Leviathan
Free

Leviathan

By Thomas Hobbes
Free
Book Description

'Leviathan' is both a magnificent literary achievement and the greatest work of political philosophy in the English language. Permanently challenging, it has found new applications and new refutations in every generation. Hobbes argues that human beings are first and foremost concerned with their own individual desires and fears. He shows that a conflict of each against every man can only be avoided by the adoption of a compact to enforce peace. The compact involves giving up some of our natural freedom to a sovereign power which will enforce the laws of peace on all citizens. Hobbes also analyses the subversive forces - religion, ambition, private conscience - that threaten to destroy the body politic, Leviathan itself, and return us to the state of war. This new edition reproduces the first printed text, retaining the original punctuation but modernizing the spelling, and incorporating the corrections found in the best copies. It offers exceptionally thorough and useful annotation, and introduction that guides the reader through the complexities of Hobbes's arguments, and a substantial index.

Table of Contents
  • LEVIATHAN
  • 1651
    • LEVIATHAN OR THE MATTER, FORME, & POWER OF A COMMON-WEALTH ECCLESIASTICAL AND CIVILL
      • Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury Printed for Andrew Crooke, at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1651.
  • THE INTRODUCTION
  • PART 1 OF MAN
  • CHAPTER I. OF SENSE
  • CHAPTER II. OF IMAGINATION
  • Memory
  • Dreams
  • Apparitions Or Visions
  • Understanding
  • CHAPTER III. OF THE CONSEQUENCE OR TRAYNE OF IMAGINATIONS
  • Trayne Of Thoughts Unguided
  • Trayne Of Thoughts Regulated
  • Remembrance
  • Prudence
  • Signes
  • Conjecture Of The Time Past
  • CHAPTER IV. OF SPEECH
  • Originall Of Speech
  • The Use Of Speech
  • Abuses Of Speech
  • Names Proper & Common Universall
  • Subject To Names
  • Use Of Names Positive
  • Negative Names With Their Uses
  • Words Insignificant
  • Understanding
  • Inconstant Names
  • CHAPTER V. OF REASON, AND SCIENCE.
  • Reason What It Is
  • Reason Defined
  • Right Reason Where
  • The Use Of Reason
  • Of Error And Absurdity
  • Causes Of Absurditie
  • Science
  • Prudence & Sapience, With Their Difference
  • Signes Of Science
  • CHAPTER VI. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS
  • Motion Vitall And Animal
  • Endeavour; Appetite; Desire; Hunger; Thirst; Aversion
  • Contempt
  • Good Evill
  • Pulchrum Turpe; Delightfull Profitable; Unpleasant Unprofitable
  • Delight Displeasure
  • Pleasure Offence
  • Pleasures Of Sense; Pleasures Of The Mind; Joy Paine Griefe
  • The Will
  • Formes Of Speech, In Passion
  • Good And Evill Apparent
  • Felicity
  • Praise Magnification
  • CHAPTER VII. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE
  • Judgement, or Sentence Final; Doubt
  • Science Opinion Conscience
  • Beliefe Faith
  • CHAPTER VIII. OF THE VERTUES COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUAL;
    • AND THEIR CONTRARY DEFECTS
  • Intellectuall Vertue Defined
  • Wit, Naturall, Or Acquired
  • Good Wit, Or Fancy; Good Judgement; Discretion
  • Prudence
  • Craft
  • Acquired Wit
  • Giddinesse Madnesse
  • Rage
  • Melancholy
  • Insignificant Speech
  • CHAPTER IX. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE
  • CHAPTER X. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR AND WORTHINESS
  • Power
  • Worth
  • Dignity
  • To Honour and Dishonour
  • Titles of Honour
  • Worthinesse Fitnesse
  • CHAPTER XI. OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS
  • What Is Here Meant By Manners
  • A Restlesse Desire Of Power, In All Men
  • Love Of Contention From Competition
  • Civil Obedience From Love Of Ease
  • From Feare Of Death Or Wounds
  • And From Love Of Arts
  • Love Of Vertue, From Love Of Praise
  • Hate, From Difficulty Of Requiting Great Benefits
  • And From Conscience Of Deserving To Be Hated
  • Promptnesse To Hurt, From Fear
  • And From Distrust Of Their Own Wit
  • Vain Undertaking From Vain-glory
  • Ambition, From Opinion Of Sufficiency
  • Irresolution, From Too Great Valuing Of Small Matters
  • And From The Ignorance Of Naturall Causes
  • And From Want Of Understanding
  • Credulity From Ignorance Of Nature
  • Curiosity To Know, From Care Of Future Time
  • Naturall Religion, From The Same
