Introduction to Basic Legal Citation
Free

Introduction to Basic Legal Citation

By Peter W. Martin
Free
Book Description

This electronic publication was conceived in the summer of 1992. A small band of Cornell Law students, charged with identifying subjects on which computer-based materials would be particularly helpful, placed citation at the top of the list. With their assistance I prepared the first edition of Introduction to Basic Legal Citation. It was released on diskette that fall, one of the first hypertext publications of Cornell's Legal Information Institute (LII). Later reconfigured for the Web, where it still resides at: http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/, the work has been updated regularly in the years since. Like that online version on which it is based, this e-book was most recently revised in the fall of 2013. As has been true of all editions released since 2010, it is indexed to the fourth edition of the ALWD Citation Manual and the nineteenth edition of The Bluebook. But it also rests firmly on the evolving practice of judges writing opinions and lawyers writing briefs.


Professor Martin requests that you donate to the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law if you would like to show your support for this free work.


A companion “wiki” also allows users to raise questions, post comments, elaborate upon the work’s introductory treatment or extend its coverage to other types of material or jurisdictions. This is primarily not an "ask the author" or "tell the author" forum. It aims rather to provide a framework that will allow those teaching and learning about legal citation, as well as professionals confronting an unfamiliar citation challenge, to discuss, extend and improve the underlying work. To access the wiki go to: http://basiclegalcitation.wikispaces.com.

Table of Contents
  • Table of Contents
  • PREFACE
    • A Few Tips on Using Introduction to Basic Legal Citation
    • Help with Citation Issues Beyond the Scope of this Work
    • Comments, Corrections, Extensions
    • Additional Resources
  • § 1-000. BASIC LEGAL CITATION: WHAT AND WHY?
    • § 1-100. Introduction
    • § 1-200. Purposes of Legal Citation
    • § 1-300. Types of Citation Principles
    • § 1-400. Levels of Mastery
    • § 1-500. Citation in Transition: From Proprietary Print Citations to Vendor- and Medium-Neutral Schemes
    • § 1-600. Who Sets Citation Norms
  • § 2-000. HOW TO CITE ...
    • § 2-100. How to Cite Electronic Sources
      • § 2-110. Electronic Sources – Core Elements
      • § 2-115. Electronic Sources – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-120. Electronic Sources – Variants and Special Cases
    • § 2-200. How to Cite Judicial Opinions
      • § 2-210. Case Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-215. Case Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-220. Case Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-225. Case Citations – More Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-230. Medium-Neutral Case Citations
      • § 2-240. Case Citations – Conditional Items
      • § 2-250. Citing Unpublished Cases
    • § 2-300. How to Cite Constitutions, Statutes, and Similar Materials
      • § 2-310. Constitution Citations
      • § 2-320. Statute Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-330. Statute Citations – Conditional items
      • § 2-335. Statute Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-340. Statute Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-350. Local Ordinance Citations
      • § 2-360. Treaty Citations
    • § 2-400. How to Cite Regulations, Other Agency and Executive Material
      • § 2-410. Regulation Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-415. Regulation Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-420. Regulation Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-450. Agency Adjudication Citations
      • § 2-455. Agency Adjudication Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-470. Agency Report Citations
      • § 2-480. Citations to Executive Orders and Proclamations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-485. Citations to Executive Orders and Proclamations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-490. Citations to Attorney General and Other Advisory Opinions – Most Common Form
      • § 2-495. Citations to Attorney General and Other Advisory Opinions – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
    • § 2-500. How to Cite Arbitration Decisions
    • § 2-600. How to Cite Court Rules
    • § 2-700. How to Cite Books
      • § 2-710. Book Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-715. Book Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-720. Book Citations – Variants and Special Cases
    • § 2-800. How to Cite Articles and Other Law Journal Writing
      • § 2-810. Journal Article Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-820. Journal Article Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-825. Journal Article Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
    • § 2-900. How to Cite Documents from Earlier Stages of the Same Case
  • § 3-000. EXAMPLES – CITATIONS OF ...
