The Alor-Pantar languages
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The Alor-Pantar languages

By Marian Klamer
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Book Description

The Alor-Pantar family constitutes the westernmost outlier group of Papuan(Non-Austronesian) languages. Its twenty or so languages are spoken onthe islands of Alor and Pantar, located just north of Timor, in eastern In-donesia. Together with the Papuan languages of Timor, they make up theTimor-Alor-Pantar family. The languages average 5,000 speakers and areunder pressure from the local Malay variety as well as the national lan-guage, Indonesian.This volume studies the internal and external linguistic history of thisinteresting group, and showcases some of its unique typological features,such as the preference to index the transitive patient-like argument onthe verb but not the agent-like one; the extreme variety in morphologi-cal alignment patterns; the use of plural number words; the existence ofquinary numeral systems; the elaborate spatial deictic systems involvingan elevation component; and the great variation exhibited in their kinshipsystems.Unlike many other Papuan languages, Alor-Pantar languages do not ex-hibit clause-chaining, do not have switch reference systems, never suffixsubject indexes to verbs, do not mark gender, but do encode clusivity intheir pronominal systems. Indeed, apart from a broadly similar head-finalsyntactic profile, there is little else that the Alor-Pantar languages sharewith Papuan languages spoken in other regions. While all of them showsome traces of contact with Austronesian languages, in general, borrow-ing from Austronesian has not been intense, and contact with Malay andIndonesian is a relatively recent phenomenon in most of the Alor-Pantarregion.