  • CHAPTER XII. OF RELIGION
  • Religion, In Man Onely
  • First, From His Desire Of Knowing Causes
  • From The Consideration Of The Beginning Of Things
  • From His Observation Of The Sequell Of Things
  • Which Makes Them Fear The Power Of Invisible Things
  • And Suppose Them Incorporeall
  • But Know Not The Way How They Effect Anything
  • But Honour Them As They Honour Men
  • And Attribute To Them All Extraordinary Events
  • Foure Things, Naturall Seeds Of Religion
  • Made Different By Culture
  • The Absurd Opinion Of Gentilisme
  • The Causes Of Change In Religion
  • Injoyning Beleefe Of Impossibilities
  • Doing Contrary To The Religion They Establish
  • Want Of The Testimony Of Miracles
  • CHAPTER XIII. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND,
    • AS CONCERNING THEIR FELICITY, AND MISERY
  • From Equality Proceeds Diffidence
  • From Diffidence Warre
  • Out Of Civil States,
  • The Incommodites Of Such A War
  • In Such A Warre, Nothing Is Unjust
  • The Passions That Incline Men To Peace
  • CHAPTER XIV. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACTS
  • Right Of Nature What
  • Liberty What
  • A Law Of Nature What
  • Naturally Every Man Has Right To Everything
  • The Fundamental Law Of Nature
  • The Second Law Of Nature
  • What it is to lay down a Right
  • Renouncing (or) Transferring Right What; Obligation Duty Justice
  • Not All Rights Are Alienable
  • Contract What
    • The mutuall transferring of Right, is that which men call CONTRACT.
  • Covenant What
  • Free-gift
  • Signes Of Contract Expresse
  • Signes Of Contract By Inference
  • Free Gift Passeth By Words Of The Present Or Past
  • Merit What
  • Covenants Of Mutuall Trust, When Invalid
  • Right To The End, Containeth Right To The Means
  • No Covenant With Beasts
  • Nor With God Without Speciall Revelation
  • No Covenant, But Of Possible And Future
  • Covenants How Made Voyd
  • Covenants Extorted By Feare Are Valide
  • The Former Covenant To One, Makes Voyd The Later To Another
  • A Mans Covenant Not To Defend Himselfe, Is Voyd
  • No Man Obliged To Accuse Himselfe
  • The End Of An Oath; The Forme Of As Oath
  • No Oath, But By God
  • An Oath Addes Nothing To The Obligation
  • CHAPTER XV. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE
  • The Third Law Of Nature, Justice
  • Justice And Injustice What
  • Justice Not Contrary To Reason
  • Covenants Not Discharged By The Vice Of The Person To Whom Made
  • Justice Of Men, And Justice Of Actions What
  • Justice Of Manners, And Justice Of Actions
  • Nothing Done To A Man, By His Own Consent Can Be Injury
  • Justice Commutative, And Distributive
  • The Fourth Law Of Nature, Gratitude
  • The Fifth, Mutuall accommodation, or Compleasance
  • The Sixth, Facility To Pardon
  • The Seventh, That In Revenges, Men Respect Onely The Future Good
  • The Eighth, Against Contumely
  • The Ninth, Against Pride
  • The Tenth Against Arrogance
  • The Eleventh Equity
  • The Twelfth, Equall Use Of Things Common
  • The Thirteenth, Of Lot
  • The Fourteenth, Of Primogeniture, And First Seising
  • The Fifteenth, Of Mediators
  • The Sixteenth, Of Submission To Arbitrement
  • The Seventeenth, No Man Is His Own Judge
  • The Eighteenth, No Man To Be Judge, That Has In Him Cause Of Partiality
  • The Nineteenth, Of Witnesse
  • A Rule, By Which The Laws Of Nature May Easily Be Examined
  • The Lawes Of Nature Oblige In Conscience Alwayes,
  • The Laws Of Nature Are Eternal;
  • And Yet Easie
  • The Science Of These Lawes, Is The True Morall Philosophy
  • CHAPTER XVI. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATED
  • Person Naturall, And Artificiall
  • The Word Person, Whence
  • Actor, Author; Authority
  • Covenants By Authority, Bind The Author
  • But Not The Actor
  • The Authority Is To Be Shewne
  • Things Personated, Inanimate
  • Irrational
  • False Gods
  • The True God
  • A Multitude Of Men, How One Person
  • Every One Is Author
  • An Actor May Be Many Men Made One By Plurality Of Voyces
  • Representatives, When The Number Is Even, Unprofitable
  • Negative Voyce
  • PART II. OF COMMON-WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XVII. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A
  • The End Of Common-wealth, Particular Security
  • Which Is Not To Be Had From The Law Of Nature:
  • Nor From The Conjunction Of A Few Men Or Familyes
