Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage in Kenya

Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage in Kenya

By Anne-Marie Deisser (editor)
Book Description

In Kenya, cultural and natural heritage has a particular value. Its pre-historic heritage not only tells the story of man's origin and evolution but has also contributed to the understanding of the earth's history: fossils and artefacts spanning over 27 million years have been discovered and conserved by the National Museums of Kenya (NMK). Alongside this, the steady rise in the market value of African art has also affected Kenya. Demand for African tribal art has surpassed that for antiquities of Roman, Byzantine, and Egyptian origin, and in African countries currently experiencing conflicts, this activity invariably attracts looters, traffickers and criminal networks.

This book brings together essays by heritage experts from different backgrounds, including conservation, heritage management, museum studies, archaeology, environment and social sciences, architecture and landscape, geography, philosophy and economics to explore three key themes: the underlying ethics, practices and legal issues of heritage conservation; the exploration of architectural and urban heritage of Nairobi; and the natural heritage, landscapes and sacred sites in relation to local Kenyan communities and tourism. It thus provides an overview of conservation practices in Kenya from 2000 to 2015 and highlights the role of natural and cultural heritage as a key factor of social-economic development, and as a potential instrument for conflict resolution.

Table of Contents
  • Front-Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents
  • Figures
  • Tables
  • List of contributors
  • Introduction
  • 1 Access to heritage conservation as a human right in Kenya
    • Introduction
    • Culture, heritage and human rights in Kenya
    • African Union and Kenyan legal standards
    • Threats to Kenyan cultural heritage: a case study of the Kenyan coast
    • Conclusion
  • 2 Assessment of legislation on cultural heritage resources in Kenya
    • Introduction
    • Kenya’s cultural heritage policy and legislation
    • Kenya’s cultural heritage policy framework
    • Cultural heritage as a human right
    • Heritage and intellectual property rights
    • Bones of contention in Kenya’s CHRM related legislations
    • Cultural heritage management in Kenya: which direction?
    • Conclusion
  • 3 The concept of intangible cultural heritage in Kenya
    • Introduction
    • The place of ICH in the conservation of Kenya’s history and identity
    • Kenyan ICH in the age of globalization
    • ICH, economic and socio-​cultural development in Kenya
    • ICH and environmental conservation in Kenya
    • Safeguarding and preservation of ICH in Kenya
    • The roles of governments, NGOs and communities in safeguarding and protecting intangible cultural heritage
    • Digitization of intangible cultural heritage in Kenya
    • Ethical issues in preserving intangible cultural heritage
    • Conclusion
  • 4 The conservation of public monuments as a tool for building collective identity in Nairobi
    • Introduction
    • Public monuments: negotiating a collective identity
      • Monuments in Nairobi’s Central Business District
      • Queen Victoria (1819–​1901)
      • Lord Delamere (1870–​1931)
      • Dedan Kimathi (1920–​56)
      • King George V (1865–​1936)
      • Jomo Kenyatta (1889–​1978)
      • King George VI (1895–​1952)
      • Tom Mboya (d. 1969)
      • The African War Memorial or Carrier Corps
    • Monuments: a unified heritage for disparate peoples
    • City Square as a monument
    • Carrier Corps monument –​ made by who and for whom?
      • Conservation of the Carrier Corps
    • Conclusion
  • 5 Reflections on architectural morphology in Nairobi, Kenya: implications for conservation of the built heritage
    • Introduction
    • Historical development
    • Historic architectural morphology
      • Building materials
      • Foreign building styles and their attributes
      • A) European influences
      • B) Asian influences
    • Status of historic buildings
    • Conservation management strategies
    • Legal framework for conservation in Kenya
      • Listing
      • Public participation efforts
    • Conclusion
  • 6 The bao: a board game in Africa’s antiquity
    • Introduction
    • Nature of the bao board game
    • Playing the bao
    • A brief history of the study of the bao board games
      • Bao game boards in East Africa’s prehistoric times
      • Bao game boards heritage at the Hyrax Hill pre​historic sites in Nakuru, Kenya
