Grammaticalization in the North: Noun phrase morphosyntax in Scandinavian vernaculars

Grammaticalization in the North: Noun phrase morphosyntax in Scandinavian vernaculars

By Östen Dahl
Book Description

This book looks at some phenomena within the grammar of the noun phrase in a group of traditional North Germanic varieties mainly spoken in Sweden and Finland, usually seen as Swedish dialects, although the differences between them and Standard Swedish are often larger than between the latter and the other standard Mainland Scandinavian languages. In addition to being conservative in many respects – e.g. in preserving nominal cases and subject-verb agreement – these varieties also display many innovative features. These include extended uses of definite articles, incorporation of attributive adjectives, and a variety of possessive constructions. Although considerable attention has been given to these phenomena in earlier literature, this book is the first to put them in the perspective of typology and grammaticalization processes. It also looks for a plausible account of the historical origin of the changes involved, arguing that many of them spread from central Sweden, where they were later reverted due to the influence from prestige varieties coming from southern Scandinavia.

Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • Abbreviations in glosses
  • Common symbols in vernacular examples
  • Introduction
    • What this book is about
    • Remarks on methodology
    • Sources
      • Dialectological literature
      • Published and archived texts
      • Questionnaires
      • The Cat Corpus
      • Informant work and participant observation
    • Remark on notation
  • Peripheral Swedish: Geographic, historical and linguistic background
    • Geography
    • Administrative, historical and dialectological divisions
    • Linguistic situation
      • lan]ScandinavianScandinavian in general
      • Swedish
      • Norrlandic
      • Dalecarlian
      • Trans-Baltic Swedish
  • The expansion of the definite forms
    • Introduction
      • General
      • Extended definites in the literature
      • Grammaticalization of definites from a typological perspective
      • Definite marking in lan]ScandinavianScandinavian in general
      • Neutralization of the definite-indefinite distinction
    • Some notes on the sbj]morphologymorphology of definiteness in Scandinavian
    • Generic and citation uses
      • Generic uses
      • Citation uses
    • Non-delimited uses
      • General
      • Areal distribution of non-delimited uses
        • General
        • The northern core area
        • The southern core area (Ovansiljan)
        • Attestations outside the core areas
      • Attestations of sbj]non-delimited usesnon-delimited uses from earlier periods
      • Typological parallels
    • Uses with quantifiers
      • General
      • Areal distribution of uses with quantifiers
      • Attestations from earlier periods
      • Datives after quantifiers
      • Definites after sbj]quantifiersquantifiers: Summing up
    • Singular count uses
      • General
      • Instrumental prepositional phrases
    • “Det var kvällen”
    • Various minor patterns
      • Illnesses
      • Measure phrases
    • Preproprial articles
    • Postadjectival articles
    • Summary of geographical distribution of extended uses
    • Some earlier attempts to explain the extended uses of definite forms
      • Holmberg & Sandström
      • Extended uses of definite forms – a lan]Fenno-UgricFenno-Ugric substrate?
    • Reconstructing the sbj]grammaticalizationgrammaticalization path
  • Attributive constructions
    • Introduction
    • Definite marking in sbj]attributive constructionsattributive constructions: The typological perspective
    • Survey of attributive definite NP constructions
      • The deprecated standard: The lan]ScandinavianScandinavian preposed article
      • The celebrated competitor: Adjective incorporation
      • The obscurer alternatives
        • Non-incorporated modifiers without preposed articles but with definite head nouns
        • Non-standard preposed articles
    • Distribution of attributive definite NP constructions
    • Definiteness marking in special contexts
    • Competition between constructions: A case study
    • Definite suffixes on adjectives
    • “Absolute positives”
  • Possessive constructions
    • General background
    • S-genitive: Old and new
    • Definite in s-genitives
    • Constructions with the dative
      • The plain dative possessive
      • The complex dative possessive
    • “H-genitive”
    • Prepositional constructions
    • Possessor incorporation
    • Pronominal possession
    • Concluding discussion: The evolution of sbj]possessive constructionspossessive constructions in the Peripheral Swedish area
  • The rise of Peripheral Swedish: Reconstructing a plausible scenario
    • General
    • Pushed-back innovations in the pronoun system
      • H- and d-pronouns
      • Adnominal h-pronouns
      • Independent hä
      • Demonstratives of the hissin type
      • Generic pronouns
      • Hesselman’s “lan]Birka SwedishBirka Swedish” theory
    • Lexical innovations in the Peripheral Swedish area
    • Auxiliaries
    • Conservative features of the Peripheral Swedish area
      • Introduction
      • Infinitive constructions
      • Temporal subjunctions
      • Lexical items
    • The conservativity and innovativity indices
    • Notes on the historical background
      • Medieval Sweden
      • Uppland
  • Concluding discussion
  • Appendix A: Quotations from older texts
    • Some cases of extended uses of definite articles in Written Medieval Swedish
    • The presumed oldest attestation of an extended use of a definite article in Dalecarlian
    • A medieval Norwegian text demonstrating the use of sbj]preproprial articlespreproprial articles (Diplomatarium Norvegicum XVI:94)
  • Appendix B: Text sources
  • Bibliography
  • Index
    • Name index
    • Language index
    • Subject index
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