The future of dialects
John Nerbonne
The future of dialects

Traditional dialects have been encroached upon by the increasing mobility of their speakers and by the onslaught of national languages in education and mass media. Typically, older dialects are “leveling” to become more like national languages. This is regrettable when the last articulate traces of a culture are lost, but it also promotes a complex dynamics of interaction as speakers shift from dialect to standard and to intermediate compromises between the two in their forms of speech. Varieties of speech thus live on in modern communities, where they still function to mark provenance, but increasingly cultural and social provenance as opposed to pure geography. They arise at times from the need to function throughout the different groups in society, but they also may have roots in immigrants’ speech, and just as certainly from the ineluctable dynamics of groups wishing to express their identity to themselves and to the world.

1 Embracing the future of dialectsMarie-Hélène Côté, Remco Knooihuizen & John Nerbonne
1 The conference
2 The papers
2.1 Dialects’ Future
2.2 Methodological contributions
2.2.1 Dialectometry
2.2.2 Other methods
2.3 Japanese dialectology
I The future
2 Heritage languages as new dialectsNaomi Nagy
1 Introduction
1.1 When do new varieties constitute new dialects?
1.2 How are heritage languages like new dialects?
2 A little more about Toronto’s HLs as new dialects
2.1 No status as dialects
2.2 Named varieties
2.3 Social or demographic attributions ascribed
2.4 Linguistic features described
2.5 Quantitative analysis of linguistic variation
2.6 Summary: identifying HLs as new dialects
3 The HLVC Project
3.1 HLVC methods of data collection and organization
3.2 Integrating research and teaching in HLVC
4 Conclusion
3 From diglossia to diaglossia: A West Flemish case-studyAnne-Sophie Ghyselen
1 Introduction
2 Language variation and change in Flanders
3 From diglossic to diaglossic repertoires
4 Methodology
5 Results
5.1 The repertoire at community level
5.2 The individual repertoires
5.3 Changing repertoires
6 Conclusion
4 The future of Catalan dialects’ syntax: A case study for a methodological contributionAres Llop Naya
1 Introduction and background
1.1 General remarks
1.2 Aim
1.3 Methodological framework
1.4 Case study
1.5 Strategies used
2 Results and discussion
3 Conclusions
II Methods
5 Fuzzy dialect areas and prototype theory: Discovering latent patterns in geolinguistic variationSimon Pickl
1 Conceptualising dialect areas as fuzzy categories
2 A tool for identifying dialect types
3 Dialect types in Bavarian Swabia
4 Conclusion
6 On the problem of field worker isoglossesAndrea Mathussek
1 Definition: field worker isogloss (FWI)
2 The potential risk in traditional dialect atlas data
2.1 Example data
2.2 Reasons for FWIs
2.3 Arrangements to avoid FWIs
3 Dialectometry as a means to discover FWI
4 FWIs on actual maps in the printed atlases?
5 Implications
7 Tracking linguistic features underlying lexical variation patterns: A case study on Tuscan dialectsSimonetta Montemagni & Martijn Wieling
1 Introduction
2 Data
3 Methods
4 Results
4.1 Linguistic features underlying identified lexical areas
4.2 Reconstructing the dynamics of lexical change
5 Conclusion
8 A new dialectometric approach applied to the Breton languageGuylaine Brun-Trigaud, Tanguy Solliec & Jean Le Dû
1 Introduction
2 Preliminary research
2.1 A first test on Occitan dialects
3 Earlier dialectometric works on lan]BretonBreton
4 The area investigated
5 The problems LD meets with Breton
6 Analysing the first results
6.1 Examining only one kind of difference across the area
6.2 The differences around one locality
7 Conclusion
9 Automatically identifying characteristic features of non-native English accentsJelke Bloem, Martijn Wieling & John Nerbonne
1 Introduction
2 Measure
3 Material
4 Results
4.1 French
4.2 Hungarian
4.3 Dutch
5 Discussion
10 Mapping the perception of linguistic form: Dialectometry with perceptual dataTyler Kendall, Valerie Fridland
1 Introduction
2 Background
3 Data
3.1 Overview
3.2 Study design
3.3 Test procedure
4 Analysis and results
4.1 Analysis
4.2 Discussion
5 Conclusion
