Educational Mobility of Second-generation Turks: Cross-national Perspectives
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Educational Mobility of Second-generation Turks: Cross-national Perspectives

By Phillipp Schnell
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Book Description

This volume investigates educational inequalities among children of Turkish immigrants in Austria, France, and Sweden. One of the largest immigrant groups in these countries, Turks nonetheless face discrimination and limited opportunities, and this study shows how those problems play out in education. One of its key findings is that systems that provide more favorable institutional arrangements lead to greater economic mobility in the second generation.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Table of Contents
    • Acknowledgements
    • 1 The Educational Mobility of the European Second Generation
      • A Three-Country Comparison
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Ethnic educational inequalities: A theoretical framework
      • 1.3 Research questions and design
      • 1.4 Structure of the book
    • 2 The Worlds of Turkish Fathers and Mothers
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Periods of Turkish immigration to Austria, France and Sweden
      • 2.3 Policy responses by the three receiving countries
        • 2.3.1 Austria
        • 2.3.2 France
        • 2.3.3 Sweden
      • 2.4 Turkish immigrants in five urban destinations
      • 2.5 Comparing the relative positions of the parental generation across five cities
      • 2.6 Conclusion
    • 3 An Initial Look at Education Outcomes
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Education levels reached by young adults in Austria, France and Sweden
      • 3.3 Accounting for compositional differences
      • 3.4 Inter-generational educational mobility
      • 3.5 Conclusion
    • 4 Behind the Scenes: The Family Examined
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Parental involvement as social capital
      • 4.3 Older siblings’ involvement as social capital
      • 4.4 Do Turkish families muster more family support for education?
      • 4.5 Conclusion
    • 5 Beyond the Family: Peers and Teachers
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Social relationships with peers and teachers
      • 5.3 Peer group characteristics of the Turkish second generation
      • 5.4 Student-teacher relationships among the Turkish second generation
      • 5.5 Peers and teachers as mediating actors in processes of educational attainment
      • 5.6 Differences between the comparison group and second-generation Turks
      • 5.7 Conclusion
    • 6 Navigating the System
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Education pathways compared – the perspective on institutional arrangements
        • 6.2.1 France
        • 6.2.2 Sweden
        • 6.2.3 Austria
      • 6.3 Conclusion
    • 7 Interactions between Individual-level and Institutional-level Factors
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 What causes inequalities in education careers within systems?
        • 7.2.1 France
        • 7.2.2 Sweden
        • 7.2.3 Austria
      • 7.3 The relevance of educational resources for mobility in education
      • 7.4 Conclusion
    • 8 Explaining Cross-national Differences in Educational Mobility
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Cross-national and cross-city differences in educational mobility
      • 8.3 Explaining differences in educational mobility
      • 8.4 Interactions between individual-level and institutional-level factors
    • Appendix
      • PART A Survey samples, response rates and weights
        • 1 The TIES survey in Austria, France and Sweden
        • 2 Comparing the TIES survey with reference data
      • PART B Measurement, analysis strategies and additional outcomes
        • 2 The Worlds of Turkish Fathers and Mothers
        • 3 An Initial Look at Education Outcomes
        • 4 Behind the Scenes: The Family Examined
        • 5 Beyond the Family: Peers and Teachers
        • 6 Navigating the System
        • 7 Interactions between Individual-level and Institutional-level Factors
    • Bibliography
    • Other IMISCOE Research titles
  • List of Figures and Tables
    • Figures
      • Figure 2.1 Region of origin of the parental generation, by city
      • Figure 2.2 Percentage distribution of job status in quartiles of the ISEI index, parental generation, by city (%)
      • Figure 2.3 The parental generation’s host country language ability, by city (%)
      • Figure 3.1 Differences in education outcomes before (‘gross’) and after (‘net’) controlling for parents’ education levels, by city (odds ratios)
      • Figure 3.2 Long-range upward mobility in second-generation Turks, by city (%)
