Textbook of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Free

Textbook of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

By Deepak Kalaskar (editor)
Free
Book Description

Written by experts from London’s renowned Royal Free hospital, Textbook of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery offers a comprehensive overview of the vast topic of reconstructive plastic surgery and its various subspecialties  for introductory plastic surgery and surgical science courses.

The book comprises five sections covering the fundamental principles of plastic surgery, cancer, burns and trauma, paediatric plastic surgery and aesthetic surgery, and covers the breadth of knowledge that students need to further their career in this exciting field. Additional coverage of areas in which reconstructive surgery techniques are called upon includes abdominal wall reconstruction, ear reconstruction and genital reconstruction. A chapter on aesthetic surgery includes facial aesthetic surgery and blepharoplasty, aesthetic breast surgery, body contouring and the evolution of hair transplantation.

The broad scope of this volume and attention to often neglected specialisms such as military plastic surgery make this a unique contribution to the field. Heavily illustrated throughout, Textbook of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is essential reading for anyone interested in furthering their knowledge of this exciting field.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Half-title
  • Title page
  • Copyright information
  • Table of contents
  • List of figures
  • List of tables
  • List of abbreviations
  • List of contributors
  • Section 1 General
    • 1 Principles of Plastic Surgery, Wound healing, Skin Grafts and Flaps
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The skin
        • 2.1. Structure and function of the skin
          • 2.1.1. Epidermis
          • 2.1.2. Dermis
          • 2.1.3. Hypodermis
          • 2.1.4. Skin appendages
      • 3. Wound healing
      • 4. Wound management
        • 4.1. Debridement
        • 4.2. Infection and inflammation
        • 4.3. Moisture balance
        • 4.4. Edge of wound
        • 4.5. Complex wounds
        • 4.6. Adjuncts to wound healing
          • 4.6.1. Dressings
          • 4.6.2. Negative-pressure wound therapy
          • 4.6.3. Growth factors
          • 4.6.4. Hyperbaric oxygen
      • 5. How to obtain a fine-line scar
      • 6. Reconstructive ladder
      • 7. Wound closure
        • 7.1. Suturing techniques
          • 7.1.1. Simple interrupted sutures
          • 7.1.2. Simple continuous suture (over-and-over)
          • 7.1.3. Mattress sutures
          • 7.1.4. Subcuticular (intradermal) sutures
          • 7.1.5. Half-buried horizontal mattress sutures (corner stitch)
        • 7.2. Other closure techniques
          • 7.2.1. Skin staples
          • 7.2.2. Skin tapes
          • 7.2.3. Skin adhesives
      • 8. Skin grafting
        • 8.1. Graft take
          • 8.1.1. Plasmatic imbibition
          • 8.1.2. Inosculation and capillary ingrowth
        • 8.2. Graft healing
        • 8.3. Graft contraction
        • 8.4. Graft reinnervation
        • 8.5. Overgrafting
        • 8.6. Graft failure
      • 9. Flaps
        • 9.1. Local flaps
        • 9.2. Flaps rotating about a pivot point
        • 9.3. Distant flaps
          • 9.3.1. Cutaneous flaps
          • 9.3.2. Perforator flaps
          • 9.3.3. Fasciocutaneous flaps
          • 9.3.4. Musculocutaneous flaps
      • 10. Conclusion
      • References
    • 2 Abdominal Wall Reconstruction
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Anatomy and zones
        • 2.1. Classification and aetiology
        • 2.2. Reconstructive options
      • 3. Defect approach and evaluation
      • 4. Surgical procedures
        • 4.1. Ventral abdominal wall hernia
        • 4.2. Component separation
