A Life-Course Perspective on Migration and Integration
Matthias Wingens
Politics & Social Sciences
A Life-Course Perspective on Migration and Integration

Over the last four decades the sociological life course approach with its focus on the interplay of structure and agency over time life course perspective has become an important research perspective in the social sciences. Yet, while it has successfully been applied to almost all fields of social inquiry it is much less used in research studying migrant populations and their integration patterns. This is puzzling since understanding immigrants’ integration requires just the kind of dynamic research approach this approach puts forward: any integration theory actually refers to life course processes. This volume shows fruitful cross-linkages between the two research traditions.A range of studies are presented that all apply sociological life course concepts to research on migrants and migrant groups in Europe. The book is organized thematically, indicating different important domains in the life course. Using a wide variety of methodological approaches, it covers both quantitative studies based on population census data and survey material as well as qualitative studies based on interviews. Attention is paid to the life courses of those who migrated themselves as well as their offspring. The studies cover different European countries, relating to one national context or a particular local setting in a city as well as cross-country comparisons.Overall the book shows that applying the sociological life course approach to migration and integration research may advance our understanding of immigrant settlement patterns as well as further develop the life course perspective.

A Life-Course Perspective on Migrationand Integration
Chapter 1: The Sociological Life Course Approach and Research on Migration and Integration
1.1 Delimiting the Sociological Life Course Approach
1.2 Life Course Research: Unitary Field of Inquiry or Conceptual Framework?
1.3 The Sociological Life Course Approach: Structure, Agency, and Time
1.4 The Sociological Life Course Approach: Guiding Principles and Analytical Concepts
1.5 The Sociological Life Course Approach in This Volume
Chapter 2: Immigrants' Educational Attainment: A Closer Look at the Age-at-Migration Effect
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Theoretical Argument – The Institutional Logic Underlying the Age-at-Migration Effect
2.3 Hypotheses on Varying Age-at-Migration Effects Among Privileged and Non-privileged Groups of Immigrants in Germany
2.3.1 Age-at-Migration Effect by Parental Education
2.3.2 Age-at-Migration Effect by Legal Status of Immigrants: Aussiedler and Other Immigrants
2.4 Database and Operationalization
2.5 Empirical Findings
2.5.1 The Bivariate Correlation Between the Age at Migration and the School Certificates Attained
2.5.2 Net Effect of Age at Migration on Educational Opportunities
2.5.3 The Age-at-Migration Effect by Parental Education
2.5.4 The Age-at-Migration Effect by Legal Status
2.5.5 Further Differentiation of the Age-at-Migration Effect
2.6 Discussion of Findings and Conclusion
2.A.1 Appendix
Chapter 3: Varying Hurdles for Low-Skilled Youth on the Way to the Labour Market
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Situation of Young Immigrants in the German Vocational Education System
3.3 Data Set and Empirical Approaches
3.4 Distribution of Low-Skilled Youth to Different States During the Transition Process
3.5 The Transition Rates of Low-Skilled Youth Entering Vocational Training
3.6 PCE-Models: Taking into Account Individual Characteristics and Temporal Patterns
3.7 Discussion of the Results
Chapter 4: Individual Resources and Structural Constraints in Immigrants' Labour Market Integration
4.1 Introduction
4.2 On the Role of Individual Resources for Immigrants' Labour Market Success
4.2.1 Human Capital and Country-Specific Cultural Knowledge
4.2.2 Social Capital
4.2.3 Immigrant Selectivity on Unobserved Characteristics
4.3 The German and Israeli Context: On the Role of Institutional Constraints
4.4 Description of the Data and Variables
4.5 Results of the Multivariate Analyses
4.5.1 Extending the Set of Individual Resources as Predictors of Gainful Employment: Jewish FSU Immigrants Compared to Natives in Germany and Israel
4.5.2 Pursuing the Effects of Institutional Restrictions: Comparing Jews in Germany to Jews in Israel and to Ethnic Germans in Germany