    • § 3-100. Electronic Sources
      • § 3-110. Electronic Citations – Core Elements
    • § 3-200. Judicial Opinions
      • § 3-210. Case Citations – Most Common Form
      • Federal Case Citations:
      • Supreme Court
      • Courts of Appeals
      • Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
      • District Courts
      • Bankruptcy Courts and Bankruptcy Panels
      • Court of Federal Claims
      • Tax Court
      • Military Service Courts of Criminal Appeals
      • State Case Citations:
      • Alabama
      • Alaska
      • Arizona
      • Arkansas
      • California
      • Colorado
      • Connecticut
      • Delaware
      • District of Columbia
      • Florida
      • Georgia
      • Hawaii
      • Idaho
      • Illinois
      • Indiana
      • Iowa
      • Kansas
      • Kentucky
      • Louisiana
      • Maine
      • Maryland
      • Massachusetts
      • Michigan
      • Minnesota
      • Mississippi
      • Missouri
      • Montana
      • Nebraska
      • Nevada
      • New Hampshire
      • New Jersey
      • New Mexico
      • New York
      • North Carolina
      • North Dakota
      • Ohio
      • Oklahoma
      • Oregon
      • Pennsylvania
      • Rhode Island
      • South Carolina
      • South Dakota
      • Tennessee
      • Texas
      • Utah
      • Vermont
      • Virginia
      • Washington
      • West Virginia
      • Wisconsin
      • Wyoming
      • § 3-220. Case Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 3-230. Medium-Neutral Case Citations
      • § 3-240. Case Citations – Conditional Items
    • § 3-300. Constitutions and Statutes
      • § 3-310. Constitutions
      • Federal Statute Citations
      • State Statute Citations
      • Alabama
      • Alaska
      • Arizona
      • Arkansas
      • California
      • Colorado
      • Connecticut
      • Delaware
      • District of Columbia
      • Florida
      • Georgia
      • Hawaii
      • Idaho
      • Illinois
      • Indiana
      • Iowa
      • Kansas
      • Kentucky
      • Louisiana
      • Maine
      • Maryland
      • Massachusetts
      • Michigan
      • Minnesota
      • Mississippi
      • Missouri
      • Montana
      • Nebraska
      • Nevada
      • New Hampshire
      • New Jersey
      • New Mexico
      • New York
      • North Carolina
      • North Dakota
      • Ohio
      • Oklahoma
      • Oregon
      • Pennsylvania
      • Rhode Island
      • South Carolina
      • South Dakota
      • Tennessee
      • Texas
      • Utah
      • Vermont
      • Virginia
      • Washington
      • West Virginia
      • Wisconsin
      • Wyoming
      • § 3-340. Statute Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 3-350. Local Ordinance Citations
      • § 3-360. Treaty Citations
    • § 3-400. Regulations, Other Agency and Executive Material
      • § 3-410. Regulation Citations – Most Common Form
      • Alabama
      • Alaska
      • Arizona
      • Arkansas
      • California
      • Colorado
      • Connecticut
      • Delaware
      • District of Columbia
      • Florida
      • Georgia
      • Hawaii
      • Idaho
      • Illinois
      • Indiana
      • Iowa
      • Kansas
      • Kentucky
      • Louisiana
      • Maine
      • Maryland
      • Massachusetts
      • Michigan
      • Minnesota
      • Mississippi
      • Missouri
      • Montana
      • Nebraska
      • Nevada
      • New Hampshire
      • New Jersey
      • New Mexico
      • New York
      • North Carolina
      • North Dakota
      • Ohio
      • Oklahoma
      • Oregon
      • Pennsylvania
      • Rhode Island
      • South Carolina
      • South Dakota
      • Tennessee
      • Texas
      • Utah
      • Vermont
      • Virginia
      • Washington
      • West Virginia
      • Wisconsin
      • § 3-420. Regulation Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 3-480. Executive Orders and Proclamations
      • § 3-490. Attorney General and Other Advisory Opinions
    • § 3-500. Arbitration Decisions
    • § 3-600. Court Rules
    • § 3-700. Books
      • § 3-710. Book Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 3-720. Book Citations – Variants and Special Cases
    • § 3-800. Articles and Other Law Journal Writing
      • § 3-810. Journal Article Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 3-820. Journal Articles – Variants and Special Cases
  • § 4-000. ABBREVIATIONS AND OMISSIONS USED IN CITATIONS
    • § 4-100. Words Abbreviated in Case Names
    • § 4-200. Abbreviations for Words Used in Providing Case Histories
    • § 4-300. Words Omitted in Case Names
    • § 4-400. Reporters and Courts
      • § 4-410. Reporter and Court Abbreviations – Federal Courts
      • § 4-420. Reporter and Court Abbreviations – The States and D.C.