          • 4.2.1. Patient selection and evaluation
        • 4.3. Mesh repair
        • 4.4. Endoscopically assisted component separation technique: ­minimally accessed surgery
        • 4.5. Staged abdominal reconstruction and planned hernia repair/­temporary abdominal closure
          • 4.5.1. Enteric fistula
        • 4.6. Autologous flap for the abdominal wall: pedicled flaps
          • 4.6.1. Tensor fascia lata
          • 4.6.2. Rectus femoris
            • 4.6.2.1. Extended rectus femoris flap (‘mutton chop’ flap)
          • 4.6.3. Anterolateral thigh flap
          • 4.6.4. Omental flap
          • 4.6.5. Rectus abdominis muscle flaps
            • 4.6.5.1. Groin flap
          • 4.6.6. Vastus lateralis
          • 4.6.7. Gracilis flap
        • 4.7. Tissue expansion in abdominal wall reconstruction
          • 4.7.1. Free flaps
            • 4.7.1.1. Tensor fascia lata
            • 4.7.1.2. Latissimus dorsi muscle or musculocutaneous flap
          • 4.7.2. Combined free flap
        • 4.8. Abdominal wall transplant
      • References
  • Section 2 Cancer
    • 3 Skin Cancer for the Plastic Surgeon
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Basal cell carcinoma
        • 2.1. Diagnosis
        • 2.2. Histology
        • 2.3. Management
          • 2.3.1. Non-surgical management
          • 2.3.2. Surgical management
        • 2.4. Mohs micrographic surgery
        • 2.5. Follow-up
      • 3. Squamous cell carcinoma
        • 3.1. Clinical presentation and diagnosis
        • 3.2. Management
          • 3.2.1. Surgical management
          • 3.2.2. Non-surgical management
        • 3.3. Follow-up
      • 4. Malignant melanoma
        • 4.1. Diagnosis
        • 4.2. Staging
        • 4.3. Investigations
        • 4.4. Management
        • 4.5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy
        • 4.6. Follow-up
      • References
    • 4 Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Anatomy
      • 3. Epidemiology
        • 3.1. Incidence
        • 3.2. Mortality
      • 4. Aetiology
        • 4.1. Major risk factors
          • 4.1.1. Tobacco
          • 4.1.2. Alcohol
          • 4.1.3. Smoking and drinking
          • 4.1.4. Betel quid
        • 4.2. Emerging risk factors
          • 4.2.1. Human papillomavirus
          • 4.2.2. Diet
          • 4.2.3. Mate drinking
        • 4.3. Controversial factors: limited evidence
          • 4.3.1. Ethnicity and race
          • 4.3.2. Oral health and microorganisms
          • 4.3.3. Indoor air pollution
        • 4.4. Controversial factors: inconsistent evidence
      • 5. Diagnosis
        • 5.1. Importance of early diagnosis
        • 5.2. Conventional oral examination
        • 5.3. Clinical features
          • 5.3.1. Symptoms
          • 5.3.2. Location
        • 5.4. Tests to aid diagnosis
        • 5.5. Toluidine blue staining
        • 5.6. Brush biopsy
        • 5.7. Chemiluminescence
        • 5.8. Autofluorescence
        • 5.9. Confocal laser endomicroscopy
        • 5.10. Optical tomography
        • 5.11. Diagnosis from saliva
        • 5.12. Serum C-reactive protein
        • 5.13. Human papillomavirus diagnosis
        • 5.14. Screening
      • 6. Histopathology
        • 6.1. HPV-negative OPSCC
        • 6.2. HPV-positive OPSCC
      • 7. Staging
        • 7.1. Pretreatment investigations
        • 7.2. TNM staging
      • 8. Management
        • 8.1. Rationale behind oral cancer treatment
        • 8.2. Surgical approaches to oral cancer
        • 8.3. Reconstructive surgery
      • 9. Prognosis
        • 9.1. Second primary malignancy
      • References
  • Section 3 Burns and Trauma
    • 5 Burns
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Epidemiology
      • 3. Types of burns
        • 3.1. Thermal burns
          • 3.1.1. Flash and flame burns
          • 3.1.2. Scalds
          • 3.1.3. Contact burns
          • 3.1.4. Tar burns
        • 3.2. Chemical burns