      • Figure 4.1 Mean and percentage distribution of the main indicators of parental support, by city
      • Figure 4.2 Predicted probability of leaving school early for second-generation Turks, by city and parental support index
      • Figure 4.3 Predicted probability of achieving a post-secondary/tertiary education for second-generation Turks, by city and parental support index
      • Figure 4.4 Mean and percentage distribution of the main indicators of sibling support, by city
      • Figure 4.5 Predicted probability of leaving school early for second-generation Turks, by city and sibling support index
      • Figure 4.6 Predicted probability of achieving post-secondary/tertiary education for second-generation Turks, by city and sibling support index
      • Figure 5.1 Perceived importance of peers in supporting studies
      • Figure 5.2 Mean and percentage distribution of the main indicators of student-teacher relationships, by city
      • Figure 6.1 Outflow rates for France (Paris and Strasbourg), by group (%)
      • Figure 6.2 Outflow rates for Sweden (Stockholm), by group (%)
      • Figure 6.3 Outflow rates for the comparison group in Austria (Vienna and Linz) (%)
      • Figure 6.4 Outflow rates for the Turkish second generation in Austria (Vienna and Linz) (%)
      • Figure 7.1 Predicted probability of continuing in the academically orientated tracks at different transition points for the Turkish second generation and the comparison group in France
      • Figure 7.2 Predicted probability of continuing in the academically orientated tracks at different transition points for the Turkish second generation and the comparison group in Sweden
      • Figure 7.3 Predicted probability of continuing in the academically orientated tracks at different transition points for the Turkish second generation and the comparison group in Austria
    • Tables
      • Table 1.1 The main structural characteristics of education systems in Sweden, France and Austria
      • Table 1.2 Total numbers per group and per city in Austria, France and Sweden
      • Table 1.3 Age and gender distribution according to group and city
      • Table 1.4 Levels of comparison conducted in this study
      • Table 2.1 Numbers of Turkish citizens in Austria, France and Sweden in 1973, 1982, 1990 and 2006
      • Table 2.2 Years of immigration of the parental generation, by city (%)
      • Table 2.3 Provinces of origin of the parental generation according to degree of development, by city (%)
      • Table 2.4 Ethnic and religious composition of the parental generation, by city (%)
      • Table 2.5 Lowest and highest levels of education among the Turkish parental generation, by city (%)
      • Table 2.6 Family structure of the parental generation, by city (%)
      • Table 2.7 Schematic summary of the relative position of the first-generation Turks, by city
      • Table 3.1 Education levels of second-generation Turks and the comparison group, by city (%)
      • Table 3.2 Parents’ levels of education, by group and city (%)
      • Table 3.3 Ordered logistic regression of education levels (odds ratios)
      • Table 3.4 Inter-generational educational mobility of the Turkish second generation, by city (%)
      • Table 4.1 Parental involvement measures in the TIES survey
      • Table 4.2 Correlations between the dimensions of parental support and family characteristics
      • Table 4.3 Early school leaving and achieving post-secondary/tertiary education, by group and city (%)
      • Table 4.4 Binomial logistic regression of leaving school early for second-generation Turks (odds ratios)
      • Table 4.5 Binomial logistic regression of achieving post-secondary/tertiary education for second-generation Turks (odds ratios)
      • Table 4.6 Correlations between the dimensions of sibling support and family characteristics
      • Table 4.7 Importance of parental and sibling support during compulsory school, by group and city
      • Table 4.8 Binomial logistic regression of achieving post-secondary/tertiary education (odds ratios)
      • Table 4.9 Interaction effects of family support and the second generation (odds ratios)
      • Table 5.1 Ethnic composition of ‘street’ and ‘school’ peer groups, by city (%)
      • Table 5.2 Correlations between the ethnic composition of peer groups and perceived school segregation
      • Table 5.3 Peers without a diploma, by city (%)
      • Table 5.4 Binomial logistic regression of achieving post-secondary/tertiary education for second-generation Turks controlled for peer characteristics and student-teacher relationships (odds ratios and % change in odds)
