The Ethics of Armed Conflict
Free

The Ethics of Armed Conflict

By John W. Lango
Free
Book Description

How do we decide whether a use of armed force is just or unjust?



Just war theory exists to stop armies and countries from using armed force without good cause. But how can we judge whether a war is just? In this original book, John W. Lango takes some distinctive approaches to the ethics of armed conflict.

A revisionist approach that involves generalising traditional just war principles, so that they are applicable by all sorts of responsible agents to all forms of armed conflict

A cosmopolitan approach that features the Security Council

A preventive approach that emphasises alternatives to armed force, including negotiation, nonviolent action and peacekeeping missions
A human rights approach that encompasses not only armed humanitarian intervention but also armed invasion, armed revolution and all other forms of armed conflict
Lango shows how these can be applied to all forms of armed conflict, however large or small: from interstate wars to UN peacekeeping missions, and from civil wars counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations.


Discusses the just cause, last resort, proportionality and non-combatant immunity principles in depth

Considers topics including moral dilemmas, legitimate authority, deterrence, escalation, intelligence, drone strikes, no-fly zones and peace agreements

Draws on recent real-world cases such as Afghanistan, Darfur, Libya and South Sudan


Made available under a Creative Commons License with the support of libraries via Knowledge Unlatched.

Table of Contents
  • CONTENTS
  • PREFACE
  • CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
    • I. PREVIEW
      • A. GENERALISING AND TEMPORALISING JUST WAR PRINCIPLES
      • B. THE CORE JUST WAR PRINCIPLES
      • C. THE BOOK’S CHAPTERS
    • II. PARTICULAR JUST WAR THEORIES
      • A. CONTROVERSY
      • B. A PARTICULAR COSMOPOLITAN JUST WAR THEORY
    • III. FOUR EPOCHAL EVENTS
      • A. THE UNITED NATIONS
      • B. AFTER THE COLD WAR
      • C. TERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM
      • D. DURING THE COLD WAR
    • IV. GENERALISING JUST WAR PRINCIPLES
    • V. TARGETED MILITARY OPERATIONS
    • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 2 – JUST WAR THEORY
    • I. THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR SECURITY
      • A. FIVE BASIC CRITERIA OF LEGITIMACY
      • B. COSMOPOLITAN JUST WAR PRINCIPLES
      • C. THE UN CHARTER
    • II. THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT
      • A. SIX CRITERIA FOR MILITARY INTERVENTION
      • B. PREVENTION VERSUS REACTION
    • III. ANCILLARY JUST WAR PRINCIPLES
      • A. JUST CAUSE VERSUS LAST RESORT
      • B. THE COEQUALITY THESIS
      • C. REASONABLENESS STANDARDS
    • IV. JUST WAR PRINCIPLES AND NONSTATE ACTORS
    • V. TEMPORALISING JUST WAR PRINCIPLES
      • A. TEMPORAL PHASES OF ARMED CONFLICTS
      • B. DEONTOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND HUMAN AGENCY
      • C. AGENTIAL STANDPOINTS AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
      • D. TEMPORAL STANDPOINTS IN ARMED CONFLICTS
      • E. RETROSPECTIVELY IMAGINING PAST TEMPORAL STANDPOINTS
      • F. TEMPORAL STANDPOINTS AND NONMILITARY MEASURES
      • G. JUST WAR THEORISING AND FUTURE TEMPORAL STANDPOINTS
      • H. ILLUSTRATIONS
      • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 3 – MORAL THEORY
    • I. CASES AND PRINCIPLES
      • A. MORAL DELIBERATION CASE BY CASE
      • B. FOUNDATIONALISM
      • C. COHERENTISM
      • D. COMPREHENSIVE MORAL PRINCIPLES
      • E. NONMALEFICENCE, BENEFICENCE, JUSTICE, AUTONOMY
    • II. NONMALEFICENCE
      • A. A TEMPORALISED NONMALEFICENCE PRINCIPLE
      • B. THE NONHARM PRINCIPLE
      • C. HUMAN RIGHTS THEORY
      • D. SUBSUMPTION ARGUMENTS
      • E. COHERENTISM VERSUS FOUNDATIONALISM
    • III. BENEFICENCE