          • 3.2.1. Sodium hypochlorite
          • 3.2.2. Phenol (carbolic acid)
          • 3.2.3. White phosphorous
          • 3.2.4. Sulphuric acid
          • 3.2.5. Sulphur mustard
        • 3.3. Electrical burns
        • 3.4. Burns as a sign of abuse
        • 3.5. Recognise an accidental scalding
        • 3.6. Indicators for suspicion
        • 3.7. Recognised patterns on injury
          • 3.7.1. Cigarette burns
          • 3.7.2. Electrical burns
          • 3.7.3. Scalds
      • 4. Pathophysiology
        • 4.1. Local response
          • 4.1.1. Zone of coagulation
          • 4.1.2. Zone of stasis
          • 4.1.3. Zone of hyperaemia
        • 4.2. Systemic response
      • 5. Wound healing
        • 5.1. Haemostasis
        • 5.2. Inflammation
        • 5.3. Proliferation
        • 5.4. Remodelling
      • 6. Acute management and assessment
        • 6.1. Primary survey
        • 6.2. Secondary survey
      • 7. Wound management
        • 7.1. Topical ointments
        • 7.2. Wound dressings
          • 7.2.1. Biological wound dressings
          • 7.2.2. Physiological wound dressings
      • 8. Conclusion
      • 9. Appendix
      • References
    • 6 Burn Reconstructive Surgery
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Aims and challenges of reconstructive surgery
      • 3. Patient–surgeon relationship and initial consultation
        • 3.1. Initial physical assessment of a patient: A step-wise approach
      • 4. Burn reconstruction procedures and techniques
      • 5. Timing of surgery
        • 5.1. Urgent (immediate) procedures
        • 5.2. Essential (early) procedures
        • 5.3. Desirable (late) procedures
      • 6. Burn reconstruction procedures
        • 6.1. Factors influencing the reconstruction process
        • 6.2. Guidelines for the reconstructive process
      • 7. Healing by secondary intention and primary closure
        • 7.1. Advantages of primary closure
        • 7.2. Disadvantages of primary closure
      • 8. Excision and skin grafting: FTSGs and STSGs
        • 8.1. Skin grafts
      • 9. Split-thickness skin grafts
        • 9.1. STSG survival
      • 10. Full-thickness skin grafts
        • 10.1. Tumescent infiltration
        • 10.2. Application of FTSGs
        • 10.3. Fixation of grafts
        • 11. The ideal properties of skin substitutes
        • 11.1. Overview of currently available skin substitutes
        • 11.2. Dermal skin substitutes
          • 11.2.1. Epidermal substitutes
          • 11.2.2. Dermal substitutes
          • 11.2.3. Dermo-epidermal substitutes
          • 11.2.4. Problems associated with dermal substitutes
      • 12. Tissue expansion
      • 13. Flap reconstruction of burns
        • 13.1. Flaps anatomy and physiology
        • 13.2. Principles of flap surgery
          • 13.2.1. Principle 1: replace like with like
          • 13.2.2. Principle 2: think of reconstruction in terms of units
          • 13.2.3. Principle 3: always have a pattern and back-up plan
          • 13.2.4. Principle 4: Millard talks of the Robin Hood principle
          • 13.2.5. Principle 5: always consider the donor region
        • 13.3. Classification of flaps
          • 13.3.1. Circulation: blood supply of the flap
          • 13.3.2. Random flap
          • 13.3.3. Axial flap
          • 13.3.4. Flap tissue composition
          • 13.3.6. Composite flaps: composed of two or more tissue types
          • 13.3.7. Contiguity: location of the donor site
            • 13.3.7.1. Local flap
            • 13.3.7.2. Regional flap
            • 13.3.7.3. Distant flap
          • 13.3.8. Contour
        • 13.4. Local flaps
          • 13.4.1. Types of local flaps
            • 13.4.1.1. Advantages
            • 13.4.1.2. Disadvantages
          • 13.4.2. Types of local flaps
            • 13.4.2.1. Advancement flaps
            • 13.4.2.2. Pivotal (geometric flaps)
            • 13.4.2.3. Simple advancement flap