    • § 4-500. State Abbreviations
    • § 4-600. Months
    • § 4-700. Frequently Cited Journals
    • § 4-800. Spacing between Abbreviated Words and Periods in Abbreviations
      • § 4-810. Spacing between Abbreviated Words
      • § 4-820. Periods in Abbreviations
    • § 4-900. Documents from Earlier Stages of a Case
  • § 5-000. UNDERLINING AND ITALICS
    • § 5-100. In Citations
    • § 5-200. In Text
    • § 5-300. Citation Items Not Italicized
  • § 6-000. PLACING CITATIONS IN CONTEXT
    • § 6-100. Quoting
    • § 6-200. Citations and Related Text
    • § 6-300. Signals
      • (a) Signals that indicate support.
      • (b) Signals that suggest a useful comparison.
      • (c) Signals that indicate contradiction.
      • (d) Signals that indicate background material.
      • (e) Combining a signal with "e.g."
    • § 6-400. Order
    • § 6-500. Short Form Citations
      • § 6-520. Short Form Citations - Cases
      • § 6-530. Short Form Citations - Constitutions and Statutes
      • § 6-540. Short Form Citations - Regulations
      • § 6-550. Short Form Citations - Books
    • § 6-560. Short Form Citations - Journal Articles
    • § 6-600. Context Examples
  • § 7-000. CROSS REFERENCE TABLES
    • § 7-100. Introduction
    • § 7-200. Significant Changes in The Bluebook:
      • 19th edition
      • 18th edition
      • 17th edition
    • § 7-300. Cross Reference Table: The Bluebook
    • § 7-400. Cross Reference Table: ALWD Citation Manual
    • § 7-500. Table of State-Specific Citation Norms and Practices
    • Alabama
      • Examples from White-Spunner Constr., Inc. v. Constr. Completion Co., LLC, 103 So. 3d 781 (Ala. 2012)
      • Ala. R. App. P. 28
    • Alaska
      • Examples from State v. Dupier, 118 P.3d 1039 (Alaska 2005)
      • Alaska R. App. P. 212(c)
    • Arizona
      • Examples from Ry-Tan Constr., Inc. v. Wash. Elem. Sch. Dist. No. 6, 210 Ariz. 419, 111 P.3d 1019 (2005)
      • Ariz. R. Civ. App. P. 13(a)
    • Arkansas
      • Examples from Hinojosa v. State, 2009 Ark. 301
      • Ark. Sup. Ct. & Ct. App. R. 4-2(a), 5-2(b)
    • California
      • Examples from Zuckerman v. Bd. of Chiropractic Exam'rs, 29 Cal. 4th 32, 53 P.3d 119, 124 Cal. Rptr. 2d 701 (2002)
      • Cal. Ct. R. 1.200
      • Cal. Ct. R. 3.1113
    • Colorado
      • Examples from Colo. Oil & Gas Conservation Comm'n v. Grand Valley Citizens' Alliance, 2012 CO 52, 279 P.3d 646
      • Colo. C.J. Directive 12-01
    • Connecticut
      • Examples from Ruffin v. Dep't of Pub. Works, 50 Conn. Supp. 98, 914 A.2d 617 (2006)
      • Conn. R. App. P § 67-11
    • Delaware
      • Examples from Del. Bd. of Nursing v. Gillespie, 41 A.3d 423 (Del. 2012)
      • Del. Sup. Ct. R. 14(g)
    • D.C.