  • Nor From A Great Multitude, Unlesse Directed By One Judgement
  • And That Continually
  • Why Certain Creatures Without Reason, Or Speech,
  • Do Neverthelesse Live In Society, Without Any Coercive Power
  • The Generation Of A Common-wealth
  • The Definition Of A Common-wealth
  • Soveraigne, And Subject, What
  • CHAPTER XVIII. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTION
  • The Act Of Instituting A Common-wealth, What
  • The Consequences To Such Institution, Are
  • I. The Subjects Cannot Change The Forme Of Government
  • From this Institution of a Common-wealth are derived all the Rights, and
  • 2. Soveraigne Power Cannot Be Forfeited
  • 3. No Man Can Without Injustice Protest Against The
  • 4. The Soveraigns Actions Cannot Be Justly Accused By The Subject
  • 5. What Soever The Soveraigne Doth, Is Unpunishable By The Subject
  • 6. The Soveraigne Is Judge Of What Is Necessary For The Peace
    • And Defence Of His Subjects
  • And Judge Of What Doctrines Are Fit To Be Taught Them
  • 7. The Right Of Making Rules, Whereby The Subject May
    • Every Man Know What Is So His Owne, As No Other Subject
  • 8. To Him Also Belongeth The Right Of All Judicature
    • And Decision Of Controversies:
  • 9. And Of Making War, And Peace, As He Shall Think Best:
  • 10. And Of Choosing All Counsellours, And Ministers,
    • Both Of Peace, And Warre:
  • 11. And Of Rewarding, And Punishing, And That (Where No
    • Former Law hath Determined The Measure Of It) Arbitrary:
  • 12. And Of Honour And Order
  • These Rights Are Indivisible
  • And Can By No Grant Passe Away Without Direct
    • Renouncing Of The Soveraign Power
  • The Power And Honour Of Subjects Vanisheth In The Presence
    • Of The Power Soveraign
  • Soveraigne Power Not Hurtfull As The Want Of It,
    • And The Hurt Proceeds For The Greatest Part From Not
  • CHAPTER XIX. OF THE SEVERALL KINDS OF COMMON-WEALTH BY INSTITUTION,
    • AND OF SUCCESSION TO THE SOVERAIGNE POWER
  • The Different Formes Of Common-wealths But Three
  • Tyranny And Oligarchy, But Different Names Of Monarchy, And Aristocracy
  • Subordinate Representatives Dangerous
  • Comparison Of Monarchy, With Soveraign Assemblyes
  • Of The Right Of Succession
  • Succession Passeth By Expresse Words;
  • Or, By Not Controlling A Custome;
  • Or, By Presumption Of Naturall Affection
  • To Dispose Of The Succession, Though To A King Of Another Nation,
    • Not Unlawfull
  • CHAPTER XX. OF DOMINION PATERNALL AND DESPOTICALL
  • Wherein Different From A Common-wealth By Institution
  • The Rights Of Soveraignty The Same In Both
  • Dominion Paternall How Attained Not By Generation, But By Contract
  • Or Education;
  • Or Precedent Subjection Of One Of The Parents To The Other
  • The Right Of Succession Followeth The Rules Of The Rights Of Possession
  • Despoticall Dominion, How Attained
  • Not By The Victory, But By The Consent Of The Vanquished
  • Difference Between A Family And A Kingdom
  • The Right Of Monarchy From Scripture
  • Soveraign Power Ought In All Common-wealths To Be Absolute
  • CHAPTER XXI. OF THE LIBERTY OF SUBJECTS
  • Liberty What
  • What It Is To Be Free
  • Feare And Liberty Consistent
  • Liberty And Necessity Consistent
  • Artificiall Bonds, Or Covenants
  • Liberty Of Subjects Consisteth In Liberty From Covenants
  • Liberty Of The Subject Consistent With Unlimited Power Of The Soveraign
  • The Liberty Which Writers Praise, Is The Liberty Of Soveraigns;
    • Not Of Private Men
  • Liberty Of The Subject How To Be Measured
  • Subjects Have Liberty To Defend Their Own Bodies,
    • Even Against Them That Lawfully Invade Them
  • Are Not Bound To Hurt Themselves;
  • Nor To Warfare, Unless They Voluntarily Undertake It
  • The Greatest Liberty Of Subjects, Dependeth On The Silence Of The Law
  • In What Cases Subjects Absolved Of Their Obedience To Their Soveraign
  • In Case Of Captivity
  • In Case The Soveraign Cast Off The Government From Himself And Heyrs
  • In Case Of Banishment
  • In Case The Soveraign Render Himself Subject To Another
  • CHAPTER XXII. OF SYSTEMES SUBJECT, POLITICALL, AND PRIVATE
  • The Divers Sorts Of Systemes Of People
  • In All Bodies Politique The Power Of The Representative Is Limited
  • And The Lawes
  • When The Representative Is One Man, His Unwarranted Acts His Own Onely
  • When It Is An Assembly, It Is The Act Of Them That Assented Onely
  • When It Is An Assembly, They Onely Are Liable That Have Assented
