Brain Development and the Attention Spectrum
Free

Brain Development and the Attention Spectrum

By Itai Berger (editor)
Free
Book Description

Early-onset and enduring developmental deficits in attention, especially if combined with increased hyperactivity, and impulsivity, may result in constant impairments in multiple domains of personal life. The full spectrum of symptoms is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity, which is maladaptive and inconsistent with a comparable level of developmental age known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is considered one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders and of childhood, and among the most prevalent chronic health conditions. 



Given the wide heterogeneity and complex manifestations of the disorder, there is an importance in a developmental perspective that views ADHD as a multi-factorial disorder with multiple, causal processes, and pathways. The symptoms of ADHD should be cast, not as static or fixed neurobehavioral deficits, but rather in terms of underlying developmental processes. 



Even experienced professional might minimize the prevalence of a disorder among certain groups of patients. Therefore, the existence of attention disorders might become "transparent" for both the patient and the professional. This might lead to a non-accurate diagnosis, harm the treatment aspects and has potential non beneficial prognostic aspects. 



The developmental approach can provide predictions as to how characteristics associated with attention develop over time and how multiple risk and protective factors transact to impact it's development, as well as the development of a broad range of associated co-morbid features. 



Among children with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, children who were born premature, born with low birth weight, as well as among those who suffer from chronic disorders (such as epilepsy, diabetes, chronic kidney disease or asthma), as well as among otherwise healthy preschoolers – the assessment of attention performance might be very challenging. 



In this research topic, we explore the latest cutting edge research on the biological and neural pathways as well as on psychosocial and behavioral correlates of brain development and attention spectrum. In doing so we aim to highlight: what is currently known regarding this new conceptualization of attention as a spectrum; the mechanisms underlying this spectrum; and where this field is headed in terms of developing our understanding of the link between brain development and attention performance.

Table of Contents
  • BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND THE ATTENTION SPECTRUM
    • Brain development and the attention spectrum
      • References
    • Maturational delay in ADHD: evidence from CPT
      • Introduction
      • Materials and Methods
        • Participants
        • Measures
        • Data Analyses
      • Results
      • Discussion
      • Author Contributions
      • Acknowledgments
      • Footnotes
      • References
      • Appendix A
        • Description of Performance Indices
      • Appendix B
    • I can see clearly now: the effects of age and perceptual load on inattentional blindness
      • Introduction
      • Experiment 1
        • Methods
        • Results
      • Experiment 2
        • Methods
        • Results
      • Experiment 3
        • Methods
        • Results
      • Discussion
        • Increased Focus in Younger Children
        • Reconciling Increased Focus and Reduced Cognitive Control
        • Implications
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Complexities in Understanding Attentional Functioning among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
      • Materials and Method
      • Results
      • Discussion
      • References
    • Differential diagnosis of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): participation, sensation, and attention
      • Introduction
      • Materials and Methods
        • Participants
        • Procedure
        • Instrumentation
        • Study Measures
        • Data Analysis
      • Results
        • Differences between Groups on Sensory Measures:
        • Pinprick Pain Test
        • Differences between Groups on the Attention Measure
        • Differences between Groups in the Participation Measure
      • Discussion
        • Differences between Groups According to Sensory Measures
        • Differences between Groups on the Attention Measure
        • Differences between the Groups on the Participation Measure
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Using environmental distractors in the diagnosis of ADHD
      • Introduction
      • Methods
        • Participants
        • Tools
        • Procedure
        • Data Analyses
      • Results
        • Background Variables
        • Effects of Distractors on Omission Errors in ADHD and Non-ADHD Children
      • Discussion
      • Author Contributions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
      • Appendix
        • Description of Performance Indices
    • TThe effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study
      • Introduction
      • Materials and Methods
      • Results
      • Discussion
      • Author Contributions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • A meta-analysis of visual orienting in autism
      • Introduction
      • Method
        • Sample of Studies
        • Moderator Variables
        • Dependent Measures
      • Results
        • Magnitude of the Orienting Effect in Autism Across Studies
        • Effect Sizes Relative to Comparison Groups
      • Discussion
      • References
    • Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; a possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females
      • Introduction
        • The Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Profiles during Women’s Life Span
        • Impact of Sex Hormones on Brain Structure and Function
        • Sex Differences on Brain Cognitive Performance
        • Hormonal Impact on Brain Cognitive Performance
        • Sex Differences in ADHD as a Model for Cognitive Function
      • Summary
      • References
    • The co-occurrence of autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children – what do we know?
      • Introduction
      • ADHD (Symptoms) in Children with ASD
      • ASD Symptoms (Social-Communication Difficulties) in Children with ADHD
      • Impact of Comorbid ADHD and ASD
      • Possible Etiologies for the Co-Occurrence of ASD and ADHD
      • Treatment of Co-Occurring ADHD and ASD
      • Stimulant Medications
      • Non-Stimulant Medications
      • Psychosocial Interventions
      • Summary and Future Directions
      • References
    • Extreme prematurity and attention deficit: epidemiology and prevention
      • Extreme Prematurity and Attention Impairment
      • Risk Factors for Attention Impairment Among Extremely Preterm Infants
      • Inflammation and Cerebral white Matter Damage in Extremely Preterm Infant
      • Might Interventions to Reduce Perinatal Inflammation Decrease the Risk of Attention Impairments Among Extremely Preterm Children?
        • Antenatal Interventions
        • Postnatal Interventions
      • Summary
      • Author Contribution
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Elevating hope among children with Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder through virtual reality
      • Introduction
      • Theoretical Background
      • Preliminary Studies
      • Conclusion
      • Supplementary Material
      • References
  • Back Cover
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