Table of Contents
  • Preface and acknowledgementsMarian Klamer
  • The Alor-Pantar languages: Linguistic context, history and typologyMarian Klamer
    • Introduction
    • Current linguistic situation on Alor and Pantar
      • The Papuan languages of Alor and Pantar
      • Indigenous Austronesian languageslan]Austronesian language(s) on Alor and Pantar
      • Indonesian and Alor Malay
    • History of research on the Alor and Pantar languages
    • History of Alor and Pantar languages and their speakers
      • Prehistory
      • Historical records on Alor and Pantar
      • Contact
    • Typological overview
      • Phonology
      • Pronominalsbj]pronoun indexing and morphological alignment
      • Possession
      • Plural number words
      • Serial verb constructions
      • Postpositions
      • Morphological typology
      • Typological features of AP languages in the Papuan context
    • Lexicon
      • Cognates and reconstructed vocabulary
      • Numerals and numeral systems
      • Numeral classifiers
      • Kinship terminology
    • Challenges for future research
    • Data collection and archiving
  • The internal history of the Alor-Pantar language familyGary Holton & Laura C. Robinson
    • Introduction
    • Sound correspondences and reconstruction
      • Voiced stops
      • Voiceless stops
      • Fricatives
      • Nasals
      • Liquids
      • Glides
      • Reconstructed proto-Alor-Pantarlan]proto-Alor-Pantar vocabulary
    • Internal subgrouping
      • Subgrouping based on shared phonological innovationssbj]innovation
      • Subgrouping based on lexical characters
    • Discussion
  • The relatedness of Timor-Kisar and Alor-Pantar languages: A preliminary demonstrationAntoinette Schapper, Juliette Huber & Aone van Engelenhoven
    • Introduction
    • Sound correspondences
      • Reconstruction of bilabial stops
      • Reconstruction of coronal stops
      • Reconstruction of velar stops
      • Reconstruction of fricatives
      • Reconstruction of glides
      • Reconstruction of liquids
      • Reconstruction of nasals
    • Summary of correspondences and reconstructed phonemes
    • Discussion
    • Appendix
      • Data supporting the additional pAPlan]proto-Alor-Pantar reconstructions
      • Data supporting the additional pTIMlan]proto-Timor reconstructions
      • List of cognates and pTAPlan]proto-Timor Alor Pantar reconstruction
  • The linguistic position of the Timor-Alor-Pantar languagesGary Holton & Laura C. Robinson
    • Introduction
    • Typological evidence
      • Phonology
      • Morphology
      • Syntax
    • Pronominalsbj]pronoun evidence
    • Lexicon
      • Lexical evidence for the NH hypothesis
      • Lexical evidence for the TNGlan]Trans-New Guinea language(s) hypothesis
    • Comparison with individual languages
      • South Bird's Head
      • Dani
      • Wissel Lakeslan]Wissel Lakes language(s)
      • West Bomberailan]Bomberai language(s)
    • Discussion
  • Kinship in the Alor-Pantar languagesGary Holton
    • Introduction
    • Kin terminology
      • Western Pantar
      • Teiwa
      • Blagar
      • Kiraman
      • Adang
      • Abui
      • Kamang
      • Wersing
    • Summary and comparison of kinship terms
    • Marriage prescriptions
      • Symmetrical exchange
      • Asymmetrical exchange
      • Non-prescriptive systems
    • Discussion
  • Elevation in the spatial deictic systems of Alor-Pantar languagesAntoinette Schapper
    • Introduction
    • Terminological preliminaries
    • Alor-Pantar elevationalsbj]elevation systems
      • Wersinglan]Wersing
      • Teiwalan]Teiwa
      • Abuilan]Abui
      • Blagarlan]Blagar
      • Adang
      • Western Pantarlan]Western Pantar
      • Kamanglan]Kamang
      • Summary
    • History of AP elevationsbj]elevation terms
      • Proto-elevationalssbj]elevation
      • Proto-elevationalsbj]elevation verbs
      • Elaborations of the proto-system
    • Conclusion
  • Numeral systems in the Alor-Pantar languagesAntoinette Schapper & Marian Klamer
    • Introduction
    • Terminological preliminaries
    • A brief note on sound changessbj]sound change and numerals
    • Numerals `one' to `five'
    • Numerals `six' to `nine'
      • Numeral `six': Simplexsbj]simplex numeral and compound forms
      • Numerals `seven' to `nine'
        • Additivesbj]additive numeral base-five compounds
        • Subtractivesbj]subtractive numeral base-ten compounds and extensions
        • Other mixed systems for `seven' to `nine'
    • Numerals `ten' and above
      • Numeral `ten': multiplied base-ten compound
      • Numerals within decades
      • Multiples of `hundred' and `thousand'
    • Alor-Pantar numerals from a typological and areal perspective
      • Typological rarities in AP numeral(s)
      • AP numerals in their areal context
    • Conclusions and discussion
    • Sources
    • Appendix
      • Cardinal numeralssbj]cardinal numeral(s) in the Alor-Pantar languages
      • Numerals `one' to `ten' in Austronesian languageslan]Austronesian language(s) W of Alor-Pantar
      • Numerals `one' to `ten' in Austronesian languageslan]Austronesian language(s) S & E of Alor-Pantar
  • Numeral words and arithmetic operations in the Alor-Pantar languagesMarian Klamer, Antoinette Schapper, Greville Corbett, Gary Holton, František Kratochvíl & Laura C. Robinson
    • Introduction
    • Operations to create numeral words
      • Cardinal numerals
      • Ordinal numeralssbj]ordinal numeral(s)
      • Distributive numeralssbj]distributive numerals
        • Forms and distribution of distributivessbj]distributive numerals
        • Regular distributivesbj]distributive numerals formation
        • Irregularities in distributivesbj]distributive numerals formation
    • Structures expressing arithmetic operations
      • Addition
      • Subtraction
      • Multiplication
      • Division
      • Fractions
    • Summary and conclusions
      • Sources
    • Appendix
      • Ordinalsbj]ordinal numeral(s) and Distributive Numeralssbj]distributive numerals
      • Numeral Questionnaire used in the field
        • Numerals
        • Points for further elicitation
        • Numerals 1-100
        • Higher cardinalssbj]cardinal numeral(s)
  • Plural number words in the Alor-Pantar languagesMarian Klamer, Antoinette Schapper & Greville Corbett
    • Introduction
    • Pluralsbj]plural (number) word number words across Alor-Pantar
    • Syntax of pluralsbj]plural (number) word words in Alor-Pantar
      • Western Pantarlan]Western Pantar
      • Teiwalan]Teiwa
      • Kamanglan]Kamang
      • Abuilan]Abui
      • Wersinglan]Wersing
      • Summary
    • Semantics of pluralsbj]plural (number) word words in Alor-Pantar
      • Completeness
      • Abundance
      • Individuation
      • Individuation of mass to count
      • Clan or place name to members
      • Partitive
      • Vocative
      • Summary
    • Typological perspectives on pluralsbj]plural (number) word words in AP languages
    • Conclusions
  • Participant marking: Corpus study and video elicitationSebastian Fedden & Dunstan Brown
    • Introduction
    • Alignment
    • Number of person prefix series
    • Video elicitation
      • Video stimuli
      • Speakers and procedure
    • Participant properties
      • Abui
        • Inflection classes in Abui
        • Affectedness in Abui
        • Volitionality in Abui
      • Kamang
        • Inflection classes in Kamang
        • Affectedness in Kamang
      • Animacy and verb classes in Teiwa
    • Discussion and conclusion
    • Appendix
      • The Video Elicitation Task
        • Background
        • Task
          • Materials
          • Requirements
          • Number of speakers
          • Procedure
          • Further probing and elicitation
          • List of video clips
  • Indexes
    • Name index
    • Language index
    • Subject index
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