      • Table 5.5 Binomial logistic regression of achieving post-secondary/tertiary education for second-generation Turks, controlled for peer characteristics, student-teacher relationships and parents’ education and support (odds ratios and % change in odds)
      • Table 5.6 Peer group and teacher characteristics for the comparison group and second-generation Turks, by city (means; %)
      • Table 5.7 Significant findings on achieving post-secondary/tertiary education for both groups (odds ratios and % change in odds)
      • Table 6.1 Pre-school attendance in Paris and Strasbourg, by group (% and age)
      • Table 6.2 Typology of education pathways in Paris and Strasbourg, by group and city (%)
      • Table 6.3 Pre-school attendance in Stockholm, by group (% and years)
      • Table 6.4 Typology of education pathways in Stockholm, by group (%)
      • Table 6.5 Pre-school attendance in Vienna and Linz, by group (% and age)
      • Table 6.6 Typology of education pathways in Vienna and Linz, by group and city (%)
      • Table 6.7 Favourable and unfavourable conditions and practices for upward mobility in education
      • Table 7.1 Analytical strategy for analysing education pathways
      • Table 7.2 Multinomial logistic regression of track chosen in upper-secondary education in France (odds ratios)
      • Table 7.3 Binomial logistic models of continuing in post-secondary/tertiary education in France (odds ratios)
      • Table 7.4 Binomial logistic regression predicting track placement at the transition to upper-secondary and tertiary education in Sweden (odds ratios)
      • Table 7.5 Binomial logistic regression predicting track placement at the first transition to lower-secondary education in Austria (odds ratios)
      • Table 7.6 Conditional multinomial logistic regression predicting track placement at the transition to upper-secondary education in Austria (odds ratios)
      • Table 7.7 Binomial logistic regression predicting the transition into tertiary education in Austria (odds ratios)
      • Table 7.8 Main education routes for second-generation Turks in Austria, France and Sweden
      • Table 7.9 Overview of individual-level factors (independent variables)
      • Table 7.10 Schematic overview of significant correlations between individual-level factors and education pathways for second-generation Turks in Austria, France and Sweden
      • Table A1 Main characteristics of the TIES samples in Austria, France and Sweden
      • Table A2 Educational attainment and selected occupations of the Turkish first generation compared: Austrian Census and TIES samples in Vienna and Linz (%)
      • Table A3 Educational attainment of the Turkish second generation (aged 20-26 years) compared: LiZW and TIES samples in Vienna and Linz (%)
      • Table A4 Educational attainment of the Turkish first generation compared: Family History Survey and TIES samples in Paris and Strasbourg (%)
      • Table A5 Educational attainment of the Turkish second generation compared: TeO Survey and TIES samples in Paris and Strasbourg (%)
      • Table A6 Three main reasons for migration from Turkey, fathers (%) (Chapter 2, Section 2.4)
      • Table A7 Three main reasons for migration from Turkey, mothers (%) (Chapter 2, Section 2.4)
      • Table A8 Respondents still in school, by city and group (%) (Chapter 3, Section 3.1)
      • Table A9 EDU Codes classification for Austria, Sweden and France (Chapter 3, Section 3.1)
      • Table A10 Descriptive outcomes of main independent variables (mean, standard deviation) – second-generation Turks by city (Chapter 3, Section 3.3)
      • Table A11 Ordered logistic regression on education level (Chapter 3, Section 3.3)
      • Table A12 Descriptive outcomes of independent variables, by group and city (Chapter 4, Section 4.2)
      • Table A13 Binomial logistic regression of leaving school early for second-generation Turks (odds ratios) – sibling support, by country (Chapter 4, Section 4.3)
      • Table A14 Binomial logistic regression of achieving post-secondary/tertiary education for second-generation Turks (odds ratios) – sibling support, by country (Section 4.3)
      • Table A15 Characteristics of education pathways in Vienna and Linz, by group (%)
      • Table A16 Characteristics of education pathways in Paris and Strasbourg, by group (%)
      • Table A17 Classification of education routes as a dependent variable for Section 7.3
      • Table A18 Multinomial logistic regression predicting education pathways, second-generation Turks in Austria (odds ratios)
      • Table A19 Multinomial logistic regression predicting education pathways, second-generation Turks in France (odds ratios)
      • Table A20 Multinomial logistic regression predicting education pathways, second-generation Turks in Sweden (odds ratios)
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