Manufacturing Transformation
Free

Manufacturing Transformation

By Carol Newman
Free
Book Description

While it is possible for economies to grow based on abundant land or natural resources, more often structural change—the shift of resources from low-productivity to high-productivity sectors—is the key driver of economic growth. Structural transformation is vital for Africa. The region’s much-lauded growth turnaround since 1995 has been the result of fewer economic policy mistakes, robust commodity prices, and new discoveries of natural resources. At the same time, Africa’s economic structure has changed very little. Primary commodities and natural resources still account for the bulk of exports. Industry is most often the leading driver of structural transformation. Africa’s experience with industrialization over the past thirty years has been disappointing. In 2010, sub-Saharan Africa’s average share of manufacturing value added in GDP was 10 per cent, unchanged from the 1970s. In fact the share of medium- and high-tech goods in manufacturing production has been falling since the mid-1990s. Per capita manufactured exports are less than 10 per cent of the developing country average. Consequently, Africa’s industrial transformation has yet to take place. This book presents results of comparative country-based research that sought to answer a seemingly simple but puzzling question: why is there so little industry in Africa? It brings together detailed country case studies of industrial policies and industrialization outcomes in eleven countries, conducted by teams of national researchers in partnership with experts on industrial development. It provides the most comprehensive description and analysis available of the contemporary industrialization experience in low-income Africa.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Manufacturing Transformation: Comparative Studies of Industrial Development in Africa and Emerging Asia
  • Copyright
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Notes on Contributors
  • 1: The Pursuit of Industry: Policies and Outcomes
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Industrialization, Structural Transformation, and Growth
    • 1.3 Industrial Policies and Outcomes in Africa: From a Dominant State to the Investment Climate
      • 1.3.1 State Ownership and Import Substitution, 1960–85
        • 1.3.1.1 EARLY INDUSTRIALIZATION
        • 1.3.1.2 THE INDUSTRIALIZATION DRIVE FALTERS
      • 1.3.2 The Washington Consensus, 1985–2000
        • 1.3.2.1 STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT
        • 1.3.2.2 A SHORT-LIVED INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY
      • 1.3.3 Investment Climate Reform and New Directions, 2000–
        • 1.3.3.1 INVESTMENT CLIMATE REFORMS
        • 1.3.3.2 NEW DIRECTIONS
        • 1.3.3.3 NOT YET A TURNING POINT
    • 1.4 Policies and Outcomes in Emerging Asia
      • 1.4.1 Early Industrialization, 1960–85
      • 1.4.2 Structural Reform and the Export Push, 1985–
    • 1.5 Policy and Performance: A Comparative Framework
      • 1.5.1 The Basics
      • 1.5.2 Manufactured Exports
      • 1.5.3 Industrial Agglomerations
      • 1.5.4 Foreign Direct Investment
    • 1.6 Conclusions
    • References
  • Part I: Industrial Development in Africa
    • 2: Industrial Policy and Development in Ethiopia
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Evolution of Industry: Historical Perspective
        • 2.2.1 The Imperial Regime, pre-1974
        • 2.2.2 The Dergue Regime, 1974–91
        • 2.2.3 The EPRDF Regime, post-1991
      • 2.3 The Current Structure of the Ethiopian Manufacturing Sector
        • 2.3.1 Size Distribution
        • 2.3.2 Sectoral Composition
        • 2.3.3 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
        • 2.3.4 Ownership Types
        • 2.3.5 Trade Orientation
        • 2.3.6 Geographic Distribution
      • 2.4 Patterns of Industrial Productivity in the Ethiopian Manufacturing Sector
        • 2.4.1 Productivity across Firm Size
        • 2.4.2 Productivity across Sectors
      • 2.5 The Current Industrial Policy Framework
      • 2.6 Industrial Policy in Practice—Some Industry Cases
        • 2.6.1 The Textile and Leather Sectors
        • 2.6.2 The Flower Industry
      • 2.7 Remaining and Emerging Challenges
      • References