  • If The Debt Be To One Of The Assembly, The Body Onely Is Obliged
  • Protestation Against The Decrees Of Bodies Politique
  • Bodies Politique For Government Of A Province, Colony, Or Town
  • Bodies Politique For Ordering Of Trade
  • A Bodie Politique For Counsel To Be Give To The Soveraign
  • A Regular Private Body, Lawfull, As A Family
  • Private Bodies Regular, But Unlawfull
  • Systemes Irregular, Such As Are Private Leagues
  • Secret Cabals
  • Feuds Of Private Families
  • Factions For Government
  • CHAPTER XXIII. OF THE PUBLIQUE MINISTERS OF SOVERAIGN POWER
  • Publique Minister Who
  • Ministers For The Generall Administration
  • For Speciall Administration, As For Oeconomy
  • For Instruction Of The People
  • For Judicature
  • For Execution
  • Counsellers Without Other Employment Then To Advise
    • Are Not Publique Ministers
  • CHAPTER XXIV. OF THE NUTRITION, AND PROCREATION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
  • And The Right Of Distribution Of Them
  • All Private Estates Of Land Proceed Originally
    • From The Arbitrary Distribution Of The Soveraign
  • Propriety Of A Subject Excludes Not The Dominion Of The Soveraign,
    • But Onely Of Another Subject
  • The Publique Is Not To Be Dieted
  • The Places And Matter Of Traffique Depend, As Their Distribution,
    • On The Soveraign
  • The Laws Of Transferring Property Belong Also To The Soveraign
  • Mony The Bloud Of A Common-wealth
  • The Conduits And Way Of Mony To The Publique Use
  • The Children Of A Common-wealth Colonies
  • CHAPTER XXV. OF COUNSELL
  • Counsell What
  • Differences Between Command And Counsell
  • Exhortation And Dehortation What
  • Differences Of Fit And Unfit Counsellours
  • CHAPTER XXVI. OF CIVILL LAWES
  • Civill Law what
  • The Soveraign Is Legislator
  • And Not Subject To Civill Law
  • Use, A Law Not By Vertue Of Time, But Of The Soveraigns Consent
  • The Law Of Nature, And The Civill Law Contain Each Other
  • Provinciall Lawes Are Not Made By Custome, But By The Soveraign Power
  • Some Foolish Opinions Of Lawyers Concerning The Making Of Lawes
  • Law Made, If Not Also Made Known, Is No Law
  • Unwritten Lawes Are All Of Them Lawes Of Nature
  • Nothing Is Law Where The Legislator Cannot Be Known
  • Difference Between Verifying And Authorising
  • The Law Verifyed By The Subordinate Judge
  • The Interpretation Of The Law Dependeth On The Soveraign Power
  • All Lawes Need Interpretation
  • The Authenticall Interpretation Of Law Is Not That Of Writers
  • The Interpreter Of The Law Is The Judge Giving Sentence Viva Voce
    • In Every Particular Case
  • The Sentence Of A Judge, Does Not Bind Him, Or Another Judge
    • To Give Like Sentence In Like Cases Ever After
  • The Difference Between The Letter And Sentence Of The Law
  • The Abilities Required In A Judge
  • Divisions Of Law
  • Another Division Of Law
  • Divine Positive Law How Made Known To Be Law
  • Another Division Of Lawes
  • A Fundamentall Law What
  • Difference Between Law And Right
  • And Between A Law And A Charter
  • CHAPTER XXVII. OF CRIMES, EXCUSES, AND EXTENUATIONS
  • A Crime What
  • Where No Civill Law Is, There Is No Crime
  • Ignorance Of The Law Of Nature Excuseth No Man
  • Ignorance Of The Civill Law Excuseth Sometimes
  • Ignorance Of The Soveraign Excuseth Not
  • Ignorance Of The Penalty Excuseth Not
  • Punishments Declared Before The Fact, Excuse From Greater Punishments
    • After It
  • Nothing Can Be Made A Crime By A Law Made After The Fact
  • False Principles Of Right And Wrong Causes Of Crime
  • False Teachers Mis-interpreting The Law Of Nature Secondly, by false
  • And False Inferences From True Principles, By Teachers
  • Presumption Of Riches
  • And Friends
  • Wisedome
  • Hatred, Lust, Ambition, Covetousnesse, Causes Of Crime
  • Fear Sometimes Cause Of Crime, As When The Danger Is Neither Present,
    • Nor Corporeall
  • Crimes Not Equall
  • Totall Excuses
  • Excuses Against The Author
  • Presumption Of Power, Aggravateth
  • Evill Teachers, Extenuate
  • Examples Of Impunity, Extenuate
  • Praemeditation, Aggravateth
  • Tacite Approbation Of The Soveraign, Extenuates
  • Comparison Of Crimes From Their Effects
  • Laesae Majestas
  • Bribery And False Testimony
  • Depeculation
  • Counterfeiting Authority
  • Crimes Against Private Men Compared
  • Publique Crimes What
  • CHAPTER XXVIII. OF PUNISHMENTS, AND REWARDS