    • Cultural aspects of the bao game in traditional African societies
    • The bao in contemporary society
    • Sustainability and conservation
    • Conclusion
  • 7 Traditional technologies: a conservation challenge
    • Introduction
    • Traditional technologies in Kenya and their current state of conservation
    • Effects of Christianity and Western education on traditional technologies
    • Traditional technology: a case study of pottery making
    • Pottery making technology of the Cushitic speakers
    • Pottery making among the Coastal Bantu speakers
    • Summary and conclusions
      • a) Research and documentation
      • b) Potters’ community capacity-​building activities and improvement of local marketing strategies
      • c) Enhancement of transmission methods
  • 8 Wildlife heritage ownership and utilization in Kenya –​ the past, present and future
    • Introduction
    • Wildlife heritage ownership
    • Wildlife heritage ownership history in Kenya
      • The pre-​colonial phase
      • The colonial phase
      • The independence phase
    • Return to community and wildlife heritage stewardship
    • Conclusion
  • 9 Evaluating rural heritage conservation in Kenya: the case of Karue Hill, Embu County
    • Introduction
    • Asserting the heritage value of rural visual resources
    • Quantifying rural heritage; developing positive theory
    • Citizen participation in rural landscape conservation
    • Karue Hill, Embu County, Kenya
    • Reassessing development and conservation in rural landscapes
    • Conclusion
  • 10 Development of cultural heritage tourism in Kenya: a strategy for diversification of tourism products
    • Introduction
    • Defining and conceptualizing cultural heritage tourism
    • Typology of cultural heritage tourism
    • Cultural heritage and sustainability
    • Authenticity and commoditization
    • Theoretical framework
    • Cultural heritage tourism in Kenya
    • Cultural heritage tourism in Nairobi
    • Discussion
      • Results from tourists
      • Types of tourists
      • Preferred type of tourism
      • Reasons for visiting
      • Results from site managers
      • Site information
      • Potential sites
    • Challenges of cultural heritage tourism
    • Conclusions and policy recommendations
  • 11 Significance of traditional oral information and natural artefacts for heritage conservation at the Kit-​Mikayi cultural site
    • Introduction
    • Description of the Kit-​Mikayi site
    • Research design
    • Survey results and discussion
      • Respondents’ perceptions and cultural interpretation of the site
      • Respondents’ cultural linkages and knowledge on Kit-​Mikayi
      • Identity and significance of folklores, songs and dances
      • Types of services derived from the site
      • Spiritual and religious significance of the site
      • Preference for socio-​economic cultural practices
    • Conclusion
  • 12 Community participation in conservation of gazetted cultural heritage sites: a case study of the Agikuyu shrine at Mukurwe wa Nyagathanga
    • Introduction
    • The concept of participation in conservation programmes
    • Regulatory and institutional framework for conserving heritage sites
    • Data collection methods
    • Discussion of results
      • The purposes of restoration and conservation
      • Brief history of the site and its status
    • Stakeholder interest in the restoration and conservation of the Agikuyu shrine
    • Further efforts to restore and conserve the Agikuyu shrine site
      • Murang’a county government initiatives on restoration of the Agikuyu shrine
    • Further suggested areas of interest of material and non-​material cultural knowledge
    • Local community participation in conservation programmes
    • Challenges faced in management of the Agikuyu shrine site
      • Conclusion
    • Recommendations
  • 13 Fisheries as heritage: indigenous methods of fishing and conservation among the Luo fishers of Lake Victoria, Kenya
    • Introduction
    • The contemporary situation
    • The indigenous systems of conservation
    • Conservation, threats and regulations
    • Conclusion
  • 14 Tracing a forgotten heritage: the place of Mau Mau memory and culture in Kenya
    • Introduction
    • The concept of memorialization
    • Kenyatta and the Mau Mau legacy: 1963–​1978
    • Moi and the Mau Mau memory, 1978–​2002
    • Mau Mau heritage sites
    • Challenges in conservation: the case study of war trenches
    • Conclusion
  • References
  • Index
  • Back-Cover
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