The Life of Columbus
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The Life of Columbus

By Sir Arthur Helps
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  • THE LIFE OF COLUMBUS
  • CHIEFLY BY SIR ARTHUR HELPS K.C.B. AUTHOR OF "THE SPANISH CONQUEST IN AMERICA" "FRIENDS IN COUNCIL" ETC.
    • PREFACE.
    • CONTENTS.
    • CHAPTER I. Early Discoveries in the Fifteenth Century.
      • LEGENDS OF THE SEA.
      • INCITEMENTS TO DISCOVERY.
      • EARLY ADVENTURERS.
      • MEDIAEVAL MAP OF THE WORLD; THE ROMAN DOMINION.
      • PRINCE HENRY OF PORTUGAL; HIS MOTIVES FOR DISCOVERY.
      • IMPORTANT EXPEDITION
      • DISCOVERY OF PORTO SANTO.
      • MADEIRA DISCOVERED.
      • AFRICAN COAST EXPLORED.
      • BARRIER OF ROCKS.
      • POPULAR OBJECTIONS.
      • MISGIVINGS OF PRINCE HENRY; GIL EANNES.
      • GIL EANNES' SUCCESSFUL VOYAGE.
      • ANTONIO GONCALVEZ AND HIS CAPTURE OF MOORS
      • COMMENCEMENT OF THE SLAVE TRADE.
      • AIM OF THE ADVENTURERS.
      • CA DA MOSTO.
      • TRADE WITH THE ARABS.
      • THE SENEGAL RIVER.
      • KING BUDOMEL.
      • THE RIVER GAMBRA
      • FURTHER DISCOVERIES.
      • DEATH OF PRINCE HENRY.
      • HIS CHARACTER.
      • PRINCE HENRY'S CHARACTER.
      • PRESTER JOHN
      • BARTHOLOMEW COLUMBUS.
      • PASSAGE IN THE "LUSIADAS"
      • COVILHAM AND PAIVA.
      • BEMOIN, PRINCE OF JALOF.
      • BEMOIN'S RECEPTION AT LISBON,
      • BEMOIN'S FATE
      • PRINCE HENRY'S PERSEVERANCE.
      • SPIRIT OF ENTERPRISE
    • LEGENDS OF THE SEA.
    • INCITEMENTS TO DISCOVERY.
    • EARLY ADVENTURERS.
    • MEDIAEVAL MAP OF THE WORLD; THE ROMAN DOMINION.
    • PRINCE HENRY OF PORTUGAL; HIS MOTIVES FOR DISCOVERY.
    • IMPORTANT EXPEDITION
    • DISCOVERY OF PORTO SANTO.
    • MADEIRA DISCOVERED.
    • AFRICAN COAST EXPLORED.
    • BARRIER OF ROCKS.
    • POPULAR OBJECTIONS.
    • MISGIVINGS OF PRINCE HENRY; GIL EANNES.
    • GIL EANNES' SUCCESSFUL VOYAGE.
    • ANTONIO GONCALVEZ AND HIS CAPTURE OF MOORS
    • COMMENCEMENT OF THE SLAVE TRADE.
    • AIM OF THE ADVENTURERS.
    • CA DA MOSTO.
    • TRADE WITH THE ARABS.
    • THE SENEGAL RIVER.
    • KING BUDOMEL.
    • THE RIVER GAMBRA
    • FURTHER DISCOVERIES.
    • DEATH OF PRINCE HENRY.
    • HIS CHARACTER.
    • PRINCE HENRY'S CHARACTER.
    • PRESTER JOHN
    • BARTHOLOMEW COLUMBUS.
    • PASSAGE IN THE "LUSIADAS"
    • COVILHAM AND PAIVA.
    • BEMOIN, PRINCE OF JALOF.
    • BEMOIN'S RECEPTION AT LISBON,
    • BEMOIN'S FATE
    • PRINCE HENRY'S PERSEVERANCE.
    • SPIRIT OF ENTERPRISE
    • CHAPTER II. Early Years of Columbus.
      • BIRTH OF COLUMBUS
      • EARLY VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS.
      • CHARACTERISTICS OF COLUMBUS
      • COLUMBUS'S DESIRE FOR DISCOVERY.
      • COLUMBUS'S THEORY.
      • CARDINAL ALIACO'S "COSMOGRAPHIA."
      • EVIDENCES OF A WESTERN WORLD.
      • COLUMBUS AT PORTO SANTO.
