summary of the Chapter
  • CHAPTER XXIX BEACH AND RIVER DRIFT
    • The Beach Drift of Temperate Latitudes
    • The Beach-Drift of Tropical Latitudes.
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXX THE VIVIPAROUS MANGROVES OF FIJI Rhizophora and Bruguiera
    • Rhizophora
    • The Relative Abundance and Mode of Association of the three Fijian forms of Rhizophora.
    • The Characters of the Selala or Seedless Rhizophora compared with those of the American Mangrove (R. mangle) and the Asiatic Mangrove (R. mucronata).
    • The Occasional Occurrence of more than one Seed in the Fruits of Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora mangle (Polyembryony).
    • The Seasons of Flowering and Fruiting of the Species of Rhizophora in Fiji.
    • The History of the Reproductive Process in Rhizophora from the Fertilisation of the Ovule to the Falling of the Plantlet or Seedling from the Tree.
    • Rhizophora mucronata.
    • The mode of separation of the seedlings of Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora mucronata
    • The means of dispersal of the genus Rhizophora
    • Bruguiera rheedii (Blume)
    • Summary
  • CHAPTER XXXI A CHAPTER ON VIVIPARY
    • Summary
  • CHAPTER XXXII THE WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA
    • The Convolvulus soldanella Zone (Southern Chile).
    • The Plantless or Desert Zone (Northern Chile).
    • The Sesuvium Zone (The Peruvian Coast).
    • The Mangrove Zone (the Coasts of Ecuador and Colombia)
    • The Shore-plants and Stranded Seed-drift of the Panama Isthmus.
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXXIII SEED-DISPERSAL AND GEOLOGICAL TIME
    • Summary.
  • CHAPTER XXXIV GENERAL ARGUMENT AND CONCLUSION
  • APPENDIX List of Notes
    • NOTE 1 (page 13) On the Number of Known Species of Fijian Flowering Plants
    • NOTE 2 (page 13) The Littoral Plants of Fiji
    • NOTE 3 (page 13) Results of Long Flotation Experiments on the Seeds or Seed-vessels of Tropical Littoral Plants
    • NOTE 4 (page 13) Table illustrating the Degree of Buoyancy of the Seeds and Fruits of Inland Fijian Plants
    • NOTE 5 (page 14). The Inland Fijian Plants possessing Buoyant Seeds or Fruits
    • NOTE 6 (page 15) Table showing the Degree of Buoyancy of the Seeds and Fruits of some Inland Hawaiian Plants
    • NOTE 7 (page 15) Some Inland Hawaiian Plants possessing Buoyant Seeds or Fruits
    • NOTE 8 (pages 18, 112) The Pyrenes of Morinda
    • NOTE 9 (page 18) The Buoyancy of the Fruits of Calophyllum
    • NOTE 10 (page 24) The Buoyancy Experiments on British Plants
    • NOTE 11 (page 25) The Effect of Sea-water Immersion on the Germinating Capacity of Seeds and Seed-vessels
    • NOTE 12 (page 27) The Buoyancy of the Fruits of Galium aparine
    • NOTE 13 (page 29) The Buoyancy of the Seeds of Convolvulus sepium
    • NOTE 14 (page 26) Other Long Flotation Experiments
    • NOTE 15 (pages 33, 280) The Occurrence Inland of Silene maritima
    • NOTE 16 (page 34) The Buoyancy of the Seeds or Fruits of the British Beach-plants that also occur Inland
    • NOTE 17 (page 35) The Buoyancy of the Seeds or Fruits of the Group of British Littoral Plants that frequent Salt Marshes and Muddy Shores
    • NOTE 18 (page 35) The Buoyancy of the Seeds or Fruits of the British Littoral Plants that are confined to the Beach
    • NOTE 19 (page 35) On Germination in Sea-water
    • NOTE 20 (page 42). On the Maximum Heights reached by some Shore Plants in their Extension Inland in Vanua Levu, Fiji
    • NOTE 21 (pages 42, 43) On the Dwarfing of Shore Plants when extending Inland into the “Talasinga” Plains in Vanua Levu.
    • NOTE 22 (page 43) The “Talasinga” Plains of Vanua Levu, Fiji
    • NOTE 23 (page 43) Schimper’s Grouping of the Indo-Malayan Strand-flora
    • NOTE 24 (page 44) Grouping of some of the Characteristic Plants of the Strand-flora of Fiji
    • NOTE 25 (page 47) The Strand-flora of the Tahitian Region
    • NOTE 26 (page 48) The Fijian Shore-plants not found in Tahiti
    • NOTE 27 (page 49) The Intruders into the Beach-flora from the Inland Plants of Tahiti
    • NOTE 28 (page 52) The Littoral Plants of the Hawaiian Islands
    • NOTE 29 (page 54) Botanical Notes on the Coast-plants of the Hawaiian Islands
    • NOTE 30 (page 58) The Beach-drift of the Hawaiian Islands
    • NOTE 31 (page 59) The Inland Extension of the Shore-plants of Hawaii
    • NOTE 32 (pages 19, 112, 165) The Fijian Species of Premna
    • NOTE 33 (page 63) De Candolle’s List of Plants dispersed exclusively by Currents
    • NOTE 34 (page 64) The Littoral Plants of the Easternmost Polynesian Islands
    • NOTE 35 (page 68) Distribution of the Littoral Plants with Buoyant Seeds or Fruits that are found in the Fijian, Tongan, Samoan, Tahitian, and Hawaiian Groups
    • NOTE 36 (page 72) Hawaiian Plants with Buoyant Seeds and Fruits known to be dispersed by the Currents either exclusively or, as in a few Species, with the Assistance of Frugivorous Birds
    • NOTE 37 (page 78) On Vivipary in the Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Carapa obovata
    • NOTE 38 (page 78) On the Temperature and Density of the Surface-water of the Estuaries of the Rewa River in Fiji, and of the Guayaquil River in Ecuador
    • NOTE 39 (page 82) On the Pacific Species of Strongylodon
    • NOTE 40 (page 88) Precautions in Testing Seed-buoyancy
    • NOTE 41 (page 91) The Buoyancy of the Seeds of Convolvulus Soldanella in Fresh Water and Sea-water compared
    • NOTE 42 (page 96) On Secular Changes in Sea-density
    • NOTE 43 (page 102) On the Mucosity of Small Seeds and Seed-like Fruits when wet
    • NOTE 44 (page 121) On the Effects of Inland Extension on the Buoyancy of the Seeds or Fruits of Littoral Plants
    • NOTE 45 (page 122) Tabulated Results of the Classification, according to Schimper’s Application of the Natural Selection Theory, of the Buoyant Seeds and Fruits of the Tropical Littoral Plants on the Basis of the Structural Characters concerned in Buoyancy
    • NOTE 46 (page 124) On the Modes of Dispersal of the Genus Brackenridgea.