    • 3: Industrial Policy in Ghana: Its Evolution and Impact
      • 3.1 The Evolution of Industry
        • 3.1.1 Historical Developments since 1965
          • 3.1.1.1 PRE-ECONOMIC RECOVERY PROGRAMME, 1965–83
          • 3.1.1.2 POST-ECONOMIC RECOVERY PROGRAMME, 1983–2000
          • 3.1.1.3 THE NEW MILLENNIUM, 2000–5
        • 3.1.2 Policies for Industrial Development (Historical Evolution)
          • 3.1.2.1 POST-INDEPENDENCE, PRE-ERP: INWARD OVERPROTECTED ISI STRATEGY, 1965–83
          • 3.1.2.2 POST-ERP: OUTWARD LIBERALIZED INDUSTRIALIZATION STRATEGY, 1983/84–2000
      • 3.2 The Current Structure of the Industrial Sector
        • 3.2.1 Sector Composition
        • 3.2.2 Size Distribution
        • 3.2.3 Employment
        • 3.2.4 Ownership
        • 3.2.5 Spatial Distribution
        • 3.2.6 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
          • 3.2.6.1 SUNRISE SECTORS
          • 3.2.6.2 SUNSET SECTORS
        • 3.2.7 Patterns of Industrial Productivity
      • 3.3 The Industrial Policy Framework
        • 3.3.1 Macroeconomic Policies
        • 3.3.2 Trade Policies
        • 3.3.3 The Institutional and Regulatory Framework
        • 3.3.4 Sector Specific Policies
      • 3.4 Emerging Policy Issues
      • Acknowledgements
      • References
    • 4: Kenya’s Industrial Development: Policies, Performance, and Prospects
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Evolution of Industrial Policies since Independence
        • 4.2.1 Import Substitution Hangover, 1963–70
        • 4.2.2 Policies during External Shocks, 1970s
        • 4.2.3 Structural Adjustment and Liberalization, 1980s and 1990s
        • 4.2.4 New Millennium Policies
      • 4.3 Key Industrialization Episodes and Turning Points
      • 4.4 Structure of the Industrial Sector
        • 4.4.1 Sectoral Composition
        • 4.4.2 Manufacturing Employment
        • 4.4.3 Size Distribution
        • 4.4.4 Ownership
      • 4.5 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
      • 4.6 Labour and Total Factor Productivity
      • 4.7 Conclusions
        • 4.7.1 Factors Undermining Industrial Development in Kenya
      • References
    • 5: Mozambique’s Industrial Policy: Sufficient to Face the Winds of Globalization?
      • 5.1 The Evolution of Industry
        • 5.1.1 Colonial Industrial Development, 1945–74
        • 5.1.2 Post-independence Industrial Development, 1975–86: Central Planning Economy
        • 5.1.3 Transitional Industrial Development, 1987–96: Towards a Market Oriented Economy
        • 5.1.4 Current Industrialization Pattern: IPS 1997 and IPS 2007
      • 5.2 Current Structure of the Industrial Sector
        • 5.2.1 Industrial Output
        • 5.2.2 Firm Size in the Industrial Sector
        • 5.2.3 Contribution from the Industrial Sector to Employment
        • 5.2.4 Ownership of Industrial Firms
        • 5.2.5 Sunset and Sunrise Industries
      • 5.3 Industrial Policy Framework
        • 5.3.1 Macroeconomic Policies
        • 5.3.2 Trade Policies
        • 5.3.3 Institutional and Regulatory Framework
        • 5.3.4 Current Constraints for Future Industrial Development
          • 5.3.4.1 SKILLS AND EDUCATION
          • 5.3.4.2 ACCESS TO ENERGY AND WATER
          • 5.3.4.3 FINANCIAL RESOURCE ACCESS
          • 5.3.4.4 ACCESS TO SUITABLE TECHNOLOGY
      • 5.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • 6: Industrial Policy in Nigeria: Opportunities and Challenges in a Resource-rich Country
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Evolution of Industry: Historical Perspective
        • 6.2.1 Post-independence
        • 6.2.2 Post-civil War Oil Economy
        • 6.2.3 Austerity
        • 6.2.4 Structural Adjustment
        • 6.2.5 Economic Liberalization
      • 6.3 The Structure of Industry
        • 6.3.1 Structural Composition and Firm Characteristics
        • 6.3.2 Technology and Skills
        • 6.3.3 Constraints
        • 6.3.4 Productivity
          • 6.3.4.1 SPACIAL DISTRIBUTION
        • 6.3.5 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
      • 6.4 Industrial Policy Framework
        • 6.4.1 Policy Management and Coordination
        • 6.4.2 Macroeconomic Policies
        • 6.4.3 Industrial Policy
        • 6.4.4 Trade Policies
        • 6.4.5 The Institutional and Regulatory Framework
        • 6.4.6 Sector Specific Policies
