London Labour and the London Poor (Vol. 1 of 4)
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London Labour and the London Poor (Vol. 1 of 4)

By Henry Mayhew
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Table of Contents
  • LONDON LABOUR AND THE LONDON POOR
  • CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.
  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
  • PREFACE.
  • Of Wandering Tribes in General.
    • Of the Wandering Tribes of this Country.
    • Of the London Street-folk.
    • Of the Number of Costermongers and other Street-folk.
      • COSTERMONGERS ATTENDING THE LONDON MARKETS.
    • Of the Varieties of Street-folk in general, and Costermongers in particular.
    • Of Costermongering Mechanics.
    • Ancient Calling of Costermongers.
    • Of the Obsolete Cries of the Costermongers.
    • Of the Costermongers “economically” considered.
    • The London Street Markets on a Saturday Night.
    • The Sunday Morning Markets.
      • MARKETS ON THE SURREY SIDE.
      • MARKETS ON THE MIDDLESEX SIDE.
    • Habits and Amusements of Costermongers.
    • Gambling of Costermongers.
    • “Vic. Gallery.”
    • The Politics of Costermongers.—Policemen.
    • Marriage and Concubinage of Costermongers.
    • Religion of Costermongers.
    • Of the Uneducated State of Costermongers.
    • Language of Costermongers.
    • Of the Nicknames of Costermongers.
    • Of the Education of Costermongers’ Children.
    • The Literature of Costermongers.
    • Of the Honesty of Costermongers.
    • Of the Conveyances of the Costermongers and other Street-sellers.
    • Of the “Smithfield Races.”
    • Of the Donkeys of the Costermongers.
    • Of the Costermongers’ Capital.
    • Of the “Slang” Weights and Measures.
    • Of Half Profits.
    • Of the Boys of the Costermongers, and their Bunts.
    • Of the Juvenile Trading of the Costermongers.
    • Of the Education of the “Coster-Lads.”
    • The Life of a Coster-Lad.
    • Of the “Penny Gaff.”
    • Of the Coster-Girls.
    • The Life of a Coster Girl.
    • Of Costermongers and Thieves.
    • Of the more provident Costermongers.
    • Of the Homes of the Costermongers.
    • Of the Dress of the Costermongers.
    • Of the Diet and Drink of Costermongers.
    • Of the Cries, Rounds, and Days of Costermongers.
    • Of the Costermongers on their Country Rounds.
    • Of the Earnings of Costermongers.
    • Of the Capital and Income of the Costermongers.
    • Of the Providence and Improvidence of Costermongers.
    • Of the Costermongers in Bad Weather and during the Cholera.
    • Of the Costermongers’ Raffles.
    • Of the Markets and Trade Rights of the Costermongers, and of the laws affecting them.
    • Of the Removals of Costermongers from the Streets.
    • Of the Tricks of Costermongers.
  • OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF FISH.
    • Of the Kind and Quantities of Fish sold by the London Costermongers.
      • TABLE, SHOWING THE QUANTITY, WEIGHT, OR MEASURE OF THE FOLLOWING KINDS OF FISH SOLD IN BILLINGSGATE MARKET IN THE COURSE OF THE YEAR:
    • Of the Costermongers’ Fish Season.
    • Billingsgate.
    • Of the Forestalling of Markets and the Billingsgate Bummarees.
    • Of “Wet” Fish-sellers in the Streets.
    • Of Sprat-selling in the Streets.
    • Of Shell-Fish Sellers in the Streets.
    • Of Shrimp Selling in the Streets.
    • Of Oyster Selling in the Streets.
    • Of Periwinkle Selling in the Streets.
    • Of “Dry” Fish Selling in the Streets.
    • Gross Value of the several Kinds of Fish annually Sold in the Streets of London.
  • OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES.
    • Of the Kinds and Quantity of Fruit and Vegetables sold in the Streets.
      • A TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITY OR MEASURE OF THE UNDERMENTIONED HOME-GROWN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES SOLD THROUGHOUT THE YEAR, WHOLESALE, IN THE METROPOLITAN “GREEN” MARKETS, WITH THE PROPORTION SOLD RETAIL IN THE STREETS.
      • Table, showing the Quantity or Measure of the undermentioned Foreign Green Fruits and Vegetables sold Wholesale throughout the Year in London, with the Proportion sold Retail in the Streets.
      • Table, showing the Quantity of “Dry” Fruit sold wholesale in London throughout the Year, with the proportion Sold retail in the Streets.