            • 13.4.2.4. V–Y advancement flap
        • 13.5. Interdigitating flaps: Z-plasty principal
        • 13.6. Regional and distant flaps
          • 13.6.1. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap
          • 13.6.2. Deltopectoral flap
          • 13.6.3. Trapezius flap
          • 13.6.4. Latissimus dorsi flap
          • 13.6.5. Distant flaps: pedicle flaps
        • 13.7. Free flaps: free microvascular tissue transfer
          • 13.7.1 Advantages of free flaps
          • 13.7.2. Disadvantages of free flaps
          • 13.7.3. Monitoring flaps for success
          • 13.7.4. Possible complications associated with surgery
          • 13.7.5. Causes of flap failure
        • 13.8. Perforator flap concept
      • 14. Facial transplantation
      • 15. Conclusion
      • References
    • 7 Soft Tissue Injuries of the Hand
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Anatomy
        • 2.1. Bones
        • 2.2. Joints
        • 2.3. Muscles
        • 2.4. Blood supply
        • 2.5. Nerves
      • 3. Pathophysiology
      • 4. History
      • 5. Examination
        • 5.1. Inspection
        • 5.2. Palpation
        • 5.3. Tendon examination
        • 5.4. Neurological examination
      • 6. Principles of reconstruction
      • 7. Tendon injuries
        • 7.1. Tendon structure
          • 7.1.1. After injury, healing occurs in three stages
        • 7.2. Flexor tendon
          • 7.2.1. Flexor zones
        • 7.3. Treatment
          • 7.3.1. Primary repair
          • 7.3.2. Follow-up
          • 7.3.3. Complications
          • 7.3.4. Tendon grafting
        • 7.4. Extensor tendons
          • 7.4.1. Extensor zones
          • 7.4.2. Treatment
          • 7.4.3. Mallet injuries (extensor zone I)
          • 7.4.4. Boutonniere deformity: zone 3
          • 7.4.5. Extensor pollicis longus injuries
      • 8. Nerve injuries
        • 8.1. Structure
        • 8.2. Classification
        • 8.3. Treatment
          • 8.3.1. Direct end-to-end nerve repair
          • 8.3.2. End-to-side repair
          • 8.3.3. Fibrin glue
          • 8.3.4. Nerve grafting
          • 8.3.5. Conduits
          • 8.3.6. Nerve transfers
      • 9. Vascular injuries
        • 9.1. Structure
        • 9.2. Treatment
          • 9.2.1. Radial or ulnar artery injury
          • 9.2.2. Digital artery injury
        • 9.3. Surgical repair
          • 9.3.1. Complications
      • 10. Nail bed injuries
        • 10.1. Structure
        • 10.2. Subungual haematoma
        • 10.3. Nail bed lacerations
        • 10.4. Fingertip amputations
          • 10.4.1. Treatment
      • 11. Soft tissue infections of the hand
        • 11.1. Paronychia
          • 11.1.1. Treatment
        • 11.2. Felon
          • 11.2.1. Treatment
        • 11.3. Herpetic whitlow
        • 11.4. Deep space infection
          • 11.4.1. Deep fascial spaces
          • 11.4.2. Treatment
        • 11.5. Flexor tenosynovitis
          • 11.5.1. Flexor tendon sheath structure
          • 11.5.2. Treatment
      • 12. Extravasation injuries
        • 12.1. Treatment
      • 13. Summary
      • References
    • 8 Lower Limb Trauma and Reconstruction
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Classification
      • 3. Primary management in the emergency department
      • 4. Timing of surgery
      • 5. Referral to specialist centres
        • 5.1. Fracture patterns
        • 5.2. Soft tissue injury patterns
      • 6. Compartment syndrome
        • 6.1. Treatment of compartment syndrome
      • 7. Vascular injuries
      • 8. Primary debridement
      • 9. Fracture management
      • 10. Definitive soft tissue management
        • 10.1. Local flaps
        • 10.2. Local muscle flaps
        • 10.3. Fasciocutaneous flaps
        • 10.4. Microvascular free flap reconstruction
      • 11. Amputation
      • 12. Conclusion
      • References
    • 9 Injuries of the Facial Skeleton
