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New Latin Grammar

By Charles E. (Charles Edwin) Bennett
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Table of Contents
  • NEW LATIN GRAMMAR
  • CHARLES E. BENNETT
    • PREFACE.
    • PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
    • FROM THE PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS.
  • PART I.
    • SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY, ETC.
  • PART II.
    • INFLECTIONS.
  • PART III.
    • PARTICLES.
  • PART IV.
    • WORD FORMATION.
  • PART V.
    • SYNTAX.
  • PART VI.
    • PROSODY.
      • SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.
    • SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.
  • INTRODUCTION.
    • THE LATIN LANGUAGE.
      • ASIATIC MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
      • EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
    • ASIATIC MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
    • EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
  • PART I.
    • SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.
    • CONSONANT CHANGES[10]
  • PART II.
    • INFLECTIONS.
    • CHAPTER I.—Declension.
      • A. NOUNS.
      • Cases alike in Form.
      • ā-Stems.
      • Peculiarities of Nouns of the First Declension.
      • Greek Nouns.
      • ŏ-Stems.
      • Nouns in -vus, -vum, -quus.
      • Peculiarities of Inflection in the Second Declension.
      • Exceptions to Gender in the Second Declension.
      • Greek Nouns of the Second Declension.
      • I. Consonant-Stems.
      • II. ĭ-Stems.
      • III. Consonant-Stems that have partially adapted themselves to the Inflection of ĭ-Stems.
      • IV. Stems in -ī, -ū, and Diphthongs.
      • V. Irregular Nouns.
      • General Principles of Gender in the Third Declension.
      • Chief Exceptions to Gender in the Third Declension.
      • Greek Nouns of the Third Declension.
      • ŭ-Stems.
      • Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fourth Declension.
      • Exceptions to Gender in the Fourth Declension.
      • ē-Stems.
      • Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fifth Declension.
      • Gender in the Fifth Declension.
      • Nouns used in the Singular only.
      • Nouns used in the Plural only.
      • Nouns used only in Certain Cases.
      • Indeclinable Nouns.
      • Heteroclites.
      • Heterogeneous Nouns.
      • Plurals with Change of Meaning.
    • A. NOUNS.
    • Cases alike in Form.
    • ā-Stems.
    • Peculiarities of Nouns of the First Declension.
    • Greek Nouns.
    • ŏ-Stems.
    • Nouns in -vus, -vum, -quus.
    • Peculiarities of Inflection in the Second Declension.
    • Exceptions to Gender in the Second Declension.
    • Greek Nouns of the Second Declension.
    • I. Consonant-Stems.
    • II. ĭ-Stems.
    • III. Consonant-Stems that have partially adapted themselves to the Inflection of ĭ-Stems.
    • IV. Stems in -ī, -ū, and Diphthongs.
    • V. Irregular Nouns.
    • General Principles of Gender in the Third Declension.
    • Chief Exceptions to Gender in the Third Declension.
    • Greek Nouns of the Third Declension.
    • ŭ-Stems.
    • Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fourth Declension.
    • Exceptions to Gender in the Fourth Declension.
    • ē-Stems.
    • Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fifth Declension.
    • Gender in the Fifth Declension.
    • Nouns used in the Singular only.
    • Nouns used in the Plural only.
    • Nouns used only in Certain Cases.
    • Indeclinable Nouns.
    • Heteroclites.
    • Heterogeneous Nouns.
    • Plurals with Change of Meaning.
    • B. ADJECTIVES.
      • Nine Irregular Adjectives.
      • Adjectives of Three Terminations.
      • Adjectives of Two Terminations.
      • Adjectives of One Termination.
      • Irregular Comparison.
      • Defective Comparison.
      • Comparison by Magis and Maximē.
      • Adjectives not admitting Comparison.
      • Adverbs Peculiar in Comparison and Formation.
      • Declension of the Cardinals.
      • Peculiarities in the Use of Numerals.
    • Nine Irregular Adjectives.
    • Adjectives of Three Terminations.
    • Adjectives of Two Terminations.
    • Adjectives of One Termination.
    • Irregular Comparison.
    • Defective Comparison.
    • Comparison by Magis and Maximē.
    • Adjectives not admitting Comparison.
    • Adverbs Peculiar in Comparison and Formation.
    • Declension of the Cardinals.
    • Peculiarities in the Use of Numerals.
    • C. PRONOUNS.
    • CHAPTER II.—Conjugation.
      • Formation of the Present Stem.