    • Of the Fruit and Vegetable Season of the Costermongers.
    • Of Covent Garden Market.
    • Of “Green” Fruit Selling in the Streets.
    • Of the Orange and Nut Market.
    • Of Orange and Lemon Selling in the Streets.
    • Of Nut Selling in the Streets.
    • Of Roasted Chestnuts and Apples.
    • Of “Dry” Fruit Selling in the Streets.
    • Of the Street-sale of Vegetables.
    • Of the “Aristocratic” Vegetable-Sale.
    • Of Onion Selling in the Streets.
    • Of Pot-Herbs and Celery.
    • Gross Value of the Fruit and Vegetables Sold Annually in the London Streets.
  • OF THE STATIONARY STREET-SELLERS OF FISH, FRUIT, AND VEGETABLES.
    • Of the Number of Street Stalls.
    • Of the Character of the Street-Stalls.
    • Of Fruit-stall Keepers.
    • Of a Public Meeting of Street-sellers.
  • OF THE STREET-IRISH.
    • Of the Causes which have made the Irish turn Costermongers.
    • How the Street-Irish displanted the Street-Jews in the Orange Trade.
    • Of the Religion of the Street-Irish.
    • Of the Education, Literature, Amusements, and Politics of the Street-irish.
    • The Homes of the Street-Irish.
    • Irish Lodging-houses for Immigrants.
    • Of the Diet, Drink, and Expense Of Living of the Street-Irish.
    • Of the Resources of the Street-Irish as regards “Stock-Money,” Sickness, Burials, &c.
    • Of the History of some Irish street-sellers.
    • Of the Irish “Refuse”-Sellers.
  • OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF GAME, POULTRY (LIVE AND DEAD), RABBITS, BUTTER, CHEESE, AND EGGS.
    • Of the Quantity of Game, Rabbits, and Poultry, sold in the Streets.
    • Of the Street-Purchasers of Game and Poultry.
    • Of the Experience of a Game Hawker.
    • Statement of Two Poultry Hawkers.
    • Of the Street Sale of Live Poultry.
    • Of Rabbit Selling in the Streets.
    • Of the Street Sale of Butter, Cheese, and Eggs.
  • OF THE SELLERS OF TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS (CUT AND IN POTS), ROOTS, SEEDS, AND BRANCHES.
    • Of the Quantity of Shrubs, “Roots,” Flowers, etc., sold in the Streets, and of the Buyers.
      • TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS, ROOTS, AND BRANCHES SOLD ANNUALLY, WHOLESALE, AT THE METROPOLITAN MARKETS, AND THE PROPORTION RETAILED IN THE STREETS.[6]
    • Of the Street Sale of Trees and Shrubs.
    • The London Flower Girls.
    • Of Two Orphan Flower Girls.
    • Of the Life of a Flower Girl.
    • Of the Street Sale of Lavender.
    • Cut Flowers.
    • Of the Street Sale of Flowers in Pots, Roots, etc.
    • Of the Street Sale of Seeds.
    • Of Christmasing—Laurel, Ivy, Holly, and Mistletoe.
    • Of the Sale of May, Palm, etc.
  • STREET-SELLERS OF GREEN STUFF.
    • Of Watercress-selling, in Farringdon-market.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Water-cress.
    • Watercress Girl.
      • A Table Showing the Quantity of Watercresses Sold Wholesale throughout the Year in London, with the Proportion Retailed in the Streets.
    • Of Groundsel and Chickweed Sellers.
    • Of Turf Cutting and Selling.
    • Of the Experience and Customers of a Turf-Cutter.
    • Of Plantain-Sellers.
  • OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF EATABLES AND DRINKABLES.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Pea-Soup and Hot Eels.
    • Of the Experience of a Hot-Eel and Pea-soup Man.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Pickled Whelks.
    • Of the Customers, etc., of Pickled Whelk-sellers.
    • Of the Street Sellers, and of the Preparation of Fried Fish.
    • Of the Experience of a Fried Fish-seller, and of the Class of Customers.
    • Of the Preparation and Quantity of Sheep’s Trotters, and of the Street-sellers.
    • Statements of Sheep’s Trotter Women.
    • Of the Street Trade in Baked Potatoes.
    • Of “Trotting,” or “Hawking” Butchers.
    • Of the Experience of a Hawking Butcher.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Ham-Sandwiches.
    • Of the Experience of a Ham Sandwich-seller.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Bread.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Hot Green Peas.
    • Of the Experience of a Hot Green Pea Seller.