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Examination of facial injuries
        • 2.1. Initial management
        • 2.2. Facial trauma evaluation
        • 2.3. Scalp
        • 2.4. Eye examination
        • 2.5. Ear examination
        • 2.6. Nasal examination
        • 2.7. Oral and throat examination
        • 2.8. Soft tissue injuries
        • 2.9. Peripheral nerve and parotid duct injuries
      • 3. Radiological findings
        • 3.1. Computed tomography
        • 3.2. Cone beam technology
        • 3.3. Plain X-rays
        • 3.4. Magnetic resonance imaging
      • 4. Frontal sinus
        • 4.1. Decision
        • 4.2. Surgical approach
        • 4.3. Aftercare
      • 5. Orbital fracture
        • 5.1. Decision
        • 5.2. Surgical approach
        • 5.3. Orbital fracture reconstruction
        • 5.4. Aftercare
      • 6. Naso-orbitoethmoid
        • 6.1. Decision
        • 6.2. Surgical approach
        • 6.3. Aftercare
      • 7. Nasal
        • 7.1. Surgical approach
      • 8. Zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures
        • 8.1. Decision: zygomatic arch fractures
        • 8.2. Decision: complex
        • 8.3. Surgical approach
      • 9. Le Fort fractures
        • 9.1. Decision
        • 9.2. Surgical approach
      • 10. Mandible
        • 10.1. Decision
        • 10.2. Surgical approach
        • 10.3. Aftercare
        • 10.4. Complications
      • 11. Panfacial fracture
        • 11.1. Two options for sequencing
      • References
  • Section 4 Paediatric Plastic Surgery
    • 10 Congenital Hand Abnormalities
      • 1. Embryology
        • 1.1. Proximodistal
        • 1.2. Craniocaudal
        • 1.3. Dorsoventral
        • 1.4. Tissue types
        • 1.5. Timetable of upper limb development
      • 2. Classification of congenital hand abnormalities
      • 3. Failure of formation of parts: longitudinal
        • 3.1. Radial longitudinal deficiency
        • 3.2. Ulnar longitudinal deficiency
        • 3.3. Cleft hand (ectrodactyly)
        • 3.4. Thumb hypoplasia
      • 4. Failure of differentiation of parts
        • 4.1. Syndactyly
        • 4.2. Arthrogryposis
        • 4.3. Camptodactyly
        • 4.4. Clinodactyly
      • 5. Duplication
        • 5.1. Polydactyly
        • 5.2. Thumb duplication
      • 6. Overgrowth
        • 6.1. Macrodactyly
      • 7. Undergrowth
        • 7.1. Symbrachydactyly
      • 8. Constriction ring syndrome
      • References
    • 11 Ear Reconstruction
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Anatomy of the external ear
        • 2.1. Topographic anatomy
        • 2.2. Descriptive anatomy
      • 3. Aetiology of total and partial ear defects
        • 3.1. Congenital
        • 3.2. Trauma
          • 3.2.1. Avulsion or amputations
          • 3.2.2. Burns
          • 3.2.3. Frostbite
        • 3.3. Cancers
      • 4. Total ear reconstruction
        • 4.1. Microsurgical replantation
        • 4.2. Cartilage rib graft
          • 4.2.1. Tanzer’s technique
          • 4.2.2. Brent’s technique
          • 4.2.3. Nagata’s technique
        • 4.3. Porous polyethylene implant (Medpor®)
        • 4.4. External prosthesis
      • 5. Partial ear reconstruction
        • 5.1. Marginal defects
          • 5.1.1. Helix
            • 5.1.1.1. Direct closure
            • 5.1.1.2. Advancement flap
            • 5.1.1.3. Chondrocutaneous advancement flap
            • 5.1.1.4. Tubular flap
          • 5.1.2. Lobe
            • 5.1.2.1. Direct closure
            • 5.1.2.2. Z-plasty
            • 5.1.2.3. Pardue’s technique
        • 5.2. Non-marginal defects
          • 5.2.1. Retroauricular cutaneous flap
          • 5.2.2. Conchal cartilage graft
        • 5.3. Conchal defects
          • 5.3.1. Full-thickness skin graft
          • 5.3.2. Retroauricular cutaneous flap
          • 5.3.3. Pre-tragic transposition flap
      • 6. Tissue engineering
        • 6.1. Cell sources: chondrocytes or stem cells?