      • THE BISHOP OF CEUTA; RETURN OF THE CARAVEL.
    • BIRTH OF COLUMBUS
    • EARLY VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS.
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF COLUMBUS
    • COLUMBUS'S DESIRE FOR DISCOVERY.
    • COLUMBUS'S THEORY.
    • CARDINAL ALIACO'S "COSMOGRAPHIA."
    • EVIDENCES OF A WESTERN WORLD.
    • COLUMBUS AT PORTO SANTO.
    • THE BISHOP OF CEUTA; RETURN OF THE CARAVEL.
    • CHAPTER III. Columbus in Spain.
      • LETTER TO QUEEN ISABELLA.
      • COLUMBUS AT COURT; JUNTA OF COSMOGRAPHERS; DECISION OF THE JUNTA.
      • TEDIOUNESS OF COLUMBUS'S SUIT
      • ENCOURAGEMENT OF FRIENDS; GARCIA HERNANDEZ.
      • PEREZ WRITES TO THE QUEEN.
      • COLUMBUS'S CONDITIONS.
      • SANTANGLE'S ADDRESS.
      • SUCCESS OF THE ADDRESS.
      • THE AGREEMENT SETTLED.
      • FATE OF PROJECTORS' PLANS.
      • FERDINAND'S COLDNESS.
      • COLUMBUS'S AGREEMENT WITH THE COURT OF SPAIN.
      • COLUMBUS GOES TO PALOS.
      • ORDER TO PRESS MEN.
      • CHARACTER OF VESSELS AND CREWS.
    • LETTER TO QUEEN ISABELLA.
    • COLUMBUS AT COURT; JUNTA OF COSMOGRAPHERS; DECISION OF THE JUNTA.
    • TEDIOUNESS OF COLUMBUS'S SUIT
    • ENCOURAGEMENT OF FRIENDS; GARCIA HERNANDEZ.
    • PEREZ WRITES TO THE QUEEN.
    • COLUMBUS'S CONDITIONS.
    • SANTANGLE'S ADDRESS.
    • SUCCESS OF THE ADDRESS.
    • THE AGREEMENT SETTLED.
    • FATE OF PROJECTORS' PLANS.
    • FERDINAND'S COLDNESS.
    • COLUMBUS'S AGREEMENT WITH THE COURT OF SPAIN.
    • COLUMBUS GOES TO PALOS.
    • ORDER TO PRESS MEN.
    • CHARACTER OF VESSELS AND CREWS.
    • CHAPTER III. First Voyage.
      • CANARY ISLANDS REACHED.
      • RUMORS OF LAND SEEN.
      • PLAINS OF SEAWEED.
      • SIGNS OF LAND.
      • CONSPIRACY AMONG THE MEN.
      • HIS DETERMINATION TO PROCEED.
      • SIGNS OF LAND AGAIN.
      • LIGHT ON SHORE.
      • THE PROMISED PENSION.
      • RELIGIOUS MOTIVIES.
      • GOOD FAITH OF COLUMBUS.
      • CHARACTER OF THE QUEEN.
    • CANARY ISLANDS REACHED.
    • RUMORS OF LAND SEEN.
    • PLAINS OF SEAWEED.
    • SIGNS OF LAND.
    • CONSPIRACY AMONG THE MEN.
    • HIS DETERMINATION TO PROCEED.
    • SIGNS OF LAND AGAIN.
    • LIGHT ON SHORE.
    • THE PROMISED PENSION.
    • RELIGIOUS MOTIVIES.
    • GOOD FAITH OF COLUMBUS.
    • CHARACTER OF THE QUEEN.
    • LANDING IN THE NEW WORLD.
      • THEIR GRATITUDE.
      • GENERAL RECONCILATION.
      • THEY TAKE LEGAL POSSESSION.
      • CHARACTER OF THE INDIANS.
      • THEIR HOUSES AND IMPLEMENTS.
      • DISCOVERY OF TOBACCO; ITS PECULIAR EFFECTS.
      • GOLD ORNAMENT'S OBSERVED.
      • FURTHER EXPLORATIONS.
      • INSUBORDINATION OF MARINERS.
      • WRECK OF ADMIRAL'S VESSEL.
      • KINDNESS OF INDIAN CHIEF.
      • A COLONY FOUNDED.
      • THE ADMIRAL RETURNS.
    • THEIR GRATITUDE.
    • GENERAL RECONCILATION.