      • A. A COMPREHENSIVE PRINCIPLE OF BENEFICENCE
      • B. THE COUNTERHARM PRINCIPLE
      • C. HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMAN DUTIES
      • D. COUNTERING GRIEVOUS HARM
      • E. MORAL CONFLICT
    • IV. MORAL DELIBERATION
      • A. MAY A MORAL PRINCIPLE BE OVERRIDDEN?
      • B. PRIMA FACIE MORAL PRINCIPLES
      • C. WHY ACCEPT JUST WAR PRINCIPLES?
      • D. AN EPISTEMIC STANDARD
      • E. A SPECIFICITY STANDARD
      • F. FORMULATING JUST WAR PRINCIPLES AS CONDITIONAL PROHIBITIONS
    • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 4 – THEORY OF ACTION
    • I. HUMAN ACTIONS
      • A. MORAL THEORY AND HUMAN ACTIONS
      • B. ACTIONS, INTENTIONS, CONSEQUENCES
      • C. INTRINSIC RESULTS
      • D. EXTRINSIC CONSEQUENCES
      • E. ATTEMPTING
      • F. ACTING KNOWINGLY
      • G. RISKING
      • H. ACTING RECKLESSLY
      • I. ACTING NEGLIGENTLY
      • J. KNOWINGLY RISKING AND INTENTIONALLY RISKING
      • K. PLANNED COURSES OF ACTIONS
    • II. MILITARY ACTIONS
      • A. WHAT IS A MILITARY ACTION?
      • B. MILITARY ACTIONS VERSUS POLICE ACTIONS
      • C. JUST WAR THEORY AND HUMAN SECURITY
      • D. OPEN TEXTURE AND SUFFICIENT RESEMBLANCE
      • E. COMPLEX MILITARY ACTIONS
      • F. ARE THERE BASIC MILITARY ACTIONS?
      • G. PLANNED COURSES OF MILITARY ACTIONS
      • H. REFRAINING
      • I. TEMPORAL PHASES OF MILITARY ACTIONS
      • J. TEMPORAL STANDPOINTS AND CONTINGENCY PLANS
    • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 5 – JUST CAUSE
    • I. JUST GOAL
    • II. AGGRESSION
      • A. ACTS OF AGGRESSION AND INTERNATIONAL LAW
      • B. THE CRIME OF AGGRESSION
      • C. SUFFICIENTLY SERIOUS THREATENED HARMS OF INVASION
    • III. SERIOUSNESS OF THREAT
      • A. REVISING THE CRITERION OF SERIOUSNESS OF THREAT
      • B. SCALE OF THREAT
      • C. THE JUST-CORRELATIVITY REQUIREMENT
      • D. JUST CORRELATIVITY AND TARGETED INVASIONS
      • E. TARGETED INVASIONS AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL
      • F. CLARITY OF THREAT
      • G. CLEAR AND CONVINCING EVIDENCE ABOUT CACHES OF WEAPONS IN RWANDA
      • H. SPECIFICITY OF THREAT
      • I. EXCEPTIONAL OR NORMAL?
      • J. THE PROBLEM OF MULTITUDE
    • IV. A JUST CAUSE PRINCIPLE
      • A. A COSMOPOLITAN JUST CAUSE PRINCIPLE
      • B. PREVENTIVE MILITARY ACTIONS
      • C. RIGHT INTENTION
      • D. ALL RESPONSIBLE AGENTS AND ALL ARMED CONFLICTS
      • E. JUST CAUSE AND ESCALATION
      • F. UNAMIR II AND MISSION CREEP
      • G. THE GOAL OF PEACE
    • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 6 – LAST RESORT
    • I. PRELIMINARIES
    • II. A LAST RESORT PRINCIPLE
      • A. THE CRITERION OF LAST RESORT
      • B. A COERCIVE RESORT PRINCIPLE
      • C. THE COEQUALITY OF LAST RESOR T AND JUST CAUSE
      • D. A COSMOPOLITAN LAST RESORT PRINCIPLE
      • E. JUST GOAL VERSUS RIGHT GOAL
    • III. APPLICATIONS
      • A. MORAL COMPROMISE ABOUT ARMED HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION IN DARFUR
      • B. REVOLUTION AND NONVIOLENCE
      • C. NONVIOLENT ACTION VERSUS ARMED REVOLUTION IN LIBYA
    • IV. REASONABLENESS STANDARDS
      • A. A KEY QUESTION
      • B. CLARITY AND SPECIFICITY
      • C. IMPRACTICALITY
      • D. DISPROPORTIONALITY
      • E. AWFULNESS
      • F. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    • V. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS
      • A. PEACEFUL NEGOTIATION VERSUS ARMED INTERVENTION IN DARFUR
      • B. THE CONCURRENCE PROBLEM
      • C. NEITHER VICTORY NOR DEFEAT
    • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 7 – LAST RESORT AND NONCOMBATANT IMMUNITY
    • I. DETERRENCE AND COMPELLENCE
      • A. NUCLEAR DETERRENCE
      • B. CONVENTIONAL DETERRENCE
      • C. ARE MILITARY THREATS NONMILITARY MEASURES?
      • D. A LAST RESORT THREAT
    • II. A LADDER OF RESORTS
      • A. A PENULTIMATE RESORT PRINCIPLE
      • B. COMPOUND NONMILITARY MEASURES
