Consumer data protection in Brazil, China and Germany - a comparative study
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Consumer data protection in Brazil, China and Germany - a comparative study

By Rainer Metz
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Book Description

The rapid development of new information and communication technologies has changed people’s everyday life and consumption patterns significantly. The worldwide spread of those technologies provides many innovations for consumers, but it can also bear risks, such as the indiscriminate collection, storage and cross-border flow of personal data, illegal spying on Internet activities, dissemination of personal information, and abuse of user passwords. The study deals with the current state of consumer data protection law in Brazil, China and Germany from a comparative perspective. It covers the main legal issues of consumer privacy and data protection in these countries and seeks to explain current issues and case law concerning consumer data protection from a practical perspective.

The rapid development of new information and communication technologies has changed people’s everyday life and consumption patterns significantly. The worldwide spread of those technologies provides many innovations for consumers, but it can also bear risks, such as the indiscriminate collection, storage and cross-border flow of personal data, illegal spying on Internet activities, dissemination of personal information, and abuse of user passwords. The study deals with the current state of consumer data protection law in Brazil, China and Germany from a comparative perspective. It covers the main legal issues of consumer privacy and data protection in these countries and seeks to explain current issues and case law concerning consumer data protection from a practical perspective.

Table of Contents
  • GIZ_book_160509.pdf
    • Table of Contents
    • Chapter 1 Study Structure
      • A. Project Summary
      • B. Research Activities
      • C. General Overview of the Study
    • Chapter 2 Country Studies on Consumer Data Protection (Brazil, China, Germany) and International Initiatives
      • A. Consumer Data Protection in Brazil (Prof. Dr. Danilo Doneda)
        • I. Introduction
        • II. Overview and scope of legislation addressing consumer data protection
          • 1. Character of legislation
          • 2. General legal framework for consumer data protection
          • 3. Telecommunication
          • 4. Banks
          • 5. Media-related acts
          • 6. Specific acts for e-commerce
        • III. Applicability of data protection acts
        • IV. Definitions of consumer and data
        • V. General guiding principles
        • VI. Collecting, storing and processing consumer data
        • VII. Approaches to consent
        • VIII. Publicity and transparency
        • IX. Data security
        • X. Data control, data portability and the right to access, modify and delete collected data
        • XI. Roles and responsibilities of intermediaries
        • XII. Access to user data by third parties
        • XIII. Provisions on data retention
        • XIV. Transfer of data on an international scale, transfer to third countries and requirements for data transfer outside the country
        • XV. Enforcement
          • 1. Civil law
          • 2. Criminal law
          • 3. Administrative law
        • XVI. Role of self-regulation and co-regulation
      • B. Consumer Data Protection in China (Prof. Dr. Zhou Hanhua)
        • I. Introduction
        • II. Overview and scope of legislation addressing consumer data protection
          • 1. Character of the legislation
          • 2. General legal framework for consumer data protection
          • 3. Telecommunication
          • 4. Banks
          • 5. Media-related acts
          • 6. Specific acts for e-commerce
        • III. Applicability of data protection acts
        • IV. Definition of consumer and data
        • V. General guiding principles
        • VI. Collecting, storing and processing consumer data
        • VII. Approaches to consent
        • VIII. Publicity and transparency
        • IX. Data security
        • X. Data control, data portability and the right to access, modify and delete collected data
        • XI. Roles and responsibilities of intermediaries
        • XII. Access to user data by third parties
        • XIII. Provisions on data retention
        • XIV. Transfer of data on an international scale, transfer to third countries and requirements for data transfer outside the country
        • XV. Enforcement
          • 1. Civil law
          • 2. Criminal law
          • 3. Administrative law
        • XVI. Role of self-regulation and co-regulation
      • C. Consumer Data Protection in Germany (Prof. Dr. Gerald Spindler)
        • I. Introduction
        • II. Overview and scope of legislation addressing consumer data protection
          • 1. Character of the legislation
          • 2. General legal framework for consumer data protection
          • 3. Telecommunication
          • 4. Specific acts for e-commerce
        • III. Applicability of data protection acts
        • IV. Definitions of consumer and data
          • 1. Personal data under the Data Protection Directive
            • a. Definition of personal data
            • b. Anonymized, pseudonymized and encrypted data
            • c. Absolute and relative approach to the identifiablity of persons
          • 2. Personal data under the General Data Protection Regulation
        • V. Basic concepts
        • VI. Collecting, storing and processing consumer data
        • VII. Approaches to consent
          • 1. Informed consent according to the Data Protection Directive
          • 2. Informed consent and obligation of transparency under the General Data Protection Regulation