  • The Definition Of Punishment
  • Right To Punish Whence Derived
  • Private Injuries, And Revenges No Punishments
  • Nor Denyall Of Preferment
  • Nor Pain Inflicted Without Publique Hearing
  • Nor Pain Inflicted By Usurped Power
  • Nor Pain Inflicted Without Respect To The Future Good
  • Naturall Evill Consequences, No Punishments
  • Hurt Inflicted, If Lesse Than The Benefit Of Transgressing,
    • Is Not Punishment
  • Where The Punishment Is Annexed To The Law, A Greater Hurt Is Not
    • Punishment, But Hostility
  • Hurt Inflicted For A Fact Done Before The Law, No Punishment
  • The Representative Of The Common-wealth Unpunishable
  • Hurt To Revolted Subjects Is Done By Right Of War, Not
  • Punishments Corporall
  • Capitall
  • Ignominy
  • Imprisonment
  • Exile
  • The Punishment Of Innocent Subjects Is Contrary To The Law Of Nature
  • But The Harme Done To Innocents In War, Not So
  • Reward, Is Either Salary, Or Grace
  • Benefits Bestowed For Fear, Are Not Rewards
  • Salaries Certain And Casuall
  • CHAPTER XXIX. OF THOSE THINGS THAT WEAKEN, OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OF
  • Want Of Absolute Power
  • Private Judgement Of Good and Evill
  • Erroneous Conscience
  • Pretence Of Inspiration
  • Subjecting The Soveraign Power To Civill Lawes
  • Attributing Of Absolute Propriety To The Subjects
  • Dividing Of The Soveraign Power
  • Imitation Of Neighbour Nations
  • Imitation Of The Greeks, And Romans
  • Mixt Government
  • Want Of Mony
  • Monopolies And Abuses Of Publicans
  • Popular Men
  • Excessive Greatnesse Of A Town, Multitude Of Corporations
  • Liberty Of Disputing Against Soveraign Power
  • Dissolution Of The Common-wealth
  • CHAPTER XXX. OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVERAIGN REPRESENTATIVE
  • The Procuration Of The Good Of The People
  • Against The Duty Of A Soveraign To Relinquish Any Essentiall Right
    • of Soveraignty Or Not To See The People Taught The Grounds Of Them
  • Objection Of Those That Say There Are No Principles Of Reason For
    • Absolute Soveraignty
  • Objection From The Incapacity Of The Vulgar
  • Subjects Are To Be Taught, Not To Affect Change Of Government
  • Nor Adhere (Against The Soveraign) To Popular Men
  • And To Have Dayes Set Apart To Learn Their Duty
  • And To Honour Their Parents
  • And To Avoyd Doing Of Injury:
  • And To Do All This Sincerely From The Heart
  • The Use Of Universities
  • Equall Taxes
  • Publique Charity
  • Prevention Of Idlenesse
  • Good Lawes What
  • Such As Are Necessary
  • Such As Are Perspicuous
  • Punishments
  • Rewards
  • Counsellours
  • Commanders
  • CHAPTER XXXI. OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD BY NATURE
  • The Scope Of The Following Chapters
  • Who Are Subjects In The Kingdome Of God
  • A Threefold Word Of God, Reason, Revelation, Prophecy
  • Sinne Not The Cause Of All Affliction
  • Divine Lawes
  • Honour And Worship What
  • Severall Signes Of Honour
  • Worship Naturall And Arbitrary
  • Worship Commanded And Free
  • Worship Publique And Private
  • The End Of Worship
  • Attributes Of Divine Honour
  • Actions That Are Signes Of Divine Honour
  • Publique Worship Consisteth In Uniformity
  • All Attributes Depend On The Lawes Civill
  • Not All Actions
  • Naturall Punishments
  • The Conclusion Of The Second Part
  • PART III. OF A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XXXII. OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRISTIAN POLITIQUES
  • What It Is To Captivate The Understanding
  • How God Speaketh To Men
  • The Marks Of A Prophet In The Old Law, Miracles, And Doctrine
    • Conformable To The Law
  • Miracles Ceasing, Prophets Cease, The Scripture Supplies Their Place
  • CHAPTER XXXIII. OF THE NUMBER, ANTIQUITY, SCOPE, AUTHORITY,
    • AND INTERPRETERS OF THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURES
  • Of The Books Of Holy Scripture
  • Their Antiquity
  • The Pentateuch Not Written By Moses
  • The Book of Joshua Written After His Time
  • The Booke Of Judges And Ruth Written Long After The Captivity
  • The Like Of The Bookes Of Samuel
  • The Books Of The Kings, And The Chronicles
  • Ezra And Nehemiah
  • Esther
  • Job
  • The Psalter
  • The Proverbs
  • Ecclesiastes And The Canticles
  • The Prophets
  • The New Testament
  • Their Scope
  • The Question Of The Authority Of The Scriptures Stated.