      • Examples from Dorsey v. District of Columbia, 917 A.2d 639 (D.C. 2007)
      • D.C. Ct. App. R 28(g)
      • D.C. Super. Ct. Civ. P.R. 12-I(e)
    • Florida
      • Examples from North Lauderdale v. SMM Properties, Inc., 825 So. 2d 343 (Fla. 2002)
      • Fla. R. App. P. 9.800
    • Georgia
      • Examples from Hollingsworth Concrete Prods., Inc., 274 Ga. 210, 553 S.E.2d 270 (2001)
      • Ga. Sup. Ct. R. 22
      • Ga. Ct. App. R. 24(c)
    • Hawaii
      • Examples from State v. Kotis, 91 Haw. 319, 984 P.2d 78 (1999)
      • Hawaii R. App. P. 28
    • Idaho
      • Examples from Am. Falls Reservoir Dist. No. 2 v. Idaho Dep't of Water Res., 143 Idaho 862, 154 P.3d 433 (2007)
      • Idaho S. Ct. Internal R 15
    • Illinois
      • Examples from Hines v. Dep't of Pub. Aid, 221 Ill. 2d 222, 850 N.E.2d 148 (2006)
      • Ill. Sup. Ct. R. 6
    • Indiana
      • Examples from Caesars Riverboat Casino, LLC v. Kephart, 934 N.E.2d 1120 (Ind. 2010)
      • Ind. R. App. P. 22
    • Iowa
      • Examples from Al-Khattat v. Eng'g & Land Surveying Examining Bd., 644 N.W.2d 18 (Iowa 2002)
      • Iowa R. App. P. 6.904
    • Kansas
      • Examples from Schmidt v. Kan. State Bd. of Technical Professions, 271 Kan. 206, 21 P.3d 542 (2001)
      • Kan. Ct. R. 6.08
    • Kentucky
      • Examples from Adams v. NHC Healthcare, 199 S.W.3d 163 (Ky. 2006)
      • Ky. Civ. R. 76.12(4)(g)
    • Louisiana
      • Examples from State v. Alfonso, 99-1546 (La. 12/07/99), 753 So. 2d 156
      • La. Sup. Ct. Gen. Admin. R. § 8
      • La. Unif R. Ct. App. 2-12.4
    • Maine
      • Examples from Powers Trust v. Bd. of Envtl. Prot., 2011 ME 40, 15 A.3d 1273
      • Me. Admin. Order, No. SJC-216 (Aug. 20, 1996).
    • Maryland
      • Examples from State Comm'n on Human Relations v. Talbot County Det. Ctr., 370 Md. 115, 803 A.2d 527 (2002)
      • Md. R. 1-104, 8-504
    • Massachusetts
      • Examples from City Council of Agawam v. Energy Facilities Siting Bd., 437 Mass. 821, 776 N.E.2d 1002 (2002)
      • Mass. R. App. P. 16(g)
    • Michigan
      • Examples from Great Wolf Lodge of Traverse City, LLC v. PSC, 489 Mich. 27, 799 N.W.2d 155 (2011)
      • Mich. Admin. Order 2006-3
    • Minnesota
      • Examples from Breza v. City of Minnetrista, 725 N.W.2d 106 (Minn. 2006)
    • Mississippi
      • Examples from Alford v. Miss. Div. of Medicaid, 30 So. 3d 1212 (Miss. 2010)
      • Miss. R. App. P. 28(f)
    • Missouri
      • Examples from State ex rel. Sunshine Enters. of Mo., Inc. v. Bd. of Adjustment, 64 S.W.3d 310 (Mo. 2002)
    • Montana
      • Examples from Briese v. Mont. Pub. Emples. Ret. Bd., 2012 MT 192, 366 Mont. 148, 285 P.3d 550
      • Mont. Sup. Ct. Internal Op. Rules, § VII
      • Mont. Sup.Ct. Order of Jan. 22, 2009
    • Nebraska
      • Examples from Bethesda Found. v. Neb. Dep't of Soc. Serv., 243 Neb. 130, 498 N.W.2d 86 (1993)
      • Neb. Ct. R. App. Pract. 2-109
    • Nevada
      • Examples from Nev. Tax Comm'n v. Nev. Cement Co., 36 P.3d 418 (Nev. 2001)
      • Nev. Sup. Ct. R. 123
    • New Hampshire
      • Examples from State v. Caswell, 146 N.H. 243, 769 A.2d 387 (2001)