        • 6.2. Growth factors
        • 6.3. Scaffolds
        • 6.4. Future perspectives
      • 7. Conclusion
      • References
    • 12 Craniofacial Surgery: Craniosynostosis Syndromes and Cleft Lip and Palate
      • 1. Introduction
        • 1.1. Introduction to craniofacial surgery
        • 1.2. Embryological development
          • 1.2.1. Skull embryology
          • 1.2.2. Embryology of the palate
        • 1.3. Functional anatomy
      • 1.4. Developmental abnormalities
        • 1.4.1. Cleft abnormalities
          • 1.4.2. Craniosynostosis abnormalities
      • 2. Craniosynostosis syndromes
        • 2.1. Crouzon syndrome
        • 2.2. Apert syndrome
        • 2.3. Pfeiffer syndrome
        • 2.4. Muenke syndrome
        • 2.5. Saethre–Chotzen syndrome
        • 2.6. Management of craniosynostosis syndromes
          • 2.6.1. Key to early intervention
          • 2.6.2. Definitive craniofacial surgery
            • 2.6.2.1. Fronto-orbital advancement
            • 2.6.2.2. Le Fort osteotomy
            • 2.6.2.3. Monobloc osteotomy
        • 2.7. Detecting sinister signs
      • 3. Cleft lip and palate
        • 3.1. Management of cleft lip and palate
          • 3.1.1. Neonatal care
          • 3.1.2. Pre-surgical work up
          • 3.1.3. Photography
          • 3.1.4. Moulding
          • 3.1.5. Primary surgery
          • 3.1.6. Secondary surgery
            • 3.1.6.1. Alveolar bone grafting
            • 3.1.6.2. Orthognathic surgery
            • 3.1.6.3. Septorhinoplasty
            • 3.1.6.4. Pharyngoplasty
          • 3.1.7. Post-operative care
      • References
    • 13 Genital Reconstruction
      • 1. Paediatric genital reconstruction
        • 1.1. Introduction
        • 1.2. Embryology of the genitourinary tract
          • 1.2.1. Internal genitalia
          • 1.2.2. External genitalia
        • 1.3. Congenital abnormalities
          • 1.3.1. 46, XX DSDs: genetically female but high virility
          • 1.3.2. 46, XY DSD: genetically male but low virility
          • 1.3.3. Sex chromosome DSD
        • 1.4. Surgical management of DSD: childhood
          • 1.4.1. 46, XX DSD: surgical management
            • 1.4.1.1. Clitoroplasty
            • 1.4.1.3. Perineoplasty
          • 1.4.2. 46, XY DSD: genetically male but low virility
            • 1.4.2.1. Hypospadias
            • 1.4.2.2. Cryptorchidism
          • 1.4.3. Other congenital disorders
            • 1.4.3.1. Bladder exstrophy
            • 1.4.3.2. Micropenis
          • 1.4.4. Sex chromosome DSD
          • 1.4.5. Summary of paediatric genital reconstruction
      • 2. Adult genital reconstruction
        • 2.1. Male genital reconstruction
          • 2.1.1. Trauma
            • 2.1.1.1. Penis
            • 2.1.1.2. Scrotum
            • 2.1.1.3. Penetrating trauma
          • 2.1.2. Malignancy
            • 2.1.2.1. Penile cancer
            • 2.1.2.2. Infection
        • 2.2. Female genital reconstruction
          • 2.2.1. Trauma
            • 2.2.1.1. Female genital mutilation
            • 2.2.1.2. Physical assault
          • 2.2.2. Malignancy
            • 2.2.2.1. Vulval malignancy
            • 2.2.2.2. Vagina
        • 2.3. Gender reassignment
          • 2.3.1. Male-to-female reassignment
            • 2.3.1.1. Demasculinisation: orchidectomy and penile disassembly
            • 2.3.1.2. Feminisation: neoclitoris, vaginoplasty and meatus construction
          • 2.3.2. Female-to-male reassignment
            • 2.3.2.1. Phalloplasty and scrotoplasty
          • 2.3.3. Summary of adult genital reconstruction
      • References
    • 14 Vascular Anomalies
      • 1. Introduction and classification
      • 2. Vascular tumours
        • 2.1. Infantile haemangiomas
      • 3. Congenital haemangiomas: RICH, NICH and PICH
      • 4. Other benign tumours
        • 4.1. Tufted angioma: with or without Kasabach–Merritt phenomenon
        • 4.2. Spindle cell haemangioma
        • 4.3. Epithelioid haemangioma
        • 4.4. Pyogenic granuloma
      • 5. Locally aggressive tumours
        • 5.1. Kaposiform haemangioendothelioma
        • 5.2. Retiform haemangioendothelioma