  • Their Authority And Interpretation
  • CHAPTER XXXIV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION OF SPIRIT, ANGEL, AND INSPIRATION IN
  • Body And Spirit How Taken In The Scripture
  • Spirit Of God Taken In The Scripture Sometimes For A Wind, Or Breath
  • Secondly, For Extraordinary Gifts Of The Understanding
  • Thirdly, For Extraordinary Affections
  • Fourthly, For The Gift Of Prediction By Dreams And Visions
  • Fiftly, For Life
  • Sixtly, For A Subordination To Authority
  • Seventhly, For Aeriall Bodies
  • Angel What
  • Inspiration What
  • CHAPTER XXXV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF KINGDOME OF GOD, OF
  • Kingdom Of God Taken By Divines Metaphorically But In The Scriptures
    • Properly
  • The Originall Of The Kingdome Of God
  • That The Kingdome Of God Is Properly His Civill Soveraignty Over
    • A Peculiar People By Pact
  • Sacred What
  • Degrees of Sanctity
  • Sacrament
  • CHAPTER XXXVI. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETS
  • Word What
  • The Words Spoken By God And Concerning God, Both Are Called Gods Word
    • In Scripture
  • Secondly, For The Effect Of His Word
  • Thirdly, For The Words Of Reason And Equity
  • Divers Acceptions Of The Word Prophet
  • Praediction Of Future Contingents, Not Alwaies Prophecy
  • The Manner How God Hath Spoken To The Prophets
  • To The Extraordinary Prophets Of The Old Testament He Spake
  • God Sometimes Also Spake By Lots
  • Every Man Ought To Examine The Probability Of A Pretended Prophets
    • Calling
  • All Prophecy But Of The Soveraign Prophet Is To Be Examined
  • CHAPTER XXXVII. OF MIRACLES, AND THEIR USE
  • A Miracle Is A Work That Causeth Admiration
  • And Must Therefore Be Rare, Whereof There Is No Naturall Cause Known
  • That Which Seemeth A Miracle To One Man, May Seem Otherwise To Another
  • The End Of Miracles
  • The Definition Of A Miracle
  • That Men Are Apt To Be Deceived By False Miracles
  • Cautions Against The Imposture Of Miracles
  • CHAPTER XXXVIII. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF ETERNALL LIFE,
    • HELL, SALVATION, THE WORLD TO COME, AND REDEMPTION
  • Place Of Adams Eternity If He Had Not Sinned, The Terrestrial Paradise
  • Texts Concerning The Place Of Life Eternall For Beleevers
  • Ascension Into Heaven
  • The Place After Judgment, Of Those Who Were Never In The Kingdome
    • Of God, Or Having Been In, Are Cast Out
  • The Congregation Of Giants
  • Lake Of Fire
  • Utter Darknesse
  • Gehenna, And Tophet
  • Of The Literall Sense Of The Scripture Concerning Hell
  • Satan, Devill, Not Proper Names, But Appellatives
  • Torments Of Hell
  • The Joyes Of Life Eternall, And Salvation The Same Thing,
    • Salvation From Sin, And From Misery, All One
  • The Place Of Eternall Salvation
  • Redemption
  • CHAPTER XXXIX. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE WORD CHURCH
  • Church The Lords House
  • Ecclesia Properly What
  • In What Sense The Church Is One Person Church Defined
  • A Christian Common-wealth, And A Church All One
  • CHAPTER XL
    • OF THE RIGHTS OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, IN ABRAHAM, MOSES, HIGH PRIESTS,
  • The Soveraign Rights Of Abraham
  • Abraham Had The Sole Power Of Ordering The Religion Of His Own People
  • No Pretence Of Private Spirit Against The Religion Of Abraham
  • Abraham Sole Judge, And Interpreter Of What God Spake
  • The Authority Of Moses Whereon Grounded
  • Moses Was (Under God) Soveraign Of The Jews, All His Own Time,
    • Though Aaron Had The Priesthood
  • All Spirits Were Subordinate To The Spirit Of Moses
  • After Moses The Soveraignty Was In The High Priest
  • Of The Soveraign Power Between The Time Of Joshua And Of Saul
  • Of The Rights Of The Kings Of Israel
  • The Practice Of Supremacy In Religion, Was Not In The Time Of The Kings,
    • According To The Right Thereof
  • After The Captivity The Jews Had No Setled Common-wealth
    • During the Captivity, the Jews had no Common-wealth at all
  • CHAPTER XLI. OF THE OFFICE OF OUR BLESSED SAVIOUR