    • THEY TAKE LEGAL POSSESSION.
    • CHARACTER OF THE INDIANS.
    • THEIR HOUSES AND IMPLEMENTS.
    • DISCOVERY OF TOBACCO; ITS PECULIAR EFFECTS.
    • GOLD ORNAMENT'S OBSERVED.
    • FURTHER EXPLORATIONS.
    • INSUBORDINATION OF MARINERS.
    • WRECK OF ADMIRAL'S VESSEL.
    • KINDNESS OF INDIAN CHIEF.
    • A COLONY FOUNDED.
    • THE ADMIRAL RETURNS.
    • CHAPTER V. Homeward bound.
      • PINZON'S EXPLANATION.
      • AFFRAY WITH ABORIGINES.
      • SEARCH FOR AMAZONIANS.
      • STORM ENCOUNTERED.
      • THE PROMISED PILGRAMAGE
      • NARRATIVE INCLOSED IN CASK.
      • THE PILGRIMS CAPTURED.
      • ARRIVAL IN THE TAGUS.
      • RECEPTION AT PALOS.
      • BAD FAITH OF PINZON.
      • SOLEMN RECEPTION.
      • MARKS OF APPROBATION.
      • GRANT BY THE POPE.
      • SECOND VOYAGE PLANNED.
      • COLONIAL DEPARTMENT.
      • HOME OF THE GOLD.
      • THE ADMIRAL'S INSTRUCTIONS.
    • PINZON'S EXPLANATION.
    • AFFRAY WITH ABORIGINES.
    • SEARCH FOR AMAZONIANS.
    • STORM ENCOUNTERED.
    • THE PROMISED PILGRAMAGE
    • NARRATIVE INCLOSED IN CASK.
    • THE PILGRIMS CAPTURED.
    • ARRIVAL IN THE TAGUS.
    • RECEPTION AT PALOS.
    • BAD FAITH OF PINZON.
    • SOLEMN RECEPTION.
    • MARKS OF APPROBATION.
    • GRANT BY THE POPE.
    • SECOND VOYAGE PLANNED.
    • COLONIAL DEPARTMENT.
    • HOME OF THE GOLD.
    • THE ADMIRAL'S INSTRUCTIONS.
    • CHAPTER VI. Second Voyage of Discovery.
      • ISLAND OF GUADALOUPE.
      • DESTRUCTION OF LA NAVIDAD.
      • LICENTIOUSNESS OF SETTLERS.
      • COLONY FOUNDED AT ISABELLA.
      • COLUMBUS DESPATCH TO THE COURT OF SPAIN.
      • CASTILIAN INTERPRETERS.
      • SLAVERY PROPOSED.
      • THE PROPOSAL REJECTED.
      • FORT ST. THOMAS FOUNDED.
      • DESIRE FOR DISCOVERY.
      • A COUNCIL APPOINTED.
    • ISLAND OF GUADALOUPE.
    • DESTRUCTION OF LA NAVIDAD.
    • LICENTIOUSNESS OF SETTLERS.
    • COLONY FOUNDED AT ISABELLA.
    • COLUMBUS DESPATCH TO THE COURT OF SPAIN.
    • CASTILIAN INTERPRETERS.
    • SLAVERY PROPOSED.
    • THE PROPOSAL REJECTED.
    • FORT ST. THOMAS FOUNDED.
    • DESIRE FOR DISCOVERY.
    • A COUNCIL APPOINTED.
    • CHAPTER VII.
      • ILLNESS OF COLUMBUS.
      • DISORGANIZATION OF THE COLONY.
      • OPPRESSION OF INDIANS.
      • TRANSMISSION OF SLAVES,
      • SLAUGHRTER OF NATIVES.
      • CUNNING CAPTURE OF INDIAN CHIEF.
      • GOLD TRIBUTE IMPOSED.
      • REMARKABLE INDIAN SCHEME.
      • VIEWS OF COLUMBUS ON SLAVERY.
      • DISTRESS OF NATIVES.
      • SPANISH COMMISSIONER.
      • PLOTS TO UNDERMINE AND RUIN THE ADMIRAL
      • WRETCHED VOYAGE HOME
      • RECEPTION AT COURT.
    • ILLNESS OF COLUMBUS.
    • DISORGANIZATION OF THE COLONY.
    • OPPRESSION OF INDIANS.
    • TRANSMISSION OF SLAVES,
    • SLAUGHRTER OF NATIVES.