11 Horizontal and vertical variation in Swiss German morphosyntaxPhilipp Stoeckle
1 Introduction
2 An example from the Syntactic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland (SADS)
3 Variation Index
4 Discussion
12 Infrequent forms: Noise or not?Martijn Wieling & Simonetta Montemagni
1 Introduction
2 Data
3 Methods
4 Results
5 Discussion
13 Top-down and bottom-up advances in corpus-based dialectometryChristoph Wolk & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi
1 Introduction
2 The Freiburg Corpus of English Dialects (FRED)
3 Top-down CBDM
3.1 The normalization-based top-down cbdm approach
3.2 The probabilistically enhanced top-down cbdm approach
4 Bottom-up CBDM
5 Conclusion
14 Imitating closely related varietiesLea Schäfer, Stephanie Leser & Michael Cysouw
1 The field of language imitation
2 Aspects of dialect imitation
3 Experimental testing
3.1 Internet survey with five West Germanic varieties
3.2 Corpus study on fictional Yiddish
4 Outlook
5 Appendix
15 Spontaneous dubbing as a tool for eliciting linguistic data: The case of second person plural inflections in Andalusian SpanishVíctor Lara Bermejo
1 Introduction
2 ALPI data
2.1 Geography
2.2 Grammar
2.3 Pragmatics
3 Corpus and methodology
3.1 Friends
3.2 Aquí no hay quien viva
4 Analysis
4.1 Geography
4.2 Sociolinguistic factor
4.3 Linguistic extension
5 Conclusions
16 Dialect levelling and changes in semiotic spaceIvana Škevin
1 Introduction
2 Linguistic, historical, geographic and socioeconomic background
3 Methodology and hypothesis
4 Sociolinguistic and semiotic approach to sbj]dialect levellingdialect levelling
5 Salience of Romance loanwords
6 Linguistic accommodationsbj]linguistic accommodation among young adults
7 Semiotic spacesbj]semiotic space as the space of identity
8 Changes in sbj]semiotic spacesemiotic space vs. the reduction of intrasystemic variation
8.1 The disappearance of utilitarian objects
8.2 The loss of an object’s utilitarian and functional importance in everyday life
8.3 The transfer of an object from one sbj]semiotic spacesemiotic space to another
8.3.1 The resemantization and refunctionalization of traditional utilitarian objects
8.3.2 The aestheticisation and refunctionalization of traditional utilitarian objects
9 Conclusions
17 Code-switching in the Anglophone community in JapanKeiko Hirano
1 Introduction
2 Code-switching
3 Hypotheses
4 Methodology
4.1 Informants and data collection
4.2 Social network
5 Results
6 Discussion
18 Tongue trajectories in North American English /æ/ tensingChristopher Carignan , Jeff Mielke & Robin Dodsworth
19 s-retraction in Italian-Tyrolean bilingual speakers: A preliminary investigation using the ultrasound tongue imaging techniqueLorenzo Spreafico
1 Introduction
2 Informants and data collection
3 Data analysis
4 Data discussion
5 Conclusion
III Japanese dialectology
20 Developing the Linguistic Atlas of Japan Database and advancing analysis of geographical distributions of dialectsYasuo Kumagai
1 Introduction
2 LAJ and the LAJ Database (LAJDB)
3 Some preliminary observations from using the LAJDB
3.1 Dataset for preliminary observations
3.2 Geographical frequency distributions of standard forms
3.3 Geographical frequency distributions for multiple answers
3.4 The frequency of informant’s comments on standard forms among multiple answers
3.5 Geographical distributions of degrees of similarity
4 Conclusion
21 Tracing real and apparent time language changes by comparing linguistic mapsChitsuko Fukushima
1 Introduction
2 Data and Methods
3 Completed changes
4 Changes in Progress
5 Conclusion
22 Timespan comparison of dialectal distributionsTakuichiro Onishi
1 Introduction
2 Real-time research on dialectal distributions
3 Language change and dialectal distributions
4 Real-time comparison of dialectal distributions
4.1 Rapid change
4.2 Standstills
5 Conclusions
23 Tonal variation in Kagoshima Japanese and factors of language changeIchiro Ota, Hitoshi Nikaido & Akira Utsugi
1 Theoretical background and the research aim
2 Research design
2.1 Data collection
2.2 Data coding
3 Statistical results
4 Discussion
Name index
Language index
Subject index
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