Oral Literature in Africa
Ruth Finnegan
Children's Books
Oral Literature in Africa

Ruth Finnegan’s Oral Literature in Africa was first published in 1970, and since then has been widely praised as one of the most important books in its field. Based on years of fieldwork, the study traces the history of storytelling across the continent of Africa. This revised edition makes Finnegan’s ground-breaking research available to the next generation of scholars. It includes a new introduction, additional images and an updated bibliography, as well as its original chapters on poetry, prose, "drum language” and drama, and an overview of the social, linguistic and historical background of oral literature in Africa. This volume is complemented by original recordings of stories and songs from the Limba country (Sierra Leone), collected by Finnegan during her fieldwork in the late 1960s, which are freely accessible here. The book is available as a free pdf and ebook download thanks to the generous support of interested readers and organisations, who made donations using the crowd-funding website unglue.it. Oral Literature in Africa is part of the World Oral Literature Series published in conjunction with the World Oral Literature Project.

List of illustrations
Foreword by Mark Turin
Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Acknowledgments: Addendum 2012
Notes on Sources and References
1.   The ‘oral’ nature of African unwritten literature
The significance of performance in actualization, transmission, and composition. Audience and occasion. Implications for the study of oral literature. Oral art as literature .
2.   The perception of African oral literature
Nineteenth-century approaches and collections. Speculations and neglect in the twentieth century. Recent trends in African studies and the revival of interest in oral literature .
3.   The social, linguistic, and literary background
Social and literary background. The linguistic basis—the example of Bantu. Some literary tools. Presentation of the material. The literary complexity of African cultures .
4.   Poetry and patronage
Variations in the poet’s position. Court poets. Religious patronage. Free-lance and wandering poets. Part-time poets . A note on ‘epic’.
5.   Panegyric
Introductory: nature and distribution; composers and reciters; occasions. Southern Bantu praise poetry: form and style; occasions and delivery; traditional and contemporary significance .
6.   Elegiac poetry
General and introductory. Akan funeral dirges: content and themes; structure, style, and delivery; occasions and functions; the dirge as literature .
7.   Religious poetry
Introductory. Didactic and narrative religious poetry and the Islamic tradition; the Swahili tenzi. Hymns, prayers, and incantations: general survey; the Fante Methodist lyric. Mantic poetry: Sotho divining praises; odu Ifa (Yoruba) .
8.   Special purpose poetry—war, hunting, and work
Military poetry: Nguni; Akan. Hunting poetry: Yoruba ijala; Ambo hunters’ songs. Work songs .
9.   Lyric
Occasions. Subject-matter. Form. Composition .
Topical and local poetry. Songs of political parties and movements: Mau Mau hymns; Guinea R.D.A. songs; Northern Rhodesian party songs .
Lullabies and nursery rhymes. Children’s games and verses; Southern Sudanese action songs .
Introductory. Evolutionist interpretations. Historical-geographical school. Classification and typologies. Structural-functional approach. Conclusion .
What is known to date: content and plot; main characters. Types of tales: animal stories; stories about people; ‘myths’; ‘legends’ and historical narratives. What demands further study: occasions; role of narrators; purpose and function; literary conventions; performance; originality and authorship. Conclusion .
The significance and concept of the proverb. Form and style. Content. Occasions and functions. Specific examples: Jabo; Zulu; Azande. Conclusion .
Riddles and related forms. Style and content. Occasions and uses. Conclusion .
Oratory and rhetoric: Burundi; Limba. Prayers, curses, etc. Word play and verbal formulas. Names .
Introductory—the principle of drum language. Examples of drum literature: announcements and calls; names; proverbs; poetry. Conclusion .
Introductory. Some minor examples: Bushman ‘plays’; West African puppet shows. Mande comedies. West African masquerades: South-Eastern Nigeria; Kalabari. Conclusion .
10.   Topical and political songs
11.   Children’s songs and rhymes
12.   Prose narratives I. Problems and theories
13.   Prose narratives II.Content and form.
14.   Proverbs
15.   Riddles
16.   Oratory, formal speaking, and other stylized forms
17.   Drum language and literature
18.   Drama
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