      • N.H. Sup. Ct. R. 16
    • New Jersey
      • Examples from Toll Bros., Inc. v. Township of W. Windsor, 173 N.J. 502, 803 A.2d 53 (2002)
      • N.J. Ct. R. 2:6-2
    • New Mexico
      • Examples from State v. Johnson, 2009-NMSC-049, 147 N.M. 177, 218 P.3d 863 (2009)
      • N. M. Sup. Ct. R. 23-112
    • New York
      • Examples from Aliessa v. Novello, 96 N.Y.2d 418, 754 N.E.2d 1085, 730 N.Y.S.2d 1 (2001)
      • N.Y. Ct. App. R. Pract. § 500.1(g)
    • North Carolina
      • Examples from Craig v. County of Chatham, 356 N.C. 40, 565 S.E.2d 172 (2002)
      • N.C. R. App. P., App. B
    • North Dakota
      • Examples from Zarrett v. Zarrett, 1998 ND 49, 574 N.W.2d 855
      • N.D. R. Ct. 11.6
    • Ohio
      • Examples from State ex rel. Kolcinko v. Ohio Police & Fire Pension Fund, 2012 Ohio 46, 131 Ohio St. 3d 111, 961 N.E.2d 178
      • Ohio Sup. Ct. R. for the Reporting of Decisions (2012)
    • Oklahoma
      • Examples from Rogers v. Quiktrip Corp., 2010 OK 3, 230 P.3d 853
      • Okla. Sup. Ct. R. 1.11, 1.200
      • Okla. Crim. App. R. 3.5(C)
    • Oregon
      • Examples from Coats v. State, 334 Or. 587, 54 P.3d 610 (2002)
      • Or. R. App. P. 5.20, 5.35
    • Pennsylvania
      • Examples from Commonwealth v. Beam, 567 Pa. 492, 788 A.2d 357 (2002)
      • Pa. R. App. P. 2119(b)
    • Rhode Island
      • Examples from Cullen v. Town Council of Lincoln, 893 A.2d 239 (R.I. 2006)
      • R.I. Sup. Ct. R. 16(j)
    • South Carolina
      • Examples from Johnson v. Collins Entm't Co., 349 S.C. 613, 564 S.E.2d 653 (2002)
      • S.C. App. Pract. R. 268
    • South Dakota
      • Examples from State v. Britton, 2009 SD 75, 772 N.W.2d 899
      • S.D. R. Civ. App. P. § 15-26A-69.1
    • Tennessee
      • Examples from Furlough v. Spherion Atl. Workforce, LLC, 397 S.W.3d 114 (Tenn. 2013)
      • Tenn. R. App. P. 27(h)
    • Texas
      • Examples from Gilbert v. El Paso County Hosp. Dist., 38 S.W.3d 85 (Tex. 2001)
      • Note
    • Utah
      • Examples from Menzies v. Galetka, 2006 UT 81, 150 P.3d 480
      • Utah Sup. Ct. Standing Order 4
    • Vermont
      • Examples from City of Montpelier v. Barnett, 2012 VT 32, 49 A.3d 120
      • Vt. R. App. P. 28.2
    • Virginia
      • Examples from Davenport v. Little-Bowser, 269 Va. 546, 611 S.E.2d 366 (2005)
      • Va. Sup. Ct. R 5:27(a), 5:28(a)
    • Washington
      • Examples from Dot Foods, Inc. v. Dep't of Revenue, 166 Wash. 2d 912, 215 P.3d 185 (2009)
      • Wash. Gen. R. 14
    • West Virginia
      • Examples from Sedgmer v. McElroy Coal Co., 220 W.Va. 66, 640 S.E.2d 129 (2006)
      • W. Va. Tr. Ct. R. 6.02
      • Note
    • Wisconsin
      • Examples from State v. T.J. Int'l, Inc., 2001 WI 76, 244 Wis. 2d 481, 628 N.W.2d 774
      • Wis. App. P. R. 809.19(e)
      • Wis. Sup. Ct. R. chapt. 80
    • Wyoming
      • Examples from Lane-Walter v. State ex rel. Wyo. Workers' Safety & Comp. Div., 2011 WY 52, 250 P.3d 513
      • Wyo. Sup. Ct., Order Adopting a Uniform or Neutral-Format Citation (Oct. 2, 2000)
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