Open Government

Open Government

By Daniel Lathrop
Book Description
Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Copyright
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Preface
    • How This Book Is Organized
    • Safari® Books Online
    • How to Contact Us
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1. A Peace Corps for Programmers
    • Tipping Point: The Extinction of Pencils
    • Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem
    • Creating a Developer Corps
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 2. Government As a Platform
    • Government As a Platform
    • Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
    • Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
    • Lesson 3: Design for Participation
    • A Robustness Principle for Government
    • Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
      • Data Is the “Intel Inside”
    • Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
    • Lesson 6: Lower the Barriers to Experimentation
    • Lesson 7: Lead by Example
    • Practical Steps for Government Agencies
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 3. By the People
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 4. The Single Point of Failure
    • The Closed Model of Decision Making
    • New Technologies and Civic Life
    • Participatory Democratic Theory in the Age of Networks
      • The Failure of Direct Democracy
      • The Timidity of Deliberative Democracy
      • Distinguishing Deliberative and Collaborative Democracy
      • The Argument for an Open and Collaborative Democracy
      • Challenges for Collaborative Democracy
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 5. Engineering Good Government
    • The Articles of Confederation and the Stovepipe Antipattern
      • The First Constitution
      • The Stovepipe Antipattern
      • Order from Chaos: The Standards Reference Model
      • The Constitution As a Standards Reference Model
    • Continued Maintenance: The Blob and Confederacy
      • The Blob
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 6. Enabling Innovation for Civic Engagement
    • Citizen Initiatives Lead the Way
    • Providing for Reuse and Innovation
    • Data Authenticity Down the Line
    • Why Bother with Bulk?
    • Conclusion
    • About the Authors
  • Chapter 7. Online Deliberation and Civic Intelligence
    • Definitions and Assertions
      • The Context of Deliberation
    • Democracy, Deliberation, and the Internet
      • Online Civic Deliberation
      • Support for Online Civic Deliberation
    • Findings and Issues
      • Role of the Chair
      • Distributed Meeting Attendees
      • Social Environment Requirements
      • E-Liberate’s Role
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 8. Open Government and Open Society
    • Transparency’s Moment?
    • The Dark Side of Open Government
    • The Missing Diagnosis
    • Targeted Transparency
    • A Matter of Politics
    • Conclusion
    • About the Authors
  • Chapter 9. “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”: Barack Obama and the Wisdom of Crowds
    • Shows How to Change the Gov
    • “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”
    • Site Still Under Construction
    • Online Town Hall or “Participation Theater”?
    • Open Data and Open Government
    • Co-creation, Co-optation, or Collision?
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 10. Two-Way Street: Government with the People
    • Pockets of Excellence: The Goverati
      • GovLoop and BRIDGE: Networks for Government Employees
      • Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants
      • Harnessing Social Capital
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 11. Citizens’ View of Open Government
    • The First “We President”
    • The Internet Has Made Us Lazy
    • Toward a Findable Government
    • Advanced Citizenship
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 12. After the Collapse: Open Government and the Future of Civil Service
    • The Coasean Collapse
    • The Long Tail of Public Policy
    • Patch Culture
    • The End of Objectivity
    • Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
    • Extend the Network
    • The Next Civil Service Culture: The Gift Economy
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 13. Democracy, Under Everything
    • Many Voices, Many Messages, One Government
    • My Idea
      • Constitutional Guidance: Avoid Secrecy Via Access
      • Meeting Modern-Day Needs
    • Revealing Obscured Government Data
    • Improving Communication without Being Crushed by Email
    • How to Improve Civic Engagement
      • Short-Term Solutions for Citizens
      • Long-Term Solutions for the Government
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 14. Emergent Democracy
    • Democracy As a Scaling Mechanism
      • Informal Self-Government
      • Increasing Scale, Increasing Formalization
    • Limiting Factors and the Internet
    • Building an Emergent Democracy
      • Underlying Principles
      • The Themis Constitution
      • One Click Orgs and Virtual Corporations
    • The Road to Emergent Democracy
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 15. Case Study: Tweet Congress
    • Tweet Congress: Build an App, Start a Movement
      • The Idea
      • Building the App
    • Starting the Movement: We Are All Lobbyists Now
      • Inflection Point
    • So, Who Gets It?
    • Impact
      • The TC Effect
      • A Valuable Resource
    • Conclusion
    • About the Authors
  • Chapter 16. Entrepreneurial Insurgency: Republicans Connect With the American People
    • Entrepreneurial Insurgency and Congress
    • Congress Tweets, Too
    • I YouTube, You YouTube
      • Gathering Effective Tools
    • Social Media and the Fight for Transparency
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 17. Disrupting Washington’s Golden Rule
    • The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled
    • This Is the Mashable Now
    • What Comes Next
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 18. Case Study:
    • Opening Legislative Data
    • Screen Scraping Congress
      • Congressional Mashups
      • Changing Policy from the Outside
    • Engaging the GovTrack Community
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 19. Case Study:
    • Accessing Political Donor Data Fraught with Problems
    • The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency
    • Bolstering the Spirit of Public Disclosure Laws
    • State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
    • In an Ideal World: Recommendations for Open Data
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 20. Case Study:
    • Why We Founded
    •’s Unique Contribution
    • Nuts and Bolts: Using
      • Votes
      • Timeline
      • Committees
      • How Each Legislator Voted
      • Other Tools
    • Barriers to Transparency
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 21. Going 2.0: Why Opted for Full Frontal Data Sharing
    • The Decision to Let Go of the Data
    • It’s Not Easy Being Open
    • Creating a New Model for Transparency
    • The Future Is Now
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 22. All Your Data Are Belong to Us: Liberating Government Data
    • Liberating Government Data: Carl Malamud Versus the Man
    • Disclosing Government Data: Paper Versus the Internet
    • Accessing Government Data: Open Distribution Versus Jealous Control
    • Demanding Government Data: Public Money Versus Private Research
    • RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 23. Case Study: Many Eyes
    • Policy
    • From Policy to Politicians
    • Visual Literacy
    • Conclusion
    • About the Authors
  • Chapter 24. My Data Can’t Tell You That
    • The How and Why of Data Collection
    • Federal Data: Approximations Galore
    • Good Data Doesn’t Mean Good Results
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 25. When Is Transparency Useful?