    • Of Cats’ and Dogs’-meat Dealers.
    • Of the Street-sale of Drinkables.
    • Of Coffee-stall Keepers.
    • Of the Street Sale of Ginger-beer, Sherbet, Lemonade, &c.
    • Of the Experience and Customers of a Ginger-beer Seller.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Hot Elder Wine.
    • Of the Street Sale of Peppermint-Water.
    • Of Milk Selling in St. James’s Park.
    • Of the Street Sale of Milk.
    • Of the Street-Sale of Curds and Whey.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Rice-milk.
    • Of Water-Carriers.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Pastry And Confectionary.
    • Of Street Piemen.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Boiled Puddings.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Plum “Duff” or Dough.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Cakes, Tarts, &c.
    • Of other Cake-sellers in the Streets.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Gingerbread-nuts, &c.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Hot-Cross Buns, and of Chelsea Buns.
    • Of Muffin and Crumpet-selling in the Streets.
    • Of the Street Sale of Sweet-stuff.
    • Of the Customers of the Sweet-stuff Street-sellers.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Cough Drops and of Medical Confectionary.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Ices and of Ice Creams.
    • OF THE CAPITAL AND INCOME OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF EATABLES AND DRINKABLES.
    • Capital, or Stock in Trade, of the Street-sellers of Eatables and Drinkables.
    • Income, or “Takings,” of Street-sellers of Eatables and Drinkables.
  • OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF STATIONERY, LITERATURE, AND THE FINE ARTS.
    • Of the former and present Street-patterers.
    • Of the Habits, Opinions, Morals, and Religion of Patterers generally.
    • Of the Publishers and Authors of Street-Literature.
    • Of Long Song-sellers.
    • Of Running Patterers.
    • Experience of a Running Patterer.
    • Of the Recent Experience of a Running Patterer.
    • Of the Chaunters.
    • Of the Experience of a Chaunter.
    • Of the Death and Fire Hunters.
    • Of the Sellers of Second Editions.
    • Of the Standing Patterers.
    • Experience of a Standing Patterer.
    • Of Political Litanies, Dialogues, etc.
    • Of “Cocks,” etc.
    • Of “Strawing.”
    • Of the Sham Indecent Street-trade.
    • Of Religious Tract Sellers.
    • Of a Benefit Society of Patterers.
    • Of the Abodes, Tricks, Marriage, Character, and Characteristics of the Different Grades of Patterers.
    • Of the Low Lodging-houses of London.
    • Of the Filth, Dishonesty, and Immorality of Low Lodging-houses.
    • Of the Children in Low Lodging-houses.
    • Of the Low Lodging-houses throughout the Country.
    • Of the Street Stationers, and the Street Card-sellers.
    • Of the Seller of the Penny Short-hand Cards.
      • The Lecture.
    • Of the Sellers of Race Cards and Lists.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Gelatine, of Engraved, and of Playing Cards, &c.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Stationery.
    • Of the Experience of a Street-stationer.
    • Of a “reduced” Gentlewoman, and a “reduced” Tradesman, as Street-sellers of Stationery.
    • Of the Street-sale of Memorandum-books and Almanacks.
    • Of the Street-sale of Pocket-books and Diaries.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Songs.
    • Of the Street “Pinners-up,” or Wall Song-sellers.
    • Of Ancient and Modern Street Ballad Minstrelsy.
    • Of Street “Ballads on a Subject.”
    • Of the Street Poets and Authors.
    • Of the Experience of a Street Author, or Poet.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Broad-Sheets.
    • Of the “Gallows” Literature of the Streets.
      • COPY OF VERSES.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Conundrums.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Comic Exhibitions, Magical Delusions, &c.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Play-Bills.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Periodicals, Pamphlets, Tracts, Books, etc.
    • Of the Street-sale of Back Numbers.
    • Of the Sale of Waste Newspapers at Billingsgate.
    • Of the Sale of Periodicals on the Steam-boats and Steam-boat Piers.
    • Of the Sale of Newspapers, Books, &c., at the Railway Stations.
    • Of the Street Booksellers.
    • Of the Character of Books of the Street-sale.
    • Of the Experience of a Street Book-seller.
    • Of Street Book-auctioneers.
    • Of the Street-sale of Song-books, and of Children’s Books.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Account-books.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Guide-books, &c.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Fine Arts.
    • Of Street Art.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Engravings, etc., in Umbrellas, etc.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Pictures in Frames.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Manuscript and other Music.
  • OF THE CAPITAL AND INCOME OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF STATIONERY, LITERATURE, AND THE FINE ARTS.