      • Formation of the Perfect Stem.
      • Formation of the Participial Stem.
      • First (Ā-) Conjugation.
      • Second (Ē-) Conjugation.
      • Third (Consonant) Conjugation.
      • Fourth Conjugation.
    • Formation of the Present Stem.
    • Formation of the Perfect Stem.
    • Formation of the Participial Stem.
    • First (Ā-) Conjugation.
    • Second (Ē-) Conjugation.
    • Third (Consonant) Conjugation.
    • Fourth Conjugation.
  • PART III.
    • PARTICLES.
      • ADVERBS.
      • PREPOSITIONS.
      • CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.
    • ADVERBS.
    • PREPOSITIONS.
    • CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.
  • PART IV.
    • WORD-FORMATION.
      • I. DERIVATIVES.
      • 1. Nouns derived from Verbs.
      • 2. Nouns derived from Nouns.
      • 3. Nouns derived from Adjectives.
      • 1. Adjectives derived from Verbs.
      • 2. Adjectives derived from Nouns.
      • 3. Adjectives derived from Adjectives.
      • 4. Adjectives derived from Adverbs.
      • 1. Verbs derived from Verbs.
      • 2. Verbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives (Denominatives).
      • II. COMPOUNDS.
    • I. DERIVATIVES.
    • 1. Nouns derived from Verbs.
    • 2. Nouns derived from Nouns.
    • 3. Nouns derived from Adjectives.
    • 1. Adjectives derived from Verbs.
    • 2. Adjectives derived from Nouns.
    • 3. Adjectives derived from Adjectives.
    • 4. Adjectives derived from Adverbs.
    • 1. Verbs derived from Verbs.
    • 2. Verbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives (Denominatives).
    • II. COMPOUNDS.
  • PART V.
    • SYNTAX.
    • CHAPTER I.—Sentences.
      • CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES.
      • FORM OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.
      • SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
      • SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES.
    • CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES.
    • FORM OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.
    • SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
    • SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES.
    • CHAPTER II.—Syntax of Nouns.
      • SUBJECT.
      • PREDICATE NOUNS.
      • APPOSITIVES.
      • THE CASES.
      • Accusative of the Person or Thing Affected.
      • Accusative of the Result Produced.
      • Two Accusatives—Direct Object and Predicate Accusative.
      • Two Accusatives—Person and Thing.
      • Two Accusatives with Compounds.
      • Synecdochical (or Greek) Accusative.
      • Accusative of Time and Space.
      • Accusative of Limit of Motion.
      • Accusative in Exclamations.
      • Accusative as Subject of the Infinitive.
      • Other Uses of the Accusative.
      • Dative of Indirect Object.
      • Dative of Reference.
      • Dative of Agency.
      • Dative of Possession.
      • Dative of Purpose or Tendency.
      • Dative with Adjectives.
      • Dative of Direction.
      • Memini, Reminīscor, Oblīvīscor.
      • Admoneō, Commoneō, Commonefaciō.
      • Verbs of Judicial Action.
      • Genitive with Impersonal Verbs.
      • Interest, Rēfert.
      • Genitive with Other Verbs.
      • Ablative of Separation.
      • Ablative of Source.
      • Ablative of Agent.
      • Ablative of Comparison.
      • Ablative of Means.
      • Ablative of Cause.
      • Ablative of Manner.
      • Ablative of Attendant Circumstance.
      • Ablative of Accompaniment.
      • Ablative of Association.
      • Ablative of Degree of Difference.
      • Ablative of Quality.
      • Ablative of Price.
      • Ablative of Specification.
      • Ablative Absolute.
      • Ablative of Place.
      • Ablative of Time.
    • SUBJECT.
    • PREDICATE NOUNS.
    • APPOSITIVES.
    • THE CASES.
    • Accusative of the Person or Thing Affected.
    • Accusative of the Result Produced.
    • Two Accusatives—Direct Object and Predicate Accusative.
    • Two Accusatives—Person and Thing.
    • Two Accusatives with Compounds.
    • Synecdochical (or Greek) Accusative.
    • Accusative of Time and Space.
    • Accusative of Limit of Motion.
    • Accusative in Exclamations.
    • Accusative as Subject of the Infinitive.
    • Other Uses of the Accusative.
    • Dative of Indirect Object.
    • Dative of Reference.
    • Dative of Agency.
    • Dative of Possession.
    • Dative of Purpose or Tendency.
    • Dative with Adjectives.