        • 5.3. Papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma
        • 5.4. Composite haemangioendothelioma
        • 5.5. Kaposi sarcoma
      • 6. Malignant tumours
        • 6.1. Angiosarcoma
        • 6.2. Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma
      • 7. Vascular malformations
        • 7.1. Capillary malformations
        • 7.2. Venous malformations
        • 7.3. Lymphatic malformations
        • 7.4. Arteriovenous malformations
        • 7.5. Conclusion
      • References
  • Section 5 Aesthetic Surgery
    • 15 Liposuction
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Background
        • 2.1. History
        • 2.2. Patient selection
      • 3. Anatomy and areas of consideration
      • 4. Pre-operative assessment
      • 5. Anaesthesia options
      • 6. Invasive liposuction techniques
        • 6.1. Suction-assisted liposuction
        • 6.2. Power-assisted liposuction
        • 6.3. Ultrasound-assisted liposuction
        • 6.4. Laser-assisted liposuction
        • 6.5. Water-assisted liposuction
      • 7. Application of wetting solutions
      • 8. Techniques of infiltration
      • 9. Surgical planning
        • 9.1. Pre-operative marking
      • 10. Patient positioning
      • 11. Surgical instruments
      • 12. Compression garments
      • 13. Complications
        • 13.1. Peri-operative complications
        • 13.2. Early complications
        • 13.3. Late complications
      • 14. Non-invasive liposuction
      • 15. Conclusion
      • References
    • 16 Facial Aesthetic Surgery
      • 1. Patient selection
      • 2. Surgical anatomy of the face
        • 2.1. Soft tissue layer
        • 2.2. Nerve anatomy
          • 2.2.1. Sensory
          • 2.2.2. Motor
      • 3. Ageing face
        • 3.1. Assessment of facial ageing
          • 3.1.1. Soft tissue changes in ageing face
          • 3.1.2. Skeletal architecture in the ageing face
        • 3.2. Photoaging
      • 4. Surgical aesthetic treatment
        • 4.1. Facelift
          • 4.1.1. Operative techniques of facelift
            • 4.1.1.1. Subcutaneous facelift
            • 4.1.1.2. Subcutaneous facelift with SMAS manipulation
            • 4.1.1.3. Subcutaneous facelift with a separate SMAS flap (plus variations)
            • 4.1.1.4. Skoog facelift
            • 4.1.1.5. Lateral SMASectomy
            • 4.1.1.6. Subperiosteal facelift
          • 4.1.2. Complications of facelift procedures
            • 4.1.2.1. Haematoma
            • 4.1.2.2. Nerve injury
            • 4.1.2.3. Skin necrosis
            • 4.1.2.4. Facelift stigmata
            • 4.1.2.5. Other complications
        • 4.2. Upper third rejuvenation
          • 4.2.1. Blepharoplasty
            • 4.2.1.1. Upper blepharoplasty
            • 4.2.1.2. Lower blepharoplasty
          • 4.2.2. Brow lift
            • 4.2.2.1. Techniques
            • 4.2.2.2. Endoscopic brow lift
            • 4.2.2.3. Crenated direct brow lift technique
            • 4.2.2.4. Pretrichial brow lift
            • 4.2.2.5. Complications
        • 4.3. Skeletal augmentation
          • 4.3.1. Implant
          • 4.3.2. Genioplasty
          • 4.3.3. Midface skeletal augmentation
        • 4.4. Rhinoplasty
          • 4.4.1. Approach to rhinoplasty
          • 4.4.2. Options for incision
          • 4.4.3. Modifying nasal dorsum
          • 4.4.4. Nasal tip
      • 5. Non-surgical aesthetic treatment
        • 5.1. Chemical peels
        • 5.2. Dermabrasion
        • 5.3. Laser resurfacing
        • 5.4. Neuromodulators
        • 5.5. Fillers
      • References
    • 17 Blepharoplasty – Special Focus on Asian Blepharoplasty
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Anatomy
      • 3. Surgical techniques
        • 3.1. Pre-operative considerations
          • 3.1.1. Non-incisional technique: suture ligation
          • 3.1.2. Incisional technique: surgical resection
          • 3.1.3. Epicanthoplasty
        • 3.2. Post-operative considerations
        • 3.3. Complications
      • 4. Conclusion
      • References
    • 18 Aesthetic Breast Surgery
      • 1. Basics