  • Three Parts Of The Office Of Christ
  • His Office As A Redeemer
  • Christs Kingdome Not Of This World
  • The End Of Christs Comming Was To Renew The Covenant Of The Kingdome
    • Of God, And To Perswade The Elect To Imbrace It, Which Was The Second
  • Part Of His Office
  • The Preaching Of Christ Not Contrary To The Then Law Of The Jews,
    • Nor Of Caesar
  • The Third Part Of His Office Was To Be King (Under His Father)
    • Of The Elect
  • Christs Authority In The Kingdome Of God Subordinate To His Father
  • One And The Same God Is The Person Represented By Moses, And By Christ
  • CHAPTER XLII. OF POWER ECCLESIASTICALL
  • Of The Holy Spirit That Fel On The Apostles
  • Of The Trinity
  • The Power Ecclesiasticall Is But The Power To Teach
  • An Argument Thereof, The Power Of Christ Himself
  • From The Name Of Regeneration
  • From The Comparison Of It, With Fishing, Leaven, Seed
  • From The Nature Of Faith:
  • From The Authority Christ Hath Left To Civill Princes
  • What Christians May Do To Avoid Persecution
  • Of Martyrs
  • Argument From The Points Of Their Commission
  • To Preach
  • And Teach
  • To Baptize;
  • And To Forgive, And Retain Sinnes
  • Of Excommunication
  • The Use Of Excommunication Without Civill Power.
  • Of No Effect Upon An Apostate
  • But Upon The Faithfull Only
  • For What Fault Lyeth Excommunication
  • Of Persons Liable To Excommunication
  • Of The Interpreter Of The Scriptures Before Civill Soveraigns
    • Became Christians
  • Of The Power To Make Scripture Law
  • Of The Ten Commandements
  • Of The Judicial, And Leviticall Law
  • The Second Law
  • The Old Testament, When Made Canonicall
  • Of The Power Of Councells To Make The Scripture Law
  • Of The Right Of Constituting Ecclesiasticall Officers In The Time
    • Of The Apostles
  • Matthias Made Apostle By The Congregation.
  • Paul And Barnabas Made Apostles By The Church Of Antioch
  • What Offices In The Church Are Magisteriall
  • Ordination Of Teachers
  • Ministers Of The Church What
  • And How Chosen What
  • Of Ecclesiasticall Revenue, Under The Law Of Moses
  • In Our Saviours Time, And After
  • The Civill Soveraign Being A Christian Hath The Right Of Appointing
    • Pastors
  • The Pastorall Authority Of Soveraigns Only Is De Jure Divino,
    • That Of Other Pastors Is Jure Civili
  • Christian Kings Have Power To Execute All Manner Of Pastoral Function
  • The Civill Soveraigne If A Christian, Is Head Of The Church
    • In His Own Dominions
  • Cardinal Bellarmines Books De Summo Pontifice Considered
  • The First Book
  • The Second Book
  • The Third Book
  • The Fourth Book
  • Texts For The Infallibility Of The Popes Judgement In Points Of Faith
  • Texts For The Same In Point Of Manners
  • Of The Popes Temporall Power
  • CHAPTER XLIII. OF WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR A MANS RECEPTION INTO THE
  • The Difficulty Of Obeying God And Man Both At Once
  • Is None To Them That Distinguish Between What Is, And What Is Not
    • Necessary To Salvation
  • All That Is Necessary To Salvation Is Contained In Faith And Obedience
  • What Obedience Is Necessary;
  • And To What Laws
  • In The Faith Of A Christian, Who Is The Person Beleeved
  • The Causes Of Christian Faith
  • Faith Comes By Hearing
  • Proved From The Scope Of The Evangelists
  • From The Sermons Of The Apostles:
  • From The Easinesse Of The Doctrine:
  • From Formall And Cleer Texts
  • From That It Is The Foundation Of All Other Articles
  • In What Sense Other Articles May Be Called Necessary
  • That Faith, And Obedience Are Both Of Them Necessary To Salvation
  • What Each Of Them Contributes Thereunto
  • Obedience To God And To The Civill Soveraign Not Inconsistent
  • Or Infidel
  • CHAPTER XLIV. OF SPIRITUALL DARKNESSE FROM MISINTERPRETATION OF
  • The Kingdome Of Darknesse What
  • The Church Not Yet Fully Freed Of Darknesse
  • Four Causes Of Spirituall Darknesse
  • Errors From Misinterpreting The Scriptures, Concerning The Kingdome
    • Of God
  • As That The Kingdome Of God Is The Present Church