    • Dative of Direction.
    • Memini, Reminīscor, Oblīvīscor.
    • Admoneō, Commoneō, Commonefaciō.
    • Verbs of Judicial Action.
    • Genitive with Impersonal Verbs.
    • Interest, Rēfert.
    • Genitive with Other Verbs.
    • Ablative of Separation.
    • Ablative of Source.
    • Ablative of Agent.
    • Ablative of Comparison.
    • Ablative of Means.
    • Ablative of Cause.
    • Ablative of Manner.
    • Ablative of Attendant Circumstance.
    • Ablative of Accompaniment.
    • Ablative of Association.
    • Ablative of Degree of Difference.
    • Ablative of Quality.
    • Ablative of Price.
    • Ablative of Specification.
    • Ablative Absolute.
    • Ablative of Place.
    • Ablative of Time.
    • CHAPTER III.—Syntax of Adjectives.
      • AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.
      • ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY.
      • ADJECTIVES WITH THE FORCE OF ADVERBS.
      • COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
      • OTHER PECULIARITIES.
    • AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.
    • ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY.
    • ADJECTIVES WITH THE FORCE OF ADVERBS.
    • COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
    • OTHER PECULIARITIES.
    • CHAPTER IV.—Syntax of Pronouns.
      • PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
      • POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
      • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
      • RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.
      • DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
      • Hīc, Ille, Iste.
      • Is.
      • Īdem.
      • Ipse.
      • RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
      • INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
      • PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.
    • PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
    • POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
    • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
    • RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.
    • DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
    • Hīc, Ille, Iste.
    • Is.
    • Īdem.
    • Ipse.
    • RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
    • INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
    • PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.
    • CHAPTER V.—Syntax of Verbs.
      • AGREEMENT.
      • With One Subject.
      • With Two or More Subjects.
      • VOICES.
      • TENSES.
      • Principal and Historical Tenses.
      • Present Indicative.
      • Imperfect Indicative.
      • Future Indicative.
      • Perfect Indicative.
      • Pluperfect Indicative.
      • Future Perfect Indicative.
      • Epistolary Tenses.
      • Sequence of Tenses.
      • Peculiarities of Sequence.
      • Method of Expressing Future Time in the Subjunctive.
      • THE MOODS.
      • The Indicative in Independent Sentences.
      • The Subjunctive in Independent Sentences.
      • The Imperative.
      • Clauses of Purpose.
      • Clauses of Characteristic.
      • Clauses of Result.
      • Causal Clauses.
      • Temporal Clauses introduced by Postquam, Ut, Ubi, Simul ac, etc.
      • Temporal Clauses introduced by Cum.
      • Clauses introduced by Antequam and Priusquam.
      • Clauses introduced by Dum, Dōnec, Quoad.
      • Substantive Clauses.
      • A. Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive.
      • B. Substantive Clauses developed from the Optative.
      • C. Substantive Clauses of Result.
      • D. Substantive Clauses introduced by Quīn.
      • E. Substantive Clauses Introduced by Quod.
      • F. Indirect Questions.
      • First Type.—Nothing Implied as to the Reality of the Supposed Case.
      • Second Type.—'Should'-'Would' Conditions.
      • Third Type.—Supposed Case Represented as Contrary to Fact.
      • Protasis expressed without Sī.
      • Use of Nisi, Sī Nōn, Sīn.
      • Conditional Clauses of Comparison.
      • Concessive Clauses.
      • Adversative Clauses with Quamvīs, Quamquam, etc.
      • Clauses with Dum, Modo, Dummodo, denoting a Wish or a Proviso.
      • Relative Clauses.
      • INDIRECT DISCOURSE (ŌRĀTIŌ OBLĪQUA).
      • Declarative Sentences.
      • Interrogative Sentences.
      • Imperative Sentences.
      • A. Tenses of the Infinitive.
      • B. Tenses of the Subjunctive.
      • Conditional Sentences of the First Type.
      • Conditional Sentences of the Second Type.
      • Conditional Sentences of the Third Type.
      • NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB.
      • Infinitive without Subject Accusative.
      • Infinitive with Subject Accusative.
      • Passive Construction of the Foregoing Verbs.
      • Infinitive with Adjectives.
      • Infinitive in Exclamations.
      • Historical Infinitive.
      • Tenses of the Participle.
      • Use of Participles.
      • Gerundive Construction instead of the Gerund.
    • AGREEMENT.