      • 6.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • 7: Industrial Policy in Senegal: Then and Now
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 The Evolution of Senegal’s Industrial Policy
        • 7.2.1 From Import Substitution to Economic Liberalization
          • 7.2.1.1 TARIFF PROTECTION
          • 7.2.1.2 QUANTITATIVE RESTRICTIONS
          • 7.2.1.3 THE INVESTMENT CODE
          • 7.2.1.4 DAKAR INDUSTRIAL FREE TRADE ZONE
          • 7.2.1.5 INDUSTRIAL ZONES
        • 7.2.2 Adjustment Policies and Liberalization of the Economy
        • 7.2.3 Implementation of a Common External Tariff
        • 7.2.4 Deepening Economic Liberalization and Other Measures to Promote the Private Sector
        • 7.2.5 The Industrial Policy Framework and Emerging Questions
      • 7.3 The Structure of the Industrial Sector
        • 7.3.1 Employment
        • 7.3.2 Foreign Direct Investment
        • 7.3.3 Profile of Firms
      • 7.4 Patterns of Industrial Productivity
        • 7.4.1 Factors Affecting Firm Productivity in Senegal
          • 7.4.1.1 LACK OF SKILLED LABOUR
          • 7.4.1.2 POOR INFRASTRUCTURE
      • 7.5 Industrial Policy
        • 7.5.1 Trade Policy Reforms and Manufacturing Performance
      • 7.6 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
      • 7.7 Conclusion and Emerging Policy Issues
      • References
    • 8: Industrial Development in Tanzania
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Historical Developments: Pre-independence Period
      • 8.3 Industrial Development, 1961–85
        • 8.3.1 Industrial Development in the Early Post-independence Period, 1961–7
        • 8.3.2 State-led Industrial Development, 1967–85
      • 8.4 Industrial Development under Structural Adjustment, 1986–95
      • 8.5 The Return to Industrial Development as a Development Agenda, 1995–2011
      • 8.6 Conclusion and Way Forward
      • References
    • 9: Tunisia: Industrial Policy in the Transition to Middle-income Status
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Evolution of Industry: Historical Perspectives
        • 9.2.1 Initial Conditions
        • 9.2.2 The 1960s: ‘Collectivism’ Experiment
        • 9.2.3 The 1970s: Private Sector Development and Export Industry Promotion
        • 9.2.4 Economic Mismanagement, 1977–86
        • 9.2.5 Economic Recovery and Structural Adjustment Programme, 1986–90
        • 9.2.6 The 1990s: Global Competition
        • 9.2.7 Development of Services and Innovative Projects, Early 2000s–2011
        • 9.2.8 The Arab Spring: Tunisian Revolution of 14 January 2011
          • 9.2.8.1 YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT
          • 9.2.8.2 REGIONAL DISPARITIES
          • 9.2.8.3 ECONOMIC COSTS OF THE ARAB SPRING
          • 9.2.8.4 GOVERNMENT MEASURES
          • 9.2.8.5 ECONOMIC RECOVERY, 2012
      • 9.3 The Structure of Industry
        • 9.3.1 Three Pillars of the Tunisian Manufacturing Industry
          • 9.3.1.1 TEXTILE/CLOTHING AND LEATHER/FOOTWEAR INDUSTRIES
          • 9.3.1.2 AGRO-FOOD INDUSTRIES
          • 9.3.1.3 MECHANICAL/ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES
        • 9.3.2 Evolution of Manufacturing Industry: More Competitiveness and Openness
          • 9.3.2.1 EXPORT AND OFFSHORING
      • 9.4 Industrial Policy
        • 9.4.1 Foreign Direct Investment
        • 9.4.2 R&D and Innovation Policies in Tunisia
      • 9.5 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
        • 9.5.1 Production, Investment, and Exports: Overview
      • 9.6 Conclusions
      • References
    • 10: The Evolution of Industry in Uganda
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 The Evolution of Industry: Historical Perspective
      • 10.3 The Structure of Industry
        • 10.3.1 Sectoral Composition: General Trends
      • 10.4 Sub-sectoral Analysis
        • 10.4.1 The Manufacturing Sector
          • 10.4.1.1 SIZE DISTRIBUTION
          • 10.4.1.2 REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
          • 10.4.1.3 EMPLOYMENT
          • 10.4.1.4 OWNERSHIP
          • 10.4.1.5 PRODUCTIVITY
        • 10.4.2 Mining and Quarrying
          • 10.4.2.1 SIZE DISTRIBUTION
          • 10.4.2.2 REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
          • 10.4.2.3 EMPLOYMENT
          • 10.4.2.4 OWNERSHIP
        • 10.4.3 Construction