    • Sharing Documents with the Public
    • Generating Databases for the Public
    • Interpreting Databases for the Public
    • An Alternative
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 26. Transparency Inside Out
    • Complexity Creates Opacity
    • Transparency, Meet Institutional Inertia
    • Kaleidoscope IT: One-Off Apps Obscure Information
    • A Market Focused on Proposals, Not Products
    • Framing the Window
      • Downsize or Eliminate Organizational IT Development Teams
      • User Analytics
      • IT Transparency
      • IT Products, Not Projects
      • Set the Tone at the Top
      • Bottom-Up Change Through Young Technologists
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 27. Bringing the Web 2.0 Revolution to Government
    • Government Transparency: Three Hurdles
      • Changing Policies
      • Deploying Twenty-First-Century Technology
      • Changing the Culture Within Government
    • Putting It All Together: Disclosure of Federal Spending
      • Policy Changes to Get Deeper Information on Recipients
      • Using Technology to Make Recovery Act Data Accessible, Understandable, and Usable
      • Changing the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
    • Conclusion
    • About the Authors
  • Chapter 28. Toads on the Road to Open Government Data
    • What Is Government?
    • Data Collection
    • Exposing the Soul of Government
      • Privacy and Legal Restrictions
      • The Culture of Bureaucracies and Homeland Security
      • Ancient Media
      • Proprietary and Medieval Databases
      • Ethically Questionable Information (Privacy)
      • Ethically Questionable Information (Sharing)
      • Cost
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 29. Open Government: The Privacy Imperative
    • Privacy-Enhancing Practices
      • Data Minimization
      • Anonymous Access
      • Controlled Backups
      • Data Retention and Decommissioning
      • Minimal Disclosure
      • Data-Sharing Integrity: Data Tethering
      • Accountability
      • Transparent Transparency
    • Conclusion
    • About the Authors
  • Chapter 30. Freedom of Information Acts: Promises and Realities
    • The Act and Amendments
      • Open to All
      • Research and Prepare
      • Exemptions, Denials, and Delays
      • FOIA Strategies That Work
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 31. Gov→Media→People
    • Crowdsourcing in Action
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 32. Open Source Software for Open Government Agencies
    • Advantages of FLOSS for Government and Public Agencies
      • Independence from Suppliers
      • Fulfillment of Specific Requirements
      • Adoption of Open Standards
      • Public Scrutiny
      • Long-Term Availability
      • Impact in the Society at Large
      • Impact on Local Industry
      • Staff Empowerment
    • Best Practices: Management
      • Consider All the Factors, Both Technical and Contextual
      • Be Sure of Management’s Commitment to the Transition
      • Prepare a Clear View of What’s Expected, Including Measurable Benchmarks
      • Make Sure the Timetable Is Realistic
      • Review the Current Software/IT Procurement and Development Procedure
      • Seek Out Advice or Search for Information on Similar Transitions
      • Avoid “Big Switch” Transition, and Favor Incremental Migrations
      • Promote Collaboration and Pooling of Resources
    • Best Practices: Technical
      • Understand the Way FLOSS Is Developed
      • Survey the Agency’s Software, Hardware, and Required Functionality
      • Use the Flexibility of FLOSS to Create Local Adaptations
      • Much More Software Is Available Than What Is Installed by Default
      • Always Favor Stability over Functionality
      • Design the Workflow Support Infrastructure to Reduce “Impedance Mismatches”
      • Introduce a Trouble Ticket System
      • Compile and Update a Detailed Migration Workbook
    • Best Practices: Social
      • Provide Training and Communication About the FLOSS Model
      • Don’t Force the Change on Users; Provide Explanations Instead
      • Use the Migration As an Opportunity to Improve Users’ Skills
    • Make It Easy to Experiment and Learn
      • Establish Meeting Points and Repositories
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • About the Authors
  • Chapter 33. Why Open Digital Standards Matter in Government
    • Badly Used Technology Hinders Progress
    • The Digital Age Explained
    • Standards and the Problems with Digital Technology
      • Why Has Digital Gone Bad So Often?
    • The Huge Positive Potential of Digital Technologies
    • Free and Open Standards and Software: The Digital Basis of Open Government
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Chapter 34. Case Study:
    • A Historical Perspective
    • What Today’s Landscape Looks Like
    • Champions Discovered in All Branches of State Government
    • The Dramatic Shift to Web 2.0 Principles and Tools
      • External Users Dictated Technology Course
      • Web 2.0 Becomes Part of the Technical Architecture
      • Utah’s Multimedia Portal Leverages Web 2.0 Services
    • Making Data More Accessible
      • Concerns About Security and Productivity
    • Conclusion
    • About the Author
  • Appendix A. Memo from President Obama on Transparency and Open Government
  • About the Authors
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