        • 1.1. Breast embryology, development and anatomy
          • 1.1.1. Embryology and development
        • 1.2. Anatomy
        • 1.3. Breast implants
          • 1.3.1. History of implants in a nutshell
          • 1.3.2. Components of a breast implant
          • 1.3.3. Characteristics of breast implants
          • 1.3.4. Indications for shape of implants
          • 1.3.5. Profiles of breast implants
      • 2. Aesthetic breast surgery
        • 2.1. Breast augmentation
          • 2.1.1. Background
          • 2.1.2. Key components of the process of breast augmentation
          • 2.1.3. Patient education
          • 2.1.4. Pre-operative assessment
          • 2.1.5. Tissue-based planning for implant selection
          • 2.1.6. Pre-operative marking
          • 2.1.7. Incisions
          • 2.1.8. Planes of dissection
          • 2.1.9. Key steps in implant insertion
          • 2.1.10. Post-operative management
          • 2.1.11. Complications of breast augmentation
          • 2.1.12. Autologous fat transfer
        • 2.2. Mastopexy
          • 2.2.1. Background
          • 2.2.2. Pre-operative assessment
          • 2.2.3. Evaluation of ptosis
          • 2.2.4. Consent
          • 2.2.5. Pre-operative marking
          • 2.2.6. Surgical techniques
            • 2.2.6.1. Periareolar technique
            • 2.2.6.2. Vertical scar technique
          • 2.2.7. Post-operative care
          • 2.2.8. Tuberous breast deformity
        • 2.3. Breast reduction
          • 2.3.1. Background
          • 2.3.2. Clinical presentation
          • 2.3.3. Pre-operative assessment
          • 2.3.4. Consent
          • 2.3.5. Pre-operative marking
          • 2.3.6. Surgery
            • 2.3.6.1. Pedicle designs
            • 2.3.6.2. Skin patterns
          • 2.3.7. Post-operative care
      • References
      • Appendix: Useful documents and media
        • Breast augmentation videos
    • 19 Body Contouring
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. History of liposculpture
      • 3. Patient selection
      • 4. Pre-operative marking
      • 5. Tumescent anaesthesia
      • 6. Liposuction
      • 7. Complications of liposuction
      • 8. Abdominoplasty
        • 8.1. Layers of the abdominal wall
        • 8.2. Mini abdominoplasty
          • 8.2.1. Mini abdominoplasty technique
        • 8.3. Full abdominoplasty
          • 8.3.1. Full abdominoplasty technique
      • 9. Circumferential lipectomy
        • 9.1. Circumferential lipectomy technique
      • 10. The upper arm
        • 10.1. Arm lift technique
      • 11. The thigh
        • 11.1. Thigh lift technique
      • 12. Complications
      • References
      • Appendix 1
        • Definitions
      • Appendix 2
    • 20 The Evolution of Hair Transplant Surgery
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The biology of human hair
        • 2.1. Anatomy of the hair follicle
          • 2.1.1. Medulla
          • 2.1.2. Cortex
          • 2.1.3. Cuticle
          • 2.1.4. Inner root sheath
          • 2.1.5. Outer root sheath
        • 2.2. Embryology of the hair
        • 2.3. Hair life cycle
          • 2.3.1. Anagen
          • 2.3.2. Catagen
          • 2.3.3. Telogen
      • 3. Classification of hair loss disorders
      • 4. Indications for hair transplantation
        • 4.1. Androgenetic alopecia
        • 4.2. Cicatricial alopecia
      • 5. Hair transplantation
        • 5.1. Pre-operative patient assessment
        • 5.2. Intra-operative techniques
          • 5.2.1. Anaesthesia
          • 5.2.2. Harvesting of the donor site
            • 5.2.2.1. Follicular unit extraction
            • 5.2.2.2. Strip procedure
          • 5.2.3. Recipient site preparation
          • 5.2.4 Graft implantation
        • 5.3. Post-operative management and complications
      • 6. Advances in hair restoration surgery: where are we now?
        • 6.1. Follicular unit extraction
        • 6.2. Robotics in hair transplantation
        • 6.3. Automated FUE hair transplantation
        • 6.4. Stem cell therapy and cloning
      • 7. Conclusion
      • References
  • Index
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