      • C. A PROXIMATE RESORT PRINCIPLE
      • D. THRESHOLDS
      • E. A POLICING RESORT PRINCIPLE
    • III. LAST RESORT AND NONCOMBATANTS
      • A. CIVILIAN CASUALTIES IN AFGHANISTAN
      • B. A SINGULAR MORAL DILEMMA
      • C. A NONCOMBATANT RESORT PRINCIPLE
      • D. THE NONCOMBATANT AND POLICING RESORT PRINCIPLES
    • IV. NONCOMBATANT IMMUNITY
      • A. TARGETING NONCOMBATANTS
      • B. A NONCOMBATANT IMMUNITY PRINCIPLE
      • C. IMMUNITY STANDARDS
      • D. NONCOMBATANT IMMUNITY AND PROPORTIONALITY
    • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 8 – PROPORTIONALITY AND AUTHORITY
    • I. PROPORTIONALITY
      • A. PROPORTIONAL MEANS AND BALANCE OF CONSEQUENCES
      • B. A PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY
      • C. PROPORTIONALITY STANDARDS
      • D. GLOBAL DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
      • E. RISK ACCEPTANCE AND NONCOMBATANT IMMUNITY
      • F. REASONABLE HOPE OF SUCCESS
      • G. PROPORTIONALITY VERSUS JUST CORRELATIVITY
      • H. MINIMUM FORCE
      • I. ALTERNATIVE MILITARY ACTIONS
      • J. PROPORTIONALITY AND LAST RESORT
      • K. PROPORTIONALITY VERSUS DISPROPORTIONALITY VERSUS AWFULNESS
    • II. AUTHORITY
      • A. MORAL AUTHORITY
      • B. LEGAL AUTHORITY
      • C. GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP AND ARMED REVOLUTION
      • D. NONMILITARY MEASURES AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
      • E. REFORMING THE SECURITY COUNCIL MORALLY
      • F. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL
    • NOTES
  • CHAPTER 9 – ALL THINGS CONSIDERED
    • I. OUR SHARED RESPONSIBILITY
      • A. MUTUAL DEFENCE TREATIES
      • B. THE CASE OF SUDAN VERSUS SOUTH SUDAN
      • C. ARMED INTERVENTION, ARMED PEACEKEEPING AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
      • D. HUMAN SECURITY AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
    • II. MORAL JUDGEMENTS ABOUT PARTICULAR CASES
      • A. ARMED CONFLICT AND MORAL CONFLICT
      • B. FULFILLING JUST-GOAL OBLIGATIONS AND OVERRIDING GRIEVOUS-HARM PROHIBITIONS
      • C. BURDEN OF PROOF
      • D. APPLYING CORE JUST WAR PRINCIPLES CONJOINTLY
      • E. PROPORTIONALITY AND DEONTOLOGY
      • F. NONMILITARY MEASURES
      • G. NONCOMBATANTS AND STRINGENCY
      • H. COLLATERALLY DAMAGING NONCOMBATANTS
    • III. AMONG JUST ALTERNATIVES, WHICH IS BEST?
      • A. JUST ALTERNATIVES
      • B. JUST ARMED UN PEACEKEEPING VERSUS JUST ARMED US INTERVENTION
      • C. THE BEST JUST MILITARY ACTION, ALL THINGS CONSIDERED
      • D. THE GOAL OF PEACE AND THE LADDER OF RESORTS
      • E. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
    • NOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • INDEX
    No review for this book yet, be the first to review.
      No comment for this book yet, be the first to comment
      Also Available On
      App store smallGoogle play small
      Categories
      Curated Lists
      • Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (Information Science and Statistics)
        by Christopher M. Bishop
        Data mining
        by I. H. Witten
        The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction
        by Various
        See more...
      • CK-12 Chemistry
        by Various
        Concept Development Studies in Chemistry
        by John Hutchinson
        An Introduction to Chemistry - Atoms First
        by Mark Bishop
        See more...
      • Microsoft Word - How to Use Advanced Algebra II.doc
        by Jonathan Emmons
        Advanced Algebra II: Activities and Homework
        by Kenny Felder
        de2de
        by
        See more...
      • The Sun Who Lost His Way
        by
        Tania is a Detective
        by Kanika G
        Firenze_s-Light
        by
        See more...
      • Java 3D Programming
        by Daniel Selman
        The Java EE 6 Tutorial
        by Oracle Corporation
        JavaKid811
        by
        See more...