    • NOTE 47 (page 125) On the Transport of Gourds by Currents
    • NOTE 48 (page 126) On the Useless Dispersal by Currents of the Fruits of the Oak (Quercus robur) and other Species of Quercus, and also of the Hazel (Corylus avellana)
    • NOTE 49 (page 131) On the Distribution of Ipomœa pes capræ, Convolvulus soldanella, and Convolvulus sepium
    • NOTE 50 (pages 79, 132) On the Structure of the Seeds and Fruits of Barringtonia
    • NOTE 51 (page 135) On a Common Inland Species of Scævola in Vanua Levu, Fiji
    • NOTE 52 (page 137). On the Capacity for Dispersal by Currents of Colubrina oppositifolia, an Inland Hawaiian Tree
    • NOTE 53 (page 141) On the Genus Erythrina
    • NOTE 54 (page 145) On the Genus Canavalia
    • NOTE 55 (page 42 and Note 20) The Inland Extension of Scævola Kœnigii
    • NOTE 56 (page 149) On the Capacity for Dispersal by Currents of Sophora tomentosa, S. chrysophylla, and S. tetraptera
    • NOTE 57 (page 153) On the Species of Ochrosia
    • NOTE 58 (page 156) On Pandanus (from Warburg)
    • NOTE 59 (page 188) Seeds in Petrels
    • NOTE 60 (page 202) Schimper on the Halophilous Character of Littoral Leguminosæ and of Shore Plants generally
    • NOTE 61 (page 215) Meteorological Observations on the Summit of Mauna Loa
    • NOTE 62 (page 222) On the Relative Proportion of Vascular Cryptogams in Fiji
    • NOTE 63 (page 222) On the Table of Vascular Cryptogams of Tahiti, Hawaii, and Fiji
    • NOTE 64 (page 223) On the Distribution of the Tahitian Ferns and Lycopods
    • NOTE 65 (page 225) Distribution of some of the Mountain Ferns of Hawaii that are not found either in Fiji or Tahiti (mainly from Hillebrand)
    • NOTE 66 (page 226) Endemic Genera of Ferns in Hawaii
    • NOTE 67 (page 241) On the Dispersal of Compositæ by Birds
    • NOTE 68 (page 264) On some of the Hawaiian Endemic Genera, excluding those of the Compositæ and Lobeliaceæ
    • NOTE 69 (page 366) On the Germination of Cuscuta
    • NOTE 70 (pages 477, 480-1) On Beach-Temperature
    • NOTE 71 (page 479) On the Buoyancy of the Seeds or Seed-vessels of some Chilian Shore Plants
    • NOTE 72 (page 483) The Southern Limit of the Mangrove Formation in Ecuador.
    • NOTE 73 (page 495) Additional Note on the Temperature of the Dry Coast of Ecuador between Puna Island and the Equator.
    • NOTE 74 (page 495) Observations on the Temperature of the Humboldt Current from Antofagasta Northward, between January and March, 1904 (Fahrenheit scale)
    • NOTE 75 (page 496) On the Stranded Massive Corals apparently of the Genus Porites found on the Coast of Peru and North Chile, at Arica (18° 25ʹ S.), Callao (12° 3ʹ S.), and Ancon (11° 45ʹ S.)
    • NOTE 76 (page 429) Stranded Pumice on English and Scandinavian Beaches
    • NOTE 77 (page 21) On the Mode of Dispersal of Kleinhovia hospita
    • NOTE 78 (page 436) On the “Sea”: an Unidentified Wild Fruit-tree in Fiji
    • NOTE 79 (page 395) On Willow-leaved River-side Plants
    • NOTE 80 (pages 255, 504) Mr. Perkins on the Hawaiian Lobeliaceæ (Fauna hawaiiensis, vol. I.)
    • NOTE 81 On the Vertical Range of some of the most Typical and most Conspicuous of the Plants in the Forests on the Hamakua Slopes of Mauna Kea, Hawaii
    • NOTE 82 (page 416) Aboriginal Weeds[7]
    • NOTES 83-89 omitted
    • NOTE 90 (page 29) On the Buoyancy of the Seeds of Euphorbia amygdaloides and E. segetalis
    • NOTE 91 Mr. E. Kay Robinson on the Dispersal of Aster tripolium
  • GENERAL INDEX
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