4.5.3 Accounting for the Residual Effects: Preferences or Aspirations?
4.6 Summary and Discussion
4.A.1 Appendix
Chapter 5: Overcoming Barriers. Career Trajectories of Highly Skilled Members of the German Second Generation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 A Biographical Approach to the Career Trajectories of the Second Generation
5.2.1 Implications of the Biographical Approach
5.2.2 Status Passages and Trajectories
5.2.3 Cumulative and Compensatory Effects Throughout the Trajectory
5.2.4 Data and Methods
5.3 Empirical Findings on the German Second Generation's Career Trajectories
5.3.1 Following the Upper Educational Pathways
5.3.2 Second-Chance Careers
5.4 Status Passages to Skilled Jobs
5.4.1 Immediate Career Entry Based on Institutionalized Social Capital
5.4.2 Restricted Career Entry Following Multi-Stage Transitions
5.4.3 Non-restricted Career Entry Following a Multi-Stage Transition and Compensatory Strategies
5.5 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 6: Integration Trajectories: A Mixed Method Approach
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Theoretical Challenges: Questioning the Causal Sequence, Finality, Linearity and Non-Relationality of Integration
6.3 Methodology
6.4 Analyses of Immigrants' Narratives
6.4.1 The Economic Dimension
6.4.2 The Austrian Legal and Political Framework
6.4.3 The Subjectivity of Upward Social Mobility
6.4.4 Belonging, Identifications and Emotional Bonds – Function and Change Over Time
6.5 The Subjective Assessment of the Individual Migration Project: Phases and Components
6.5.1 Time: The Three Phases
6.5.2 Structure: The Four Dimensions
6.6 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 7: National Context and Logic of Social Distancing: Children of Immigrants in France and Germany
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Immigration and Integration in France and Germany
7.1.2 Participation and Social Distancing: Theoretical Framework
7.2 Germany and France as National Contexts: Opportunities and Constraints
7.3 Data and Methods
7.3.1 Differences in Educational Achievement
7.3.2 Labour Market Participation
7.3.3 Two Logics of Social Distancing
7.4 Conclusion
7.A.1 Appendix
Chapter 8: Paths to Adulthood: A Focus on the Children of Immigrants in the Netherlands
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Turkish and Moroccan Second Generation in the Netherlands
8.3 Transition to Adulthood: Ordering and Timing of Events
8.4 Life Courses of Young Adults of Different Origins
8.5 Data and Methods
8.5.1 Measuring the Transition to Adulthood
8.5.2 Methods
8.6 Family Life Events: Diversity in Transitions
8.7 Conclusion and Discussion
8.A.1 Appendix
Chapter 9: Linked Life-Events. Leaving Parental Home in Turkish Immigrant and Native Families in Germany
9.1 Theory and Research
9.2 Data and Methods
9.3 Results
9.4 Summary and Conclusion
9.A.1 Appendix
Chapter 10: Occupational Mobility in the Life Course of Intermarried Ethnic Minorities
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Theoretical Considerations and Research Hypotheses
10.2.1 Principle of Linked Lives
10.2.2 Principle of Human Agency
10.3 Data and Measures
10.3.1 Measure of the `Intermarriage Premium'
10.4 Descriptive Results
10.4.1 Multivariate Models Estimation Equations Empirical Specification Results from Probit and Bivariate Probit Models
10.5 Conclusion and Discussion
10.A.1 Appendix
Chapter 11: The Effect of Ethnic Segregation on the Process of Assimilation
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Ethnic Segregation of Turkish Migrants in the Bremen District of Groepelingen
11.3 The Extent of Inter-Ethnic Friendships in the District of Groepelingen
11.4 Possible Causes of a Non-existing Influence of Ethnic Residential Areas
11.5 Heterogeneity of the Spatially Limited Distribution of Turkish Migrants in Groepelingen
11.6 The Influence of Spatially Limited Ethnic Segregation in the Closer Neighborhoods
11.7 Summary
Chapter 12: Immigrant Integration, Transnational Activities and the Life Course
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Transnational Activities and Immigrant Integration
12.2.1 Transnational Activities
12.2.2 Previous Empirical Evidence
12.3 Theoretical Frame
12.3.1 Opportunities
12.3.2 Motivation
12.4 Immigration in Germany
12.5 Data and Analysis
12.5.1 Transnational Activities Among Immigrants in Germany: Descriptive Results
12.5.2 Transnational Activities and Immigrant Integration: Multivariate Analyses
12.6 Results
12.7 Conclusion
12.A.1 Appendix
Chapter 13: Immigrant Settlement and the Life Course: An Exchange of Research Perspectives and Outlook for the Future
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Life Course Principles and Concepts in Migration and Integration Research
13.3 Empirical Findings on Immigrant Settlement and the Life Course
13.4 An Outlook to the Future
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