    • CUNNING CAPTURE OF INDIAN CHIEF.
    • GOLD TRIBUTE IMPOSED.
    • REMARKABLE INDIAN SCHEME.
    • VIEWS OF COLUMBUS ON SLAVERY.
    • DISTRESS OF NATIVES.
    • SPANISH COMMISSIONER.
    • PLOTS TO UNDERMINE AND RUIN THE ADMIRAL
    • WRETCHED VOYAGE HOME
    • RECEPTION AT COURT.
    • CHAPTER VIII.
      • CRIMINALS SENT TO THE INDIES.
      • "REPARTIMIENTOS."
      • XARAGUA PENETRATED; TRIBUTE IMPOSED UPON THE INDIANS.
      • DISCONTENT OF THE SPANISIH COLONISTS.
      • INSURRECTION OF ROLDAN.
      • FLIGHT OF GUARIONEX.
      • MAIOBANEX AND HIS GUEST.
      • THEIR CAPTURE.
    • CRIMINALS SENT TO THE INDIES.
    • "REPARTIMIENTOS."
    • XARAGUA PENETRATED; TRIBUTE IMPOSED UPON THE INDIANS.
    • DISCONTENT OF THE SPANISIH COLONISTS.
    • INSURRECTION OF ROLDAN.
    • FLIGHT OF GUARIONEX.
    • MAIOBANEX AND HIS GUEST.
    • THEIR CAPTURE.
    • CHAPTER IX.
      • COLUMBUS'S THIRD VOYAGE.
      • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS.
      • COLUMBUS SAILS WESTWARD.
      • TRINIDAD SEEN.
      • THE PEARL COAST.
      • FIRST VIEW OF AMERICAN CONTINENT
      • COLUMBUS MISTAKES THE CONTINENT FOR ISLANDS.
      • THE ADMIRAL'S REASONING ABOUT THE CONTINENT.
      • PECULIAR THEORY OF THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH.
      • GRACEFUL REARING OF NATIVES; BEAUTY OF THE LAND.
      • THE EARTHLY PARADISE.
      • ILLNESS OF COLUMBUS.
    • COLUMBUS'S THIRD VOYAGE.
    • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS.
    • COLUMBUS SAILS WESTWARD.
    • TRINIDAD SEEN.
    • THE PEARL COAST.
    • FIRST VIEW OF AMERICAN CONTINENT
    • COLUMBUS MISTAKES THE CONTINENT FOR ISLANDS.
    • THE ADMIRAL'S REASONING ABOUT THE CONTINENT.
    • PECULIAR THEORY OF THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH.
    • GRACEFUL REARING OF NATIVES; BEAUTY OF THE LAND.
    • THE EARTHLY PARADISE.
    • ILLNESS OF COLUMBUS.
    • CHAPTER X.
      • SLAVES AND LOGWOOD; PLAN OF SLAVE BARTER.
      • CONTENTION WITH ROLDAN.
      • THE QUEEN'S ANGER; PARTIAL RELEASE OF SLAVES.
      • THE ADMIRAL'S ENEMIES WORKING AT COURT.
      • SERIOUS DISSATISFACTION.
      • COLUMBUS SUPERSEDED.
      • HARSH TREATMENT OF COLUMBUS AND HIS BROTHERS
      • COLUMBUS SENT HOME BY BOBADILLA IN CHAINS.
    • SLAVES AND LOGWOOD; PLAN OF SLAVE BARTER.
    • CONTENTION WITH ROLDAN.
    • THE QUEEN'S ANGER; PARTIAL RELEASE OF SLAVES.
    • THE ADMIRAL'S ENEMIES WORKING AT COURT.
    • SERIOUS DISSATISFACTION.
    • COLUMBUS SUPERSEDED.
    • HARSH TREATMENT OF COLUMBUS AND HIS BROTHERS
    • COLUMBUS SENT HOME BY BOBADILLA IN CHAINS.
    • CHAPTER XI.
      • REACTION AT COURT.
      • COLUMBUS PLEADS HIS CAUSE BEFORE THE QUEEN.
      • THE QUEEN'S DECISION; BOBADILLA'S TYRANNY
      • OVANDO AS GOVERNOR
      • HIS INSTRUCTIONS.
      • ADVICE TO OVANDO ON THE DUTIES OF A GOVERNOR.
      • HE ARRIVES AT ST. DOMINGO.