          • 10.4.3.1 SIZE DISTRIBUTION
          • 10.4.3.2 REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
          • 10.4.3.3 EMPLOYMENT
          • 10.4.3.4 OWNERSHIP
        • 10.4.4 Summary
      • 10.5 The Industrial Policy Framework
        • 10.5.1 Macroeconomic Policies
        • 10.5.2 Trade Policy Reform and its Implications for Industrialization
        • 10.5.3 Sector-specific Policies
        • 10.5.4 Institutional and Regulatory Framework
        • 10.5.5 Summary
      • 10.6 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
        • 10.6.1 Textiles
        • 10.6.2 Information and Communications Technology
        • 10.6.3 Construction
        • 10.6.4 Mining
      • 10.7 Conclusions
      • References
  • Part II: Industrial Development in Emerging Asia
    • 11: Cambodia’s Path to Industrial Development: Policies, Lessons, and Opportunities
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Evolution of Industry: Historical Perspective
        • 11.2.1 Sihanouk Regime, 1953–70
        • 11.2.2 Khmer Republic, 1970–5
        • 11.2.3 Closed Economy, 1975–89
          • 11.2.3.1 DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEA, 1975–9
          • 11.2.3.2 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA, 1979–89
        • 11.2.4 State of Cambodia and the UN Period, 1989–93
        • 11.2.5 Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993–
      • 11.3 The Structure of Industry
        • 11.3.1 Sectoral Composition
        • 11.3.2 Size of Firms
        • 11.3.3 Ownership Structure
        • 11.3.4 Employment
        • 11.3.5 Age of Firms
        • 11.3.6 Spatial Distribution
      • 11.4 Industrial Policy
        • 11.4.1 Macroeconomic Policy
        • 11.4.2 Trade Policy
        • 11.4.3 Labour Market Policies
        • 11.4.4 The Institutional and Regulatory Framework
        • 11.4.5 Sector Specific Policies
          • 11.4.5.1 GARMENT SECTOR
          • 11.4.5.2 TOURISM
      • 11.5 Sunset and Sunrise Industries
      • 11.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • 12: The Evolution of Vietnamese Industry
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 The Evolution of Industry
        • 12.2.1 Socialist Industrialization in the North, 1954–75
        • 12.2.2 Socialist Industrialization in the Central Planning Economy, 1976–85
        • 12.2.3 The Transition from Centrally Planned to Market Economy, 1986–2005
        • 12.2.4 Industrialization Following WTO Accession, 2006–
      • 12.3 The Current Structure of the Industrial Sector
        • 12.3.1 Sectoral Composition
        • 12.3.2 Employment and Size of Firms
        • 12.3.3 Ownership Structure
          • 12.3.3.1 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE BY OWNERSHIP
        • 12.3.4 Spatial Distribution
      • 12.4 Industrial Policy Framework
        • 12.4.1 Macroeconomic Policies
        • 12.4.2 Trade Policies
        • 12.4.3 The Institutional and Regulatory Framework
        • 12.4.4 Sector Specific Policies
      • 12.5 Sunrise and Sunset Industries
      • 12.6 Conclusion
        • 12.6.1 Main Challenges
        • 12.6.2 Outlook
      • References
    • 13: Can Africa Industrialize?
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Breaking in
        • 13.2.1 Competing with Asia
        • 13.2.2 New Opportunities
          • 13.2.2.1 TRADE IN TASKS
          • 13.2.2.2 INDUSTRIES WITHOUT SMOKESTACKS
      • 13.3 Changing the Investment Climate Agenda
        • 13.3.1 The Critical Role of Infrastructure
        • 13.3.2 Closing the Skills Gap
        • 13.3.3 Institutional and Regulatory Reform
      • 13.4 Beyond the Investment Climate
        • 13.4.1 Mounting an Export Push
          • 13.4.1.1 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
          • 13.4.1.2 IMPROVING TRADE LOGISTICS
          • 13.4.1.3 STRENGTHENING REGIONAL INTEGRATION
        • 13.4.2 Supporting Industrial Agglomerations
          • 13.4.2.1 SPATIAL INDUSTRIAL POLICIES
          • 13.4.2.2 STRENGTHENING SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES
        • 13.4.3 Attracting Foreign Direct Investment
          • 13.4.3.1 INSTITUTIONS FOR FDI PROMOTION
          • 13.4.3.2 LINKING FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC FIRMS
      • 13.5 Conclusions
      • References
  • Index
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