        • VIII. Publicity and transparency
          • 1. Information
          • 2. Notification
          • 3. Privacy by design and default
          • 4. Privacy seal
        • IX. Data security
        • X. Data control, data portability and the right to access, modify and delete data collected
        • XI. Roles and responsibilities of intermediaries
          • 1. Controller and processor under the Data Protection Directive
            • a. The controller
            • b. Joint controlling
            • c. Processing on behalf of the controller
          • 2. Controller and processor under the General Data Protection Regulation
            • a. Rules for the controller
            • b. Joint controllers
            • c. Rules regarding the processor
        • XII. Access to user data by third parties
        • XIII. Provisions on data retention
        • XIV. Transfer of data on an international scale, transfer to third countries and requirements for data transfer outside the country
          • 1. By processor outside the EU/European Economic Area (EEA)
          • 2. Data transfer to third countries
            • a. Data Protection Directive
            • b. General Data Protection Regulation
            • c. Place of jurisdiction
            • d. Third-country actions against data controllers
        • XV. Enforcement
          • 1. Civil law
          • 2. Criminal law
          • 3. Administrative law
          • 4. The Data Protection Officer
            • a. The position of the Data Protection Officer
            • b. Rights and powers of the Data Protection Officer
            • c. Independence of the Data Protection Officer and the special dismissal protection
            • d. Status and duties of the Data Protection Officer towards the data protection supervisory authority
            • e. The Data Protection Officer and the proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation
        • XVI. Role of self-regulation and co-regulation
      • D. Review of International Initiatives on Consumer Data Protection (Consumers International)
        • I. UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection
        • II. OECD Guidelines
        • III. The Global Privacy Enforcement Network (GPEN)
        • IV. Convention 108
        • V. Regional Initiatives
          • 1. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
          • 2. Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
          • 3. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
    • Chapter 3 Law in Practice: Current Issues, Challenges and Case-Law for the Enforcement of Laws and Regulations on Consumer Data Protection
      • A. Current Judicial and Administrative Issues of Consumer Data Protection in Brazil (Prof. Dr. Danilo Doneda)
        • I. Credit scoring
          • 1. Case
          • 2. Concept of credit scoring
          • 3. Credit risk assessment in general contracts
          • 4. Regulation of consumer credit databases in the Consumer Defense Code
          • 5. Positive Credit Information Law (Law No. 12.414 of 2011)
          • 6. Legality of the credit scoring system
          • 7. Limitation: privacy and transparency
          • 8. Moral damages
        • II. Consumer rights violations databases
          • 1. Sindec
          • 2. Consumidor.gov.br
            • a. Wal-Mart
            • b. Internet connection services
      • B. Current Consumer Data Protection Issues Before Chinese Tribunals (Prof. Dr. Zhou Hanhua)
        • I. Civil claims
          • 1. Illegal collection and use of personal information
          • 2. Disclosure and illegal release of customers’ personal information
          • 3. Sending electronic advertisements without customers’ prior consent
          • 4. The boundaries of the legal protection of privacy
        • II. Criminal justice
          • 1. Acquiring personal information
          • 2. Selling and illegally providing citizens’ personal information
          • 3. Criminal means of illegally acquiring citizens’ personal information
          • 4. “Aggravated circumstances”
        • III. Administrative enforcement of law
      • C. Current Issues and Case Law Concerning Consumer Data Protection in Germany and Europe (Prof. Dr. Gerald Spindler)
        • I. Data protection in social networks
        • II. Credit scoring
        • III. Cloud computing
        • IV. “Big data”
        • V. Profiling
        • VI. Unsolicited e-mails
        • VII. Rating platforms
        • VIII. The right to be forgotten
        • IX. Data Retention
      • D. Challenges of New Technologies for Consumer Data Protection (Privacy International with Consumers International)
        • I. Cloud Storage
        • II. Cloud Computing
        • III. Big data
        • IV. Social Media
        • V. Internet of Things
        • VI. Smart Cities, Buildings and People
        • VII. Privacy friendly technologies
        • VIII. Disk encryption
        • IX. Browse configurations and Ad-blocks
        • X. HTTPS/TLS
        • XI. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
        • XII. The Onion Router (TOR)
        • XIII. Off the Record (OTR)
    • Chapter 4 Comparative Thematic Issues of Consumer Data Protection
      • I. Fundamentals and the existing legal framework
      • II. Applicability of data protection acts
        • 1. Applicability to cross-border cases
        • 2. Applicability on the national level
      • III. Personal data
      • IV. General guiding principles
      • V. Restrictions to the collection, processing and transfer of (consumer) data
      • VI. Approaches towards the principle of consent
      • VII. Transparency
      • VIII. Responsibility
      • IX. International transfer of data
      • X. Data retention
      • XI. Enforcement
      • XII. Self-regulation and co-regulation
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