    • Capital or Value of the Stock-in-Trade of the Street-sellers of Stationery, Literature and the Fine Arts.
    • Income, or average annual “takings,” of the Street-sellers of Stationery, Literature, and the Fine Arts.
    • An Epitome of the Pattering Class.
    • SURREY AND SUSSEX.
    • KENT.
    • ESSEX.
    • HERTS AND BEDFORDSHIRE.
    • SUFFOLK AND NORFOLK.
    • Of the “Screevers,” or Writers of Begging-Letters and Petitions.
    • Of the Probable Means of Reformation.
  • OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF MANUFACTURED ARTICLES.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Manufactured Articles in Metal.
    • Of the Cheap Johns, or Street Hansellers.
    • The Crippled Street-seller of Nutmeg-graters.
    • Of the Swag-shops of the Metropolis.
    • Of the Life of a Cheap-John.
    • The Street-Sellers of Cutlery.
    • Of the Blind Street-sellers of Tailors’ Needles, etc.
    • The Public-House Hawkers of Metal Spoons, etc.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Jewellery.
    • Of The Pedlar-Jewellers.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Card-Counters, Medals, etc.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Rings and Sovereigns for Wagers.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Children’s Gilt Watches.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Tinware.
    • Of the Life of a Tin-Ware Seller.
    • Of the Street-sellers of Dog-Collars.
    • Of the Life of a Street-Seller of Dog-Collars.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Tools.
    • Of the Beggar Street-Sellers.
      • ‘THE LACE-MAKERS’ APPEAL.
    • Of the “House of Lords,” a Street-Seller’s Defunct Club.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Crockery and Glass-Wares.
    • Of the “Swag,” Crockery, and Glass Shops.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Spar and China Ornaments, and of Stone Fruit.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Textile Fabrics.
    • Of the Haberdashery Swag-Shops.
    • Of Hawkers, Pedlars, and Petty Chapmen.
    • Of the Packmen, or Hawkers of Soft Wares.
    • Statement of a Packman.
    • Of the Tally Packman.
    • Of the “Duffers” or Hawkers of Pretended Smuggled Goods.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of “Small-Ware,” or Tape, Cotton, etc.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Lace.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Japanned Table-Covers.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Braces, Belts, Hose, Trowser-straps, and Waistcoats.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Boot and Stay-Laces, &c.
    • Of a Blind Female Seller of “Small-Wares.”
    • The Blind Street-Seller of Boot-Laces.
    • Of the Life of a Blind boot-lace Seller.
    • Of the Low Lodging-Houses.
    • Statement of a Young Pickpocket.
    • Statement of a Prostitute.
    • Statement of a Beggar.
    • Meeting of Thieves.
    • Of the Country Lodging-Houses.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Chemical Articles of Manufacture.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Blacking, Black Lead, etc.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of French Polish.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Grease-removing Compositions.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Corn-Salve.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Glass and China Cement, and of Razor Paste.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Crackers and Detonating Balls.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Lucifer-Matches.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Cigar Lights, or Fuzees.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Gutta-Percha Heads.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Fly-Papers and Beetle-Wafers.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Walking-Sticks.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Whips, etc.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Pipes, and of Snuff and Tobacco Boxes.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Cigars.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Sponge.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Wash-Leathers.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Spectacles and Eye-Glasses.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Dolls.
    • Of the “Swag-Barrowmen,” and “Lot-Sellers.”
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Roulette Boxes.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Poison for Rats.
    • Of the Street-Sellers of Rhubarb and Spice.
    • Of the Hawking of Tea.
  • OF THE WOMEN STREET-SELLERS.
    • Of a Single Woman, as a Street-Seller.
    • Of a Mechanic’s Wife, as a Street-Seller.
    • Of an Irishwoman, as a Street-Seller.
    • Of a Widow, a Street-Seller.
    • Of the Children Street-Sellers of London.
    • Of Children sent out as Street-Sellers by their Parents.
    • Of a “Neglected” Child, a Street-Seller.
    • Of a Hired Coster Boy.
    • Of an Orphan Boy, a Street-Seller.
    • Of the Life of an Orphan Girl, a Street-Seller.
    • Of Two Runaway Street-Boys.
  • OF THE CAPITAL AND INCOME OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF MANUFACTURED ARTICLES.
    • Income of the Street-Sellers of Manufactured Articles.
  • ERRATA.
  • INDEX.
  • FOOTNOTES
  • Transcriber's Note
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