      • OVANDO'S ADMINISTRATION
      • AN INDIAN RECEPTION.
      • OVANDO VISITS XARAGUA.
      • HIS RECEPTION BY ANACAONA.
      • PRETENDED TOURNAMENT; MASSACRE OF INDIAN CHIEFS.
      • FERDINAND'S LETTER TO COLUMBUS
      • NEW ENTERPRISE.
      • COLUMBUS REFUSED SHELTER; DESTRUCTIVE TORNADO.
      • JAMIAICA PASSED.
      • INSUBORDINATION OF CREWS.
      • AN INDIAN PILOT.
      • CAPE GUACIAS A DIOS.
      • EASTERLY COURSE ABANDONED; THE BETHLEHEM RIVER.
      • A SETTLEMENT FORMED.
      • ATTACK BY INDIANS.
      • SETTLEMENT ABANDONED.
    • REACTION AT COURT.
    • COLUMBUS PLEADS HIS CAUSE BEFORE THE QUEEN.
    • THE QUEEN'S DECISION; BOBADILLA'S TYRANNY
    • OVANDO AS GOVERNOR
    • HIS INSTRUCTIONS.
    • ADVICE TO OVANDO ON THE DUTIES OF A GOVERNOR.
    • HE ARRIVES AT ST. DOMINGO.
    • OVANDO'S ADMINISTRATION
    • AN INDIAN RECEPTION.
    • OVANDO VISITS XARAGUA.
    • HIS RECEPTION BY ANACAONA.
    • PRETENDED TOURNAMENT; MASSACRE OF INDIAN CHIEFS.
    • FERDINAND'S LETTER TO COLUMBUS
    • NEW ENTERPRISE.
    • COLUMBUS REFUSED SHELTER; DESTRUCTIVE TORNADO.
    • JAMIAICA PASSED.
    • INSUBORDINATION OF CREWS.
    • AN INDIAN PILOT.
    • CAPE GUACIAS A DIOS.
    • EASTERLY COURSE ABANDONED; THE BETHLEHEM RIVER.
    • A SETTLEMENT FORMED.
    • ATTACK BY INDIANS.
    • SETTLEMENT ABANDONED.
    • CHAPTER XII.
      • SUPPLY OF PROVISIONS.
      • A MESSENGER SENT TO OVANDO; REMARKABLE DESPATCH TO THE SOVEREIGNS.
      • RELIGIOUS ENTHUSIASM.
      • CAPTURE OF MENDEZ; ESCAPE AND SAFE ARRIVAL.
      • SUSPENSE OF THE ADMIRAL; MUTINY OF PORRAS.
      • BAD CONDUCT OF MUTINEERS.
      • ECLIPSE PREDICTED BY COLUMBUS.
      • RESULT OF PREDICTION.
      • DESPATCH FROM OVANDO.
      • OVERTURES TO MUTINEERS.
      • RESORT TO ARMS.
      • THE MUTINEERS CONQUERED.
      • PORRAS A PRISONER.
    • SUPPLY OF PROVISIONS.
    • A MESSENGER SENT TO OVANDO; REMARKABLE DESPATCH TO THE SOVEREIGNS.
    • RELIGIOUS ENTHUSIASM.
    • CAPTURE OF MENDEZ; ESCAPE AND SAFE ARRIVAL.
    • SUSPENSE OF THE ADMIRAL; MUTINY OF PORRAS.
    • BAD CONDUCT OF MUTINEERS.
    • ECLIPSE PREDICTED BY COLUMBUS.
    • RESULT OF PREDICTION.
    • DESPATCH FROM OVANDO.
    • OVERTURES TO MUTINEERS.
    • RESORT TO ARMS.
    • THE MUTINEERS CONQUERED.
    • PORRAS A PRISONER.
    • CHAPTER XIII.
      • CONFLICTING JURISDICTION.
      • FALLING FORTUNES.
      • DEATH OF THE QUEEN.
      • OPPRESSION OF THE INDIANS.
      • PETITIONS OF COLUMBUS; INJUSTICE OF THE KING.
      • DEATH OF COLUMBUS
    • CONFLICTING JURISDICTION.
    • FALLING FORTUNES.
    • DEATH OF THE QUEEN.
    • OPPRESSION OF THE INDIANS.
    • PETITIONS OF COLUMBUS; INJUSTICE OF THE KING.
    • DEATH OF COLUMBUS
    • THE END.
    • CHISWICK PRESS:—CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO. TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.
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