  • And That The Pope Is His Vicar Generall
  • And That The Pastors Are The Clergy
  • Error From Mistaking Consecration For Conjuration
  • Incantation In The Ceremonies Of Baptisme
  • In Marriage, In Visitation Of The Sick, And In Consecration Of Places
  • Errors From Mistaking Eternall Life, And Everlasting Death
  • As The Doctrine Of Purgatory, And Exorcismes, And Invocation Of Saints
  • The Texts Alledged For The Doctrines Aforementioned Have Been Answered
    • Before
  • Answer To The Text On Which Beza Infereth
  • Explication Of The Place In Mark 9.1
  • Abuse Of Some Other Texts In Defence Of The Power Of The Pope
  • The Manner Of Consecrations In The Scripture, Was Without Exorcisms
  • The Immortality Of Mans Soule, Not Proved By Scripture To Be Of Nature,
    • But Of Grace
  • Eternall Torments What
  • Answer Of The Texts Alledged For Purgatory
  • Places Of The New Testament For Purgatory Answered
  • Baptisme For The Dead, How Understood
  • CHAPTER XLV. OF DAEMONOLOGY, AND OTHER RELIQUES OF THE RELIGION OF THE
  • The Originall Of Daemonology
  • What Were The Daemons Of The Ancients
  • How That Doctrine Was Spread
  • Why Our Saviour Controlled It Not
  • The Scriptures Doe Not Teach That Spirits Are Incorporeall
  • The Power Of Casting Out Devills, Not The Same It Was In The Primitive
    • Church
  • Another Relique Of Gentilisme, Worshipping Images, Left In The Church
    • Not Brought Into It
  • Answer To Certain Seeming Texts For Images
  • What Is Worship
  • Distinction Between Divine And Civill Worship
  • An Image What Phantasmes
  • Fictions; Materiall Images
  • Idolatry What
  • Scandalous Worship Of Images
  • Answer To The Argument From The Cherubins, And Brazen Serpent
  • Painting Of Fancies No Idolatry: Abusing Them To Religious Worship Is
  • How Idolatry Was Left In The Church
  • Canonizing Of Saints
  • The Name Of Pontifex
  • Procession Of Images
  • Wax Candles, And Torches Lighted
  • CHAPTER XLVI. OF DARKNESSE FROM VAIN PHILOSOPHY, AND FABULOUS TRADITIONS
  • What Philosophy Is
  • Prudence No Part Of Philosophy
  • No False Doctrine Is Part Of Philosophy
  • Nor Learning Taken Upon Credit Of Authors
  • Of The Beginnings And Progresse Of Philosophy
  • Of The Schools Of Philosophy Amongst The Athenians
  • Of The Schools Of The Jews
  • The Schoole Of Graecians Unprofitable
  • The Schools Of The Jews Unprofitable
  • University What It Is
  • Errors Brought Into Religion From Aristotles Metaphysiques
  • Errors Concerning Abstract Essences
  • Nunc-stans
  • One Body In Many Places, And Many Bodies In One Place At Once
  • Absurdities In Naturall Philosophy, As Gravity The Cause Of Heavinesse
  • Quantity Put Into Body Already Made
  • Powring In Of Soules
  • Ubiquity Of Apparition
  • Will, The Cause Of Willing
  • Ignorance An Occult Cause
  • One Makes The Things Incongruent, Another The Incongruity
  • Private Appetite The Rule Of Publique Good:
  • And That Lawfull Marriage Is Unchastity
  • And That All Government But Popular, Is Tyranny
  • That Not Men, But Law Governs
  • Laws Over The Conscience
  • Private Interpretation Of Law
  • Language Of Schoole-Divines
  • Errors From Tradition
  • Suppression Of Reason
  • CHAPTER XLVII. OF THE BENEFIT THAT PROCEEDETH FROM SUCH DARKNESSE,
    • AND TO WHOM IT ACCREWETH
  • He That Receiveth Benefit By A Fact, Is Presumed To Be The Author
  • That The Church Militant Is The Kingdome Of God, Was First Taught By
    • The Church Of Rome
  • And Maintained Also By The Presbytery
  • Infallibility
  • Subjection Of Bishops
  • Exemptions Of The Clergy
  • The Names Of Sacerdotes, And Sacrifices
  • The Sacramentation Of Marriage
  • The Single Life Of Priests
  • Auricular Confession
  • Canonization Of Saints, And Declaring Of Martyrs
  • Transubstantiation, Penance, Absolution
  • Purgatory, Indulgences, Externall Works
  • Daemonology And Exorcism
  • School-Divinity
  • The Authors Of Spirituall Darknesse, Who They Be
  • Comparison Of The Papacy With The Kingdome Of Fayries
  • A REVIEW, AND CONCLUSION
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