Democratizing Innovation
Free

Democratizing Innovation

By Eric von Hippel
Free
Book Description

Innovation is rapidly becoming democratized. Users, aided by improvements in computer and communications technology, increasingly can develop their own new products and services. These innovating users - both individuals and firms - often freely share their innovations with others, creating user-innovation communities and a rich intellectual commons. In Democratizing Innovation Eric von Hippel looks closely at this emerging user-centered innovation system, which is affecting both information products and physical products.



Drawing on work done with several coauthors, von Hippel explores why and when users find it profitable to develop new products and services for themselves, and why it often pays users to reveal their innovations freely for the use of all. Drawing on work with Nikolaus Franke, Pam Morrison and others, he documents that product and service development is concentrated among lead user firms and individuals. Lead users that are ahead on marketplace trends do not replicate manufacturer development efforts.



Instead, they develop products that are not yet available. Later manufacturers find many of these user-developed products to be the basis for commercial products. Drawing upon work with Dietmar Harhoff, Joachim Henkel and others, von Hippel reports that user innovation has a positive impact on social welfare, and propose that government policies, including R&D subsidies and tax credits, should be realigned to eliminate biases against it.



Available in print via MIT Press

Table of Contents
  • Democratizing Innovation,Eric von Hipel
  • Attribution
  • Acknowledgements
  • Democratizing Innovation
  • 1 Introduction and Overview
  • 2 Development of Products by Lead Users
  • 3 Why Many Users Want Custom Products
  • 4 Users' Innovate-or-Buy Decisions
  • 5 Users' Low-Cost Innovation Niches
  • 6 Why Users Often Freely Reveal Their Innovations
  • 7 Innovation Communities
  • 8 Adapting Policy to User Innovation
  • 9 Democratizing Innovation
  • 10 Application: Searching for Lead User Innovations
  • 11 Application: Toolkits for User Innovation and Custom Design
  • 12 Linking User Innovation to Other Phenomena and Fields
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
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