Linguistic variation, identity construction and cognition
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Linguistic variation, identity construction and cognition

By Katie Drager K.
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Book Description

Speakers use a variety of different linguistic resources in the construction of their identities, and they are able to do so because their mental representations of linguistic and social information are linked. While the exact nature of these representations remains unclear, there is growing evidence that they encode a great deal more phonetic detail than traditionally assumed and that the phonetic detail is linked with word-based information. This book investigates the ways in which a lemma’s phonetic realisation depends on a combination of its grammatical function and the speaker’s social group. This question is investigated within the context of the word like as it is produced and perceived by students at an all girls’ high school in New Zealand. The results are used to inform an exemplar-based model of speech production and perception in which the quality and frequency of linguistic and non-linguistic variants contribute to a speaker’s style.

Table of Contents
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abbreviations
  • The separation of the social and the linguistic
    • Introduction
    • The social, the linguistic, and the cognitive
    • Waves of variationist studies
      • First Wave
      • Second Wave
      • Third Wave
    • Gradience and acoustic analysis
    • Experimental sociolinguistics
    • Laboratory phonology
      • Token frequency
      • Lemmas, lexemes, and phonetic detail
    • Multiple methodologies
  • Social groups at Selwyn Girls' High
    • Methodology
      • Background
      • The students
      • Integrating myself into SGH
      • The formal
      • My role at SGH
      • The myth of the neutral ethnographer
    • Selwyn Girls' High
    • Groups of friends
      • CR groups
        • The PCs
        • The Sporty Girls
        • The BBs
        • The Trendy Alternatives
        • The Relaxed Group
        • Rochelle's Group
        • CR groups as a constellation
      • NCR groups
        • The Pasifika Group
        • The Goths
        • The Real Teenagers
        • The Christians
        • The Geeks
        • Cecily's Group
        • Sonia's Group
        • NCR groups as a constellation
      • Outside of lunchtime
    • Salience and stance
    • A bit of self reflection
      • The BBs
      • The Trendy Alternatives
      • The PCs
      • The Real Teenagers
      • The Relaxed Group
      • The Pasifika Group
      • The Goths
      • The Christians and The Geeks
      • The Sporty Girls
      • Rochelle's Group
      • Sonia's Group
      • When research and friendship blend
      • Shaping interpretations
    • Conclusion
  • Like: Frequency and phonetic realisations
    • Methodology of interviews
    • Variation in use of like
      • Use of quotative like at SGH
      • Use of discourse particle like at SGH
    • Phonetic variation of like
      • Methodology for acoustic phonetic analysis
      • Results
        • Model 1: Grammatical and quotative like
        • Model 2: Quotative and discourse particle like
        • Model 3: Grammatical and discourse particle like
    • Discussion
      • Frequency effects
      • Special status of discursive tokens
      • Changes in progress
      • Prosody and phonetic variation
      • Identity construction
        • Variation at the individual level
      • Reflection on influence from researcher
        • Methodology
        • Results
        • Discussion
      • Storage of phonetic detail in the mind
  • Variation in speech perception
    • Experiment 1
      • Methodology
        • The task
        • The stimuli
      • Results
        • Experiment 1, Model 1: The quotative and the discourse particle
        • Experiment 1, Model 2: Grammatical functions and the discourse particle
    • Experiment 2
      • Methodology
        • The task
        • The stimuli
      • Results
        • Experiment 2, Model 1: The quotative and the discourse particle
        • Experiment 2, Model 2: Grammatical functions and the quotative
        • Experiment 2, Model 3: Grammatical functions and the discourse particle
    • Experiment 3
      • Methodology
        • The task
        • The stimuli
      • Results
    • Discussion
      • Lack of social effects in function identification tasks
      • Theoretical implications
  • Toward a cognitive model of stylistic variation in identity construction
    • Summary of results
      • Maintaining and rejecting norms
      • Patterns in production
      • Patterns in perception
    • Social theory
      • Phonetic information and identity construction
    • Probabilistic linguistics
      • Bayesian model of syntactic parsing
      • Exemplar Theory
    • Indexation of social information
    • Conclusion
  • Looking forward
    • Speakers as style-creators
    • Concluding remarks
  • Measures of familiarity
    • CR Groups
      • The Sporty Girls
      • The PCs
      • Trendy Alternatives
      • Rochelle's Group
      • The BBs
      • The Relaxed Group
    • NCR Groups
      • The Pasifika Group
      • The Goths
      • The Real Teenagers
      • The Christians
      • Sonia's Group
      • The Geeks
      • Cecily's Group
      • Loners
  • Production data
  • Stimuli for perception experiments
  • Perception experiment data
  • References
  • Index
    • Name index
    • Subject index
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