    • With One Subject.
    • With Two or More Subjects.
    • VOICES.
    • TENSES.
    • Principal and Historical Tenses.
    • Present Indicative.
    • Imperfect Indicative.
    • Future Indicative.
    • Perfect Indicative.
    • Pluperfect Indicative.
    • Future Perfect Indicative.
    • Epistolary Tenses.
    • Sequence of Tenses.
    • Peculiarities of Sequence.
    • Method of Expressing Future Time in the Subjunctive.
    • THE MOODS.
    • The Indicative in Independent Sentences.
    • The Subjunctive in Independent Sentences.
    • The Imperative.
    • Clauses of Purpose.
    • Clauses of Characteristic.
    • Clauses of Result.
    • Causal Clauses.
    • Temporal Clauses introduced by Postquam, Ut, Ubi, Simul ac, etc.
    • Temporal Clauses introduced by Cum.
    • Clauses introduced by Antequam and Priusquam.
    • Clauses introduced by Dum, Dōnec, Quoad.
    • Substantive Clauses.
    • A. Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive.
    • B. Substantive Clauses developed from the Optative.
    • C. Substantive Clauses of Result.
    • D. Substantive Clauses introduced by Quīn.
    • E. Substantive Clauses Introduced by Quod.
    • F. Indirect Questions.
    • First Type.—Nothing Implied as to the Reality of the Supposed Case.
    • Second Type.—'Should'-'Would' Conditions.
    • Third Type.—Supposed Case Represented as Contrary to Fact.
    • Protasis expressed without Sī.
    • Use of Nisi, Sī Nōn, Sīn.
    • Conditional Clauses of Comparison.
    • Concessive Clauses.
    • Adversative Clauses with Quamvīs, Quamquam, etc.
    • Clauses with Dum, Modo, Dummodo, denoting a Wish or a Proviso.
    • Relative Clauses.
    • INDIRECT DISCOURSE (ŌRĀTIŌ OBLĪQUA).
    • Declarative Sentences.
    • Interrogative Sentences.
    • Imperative Sentences.
    • A. Tenses of the Infinitive.
    • B. Tenses of the Subjunctive.
    • Conditional Sentences of the First Type.
    • Conditional Sentences of the Second Type.
    • Conditional Sentences of the Third Type.
    • NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB.
    • Infinitive without Subject Accusative.
    • Infinitive with Subject Accusative.
    • Passive Construction of the Foregoing Verbs.
    • Infinitive with Adjectives.
    • Infinitive in Exclamations.
    • Historical Infinitive.
    • Tenses of the Participle.
    • Use of Participles.
    • Gerundive Construction instead of the Gerund.
    • CHAPTER VI.—Particles.
      • COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.
    • COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.
    • CHAPTER VII.—Word-order and Sentence-Structure.
      • A. WORD-ORDER.
      • B. SENTENCE-STRUCTURE.
    • A. WORD-ORDER.
    • B. SENTENCE-STRUCTURE.
    • CHAPTER VIII.-Hints on Latin Style.
      • NOUNS.
      • ADJECTIVES.
      • PRONOUNS.
      • VERBS.
      • PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE ACCUSATIVE.
      • PECULIARITIES IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF THE DATIVE.
      • PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE GENITIVE.
    • NOUNS.
    • ADJECTIVES.
    • PRONOUNS.
    • VERBS.
    • PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE ACCUSATIVE.
    • PECULIARITIES IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF THE DATIVE.
    • PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE GENITIVE.
  • PART VI.
    • PROSODY.
      • QUANTITY OF VOWELS AND SYLLABLES
      • Quantity of Final Syllables.
      • VERSE-STRUCTURE.
    • QUANTITY OF VOWELS AND SYLLABLES
    • Quantity of Final Syllables.
    • VERSE-STRUCTURE.
  • SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.
    • A. Figures of Syntax.
      • B. Figures of Rhetoric.
    • B. Figures of Rhetoric.
    • INDEX OF THE SOURCES OF THE ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES CITED IN THE SYNTAX.[63]
  • ABBREVIATIONS USED IN INDEX TO THE ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  • INDEX TO THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS
  • A.
  • C.
  • D.
  • E.
  • F.
  • G.
  • H.
  • I.
  • J.
  • L.
  • M.
  • N.
  • O.
  • P.
  • Q.
  • R.
  • S.
  • T.
  • U.
  • V.
  • GENERAL INDEX.
  • FOOTNOTES
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