Understanding Society and Natural Resources: Forging New Strands of Integration Across the Social Sciences
Michael Manfredo J.
Understanding Society and Natural Resources: Forging New Strands of Integration Across the Social Sciences

In this edited volume leading scholars from different disciplinary backgrounds wrestle with social science integration opportunities and challenges. This book explores the growing concern of how best to achieve effective integration of the social science disciplines as a means for furthering natural resource social science and environmental problem solving. The chapters provide an overview of the history, vision, advances, examples and methods that could lead to integration.The quest for integration among the social sciences is not new. Some argue that the social sciences have lagged in their advancements and contributions to society due to their inability to address integration related issues. Integration merits debate for a number of reasons. First, natural resource issues are complex and are affected by multiple proximate driving social factors. Single disciplinary studies focused at one level are unlikely to provide explanations that represent this complexity and are limited in their ability to inform policy recommendations. Complex problems are best explored across disciplines that examine social-ecological phenomenon from different scales. Second, multi-disciplinary initiatives such as those with physical and biological scientists are necessary to understand the scope of the social sciences. Too frequently there is a belief that one social scientist on a multi-disciplinary team provides adequate social science representation. Third, more complete models of human behavior will be achieved through a synthesis of diverse social science perspectives.

Preface: AND not OR
An Enduring Concern
Overview of Book
Part I: The Status of Integration
Chapter 1: A Vision of the Future of Science: Reintegrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature
1.1 The Role of Envisioning in Creating the Future
1.2 Consilience Among All the Sciences
1.3 Reestablishing the Balance Between Synthesis and Analysis
1.4 A Pragmatic Modeling Philosophy
1.5 A Multiscale Approach to Science
1.5.1 Aggregation
1.5.2 Hierarchy Theory
1.5.3 Fractals and Chaos
1.5.4 Resolution and Predictability
1.6 Cultural and Biological Co-evolution
1.6.1 Cultural vs. Genetic Evolution
1.6.2 Evolutionary Criteria
1.7 Creating a Shared Vision of a Desirable and Sustainable Future
1.8 Conclusions
Chapter 2: Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere (MAHB): Integrating Social Science and the Humanities into Solving Sustainability Challenges
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Dealing with Scientific Silos and Uncertainties
2.1.2 Solving These Challenges
2.2 Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere (MAHB)
2.2.1 MAHB’s Mission and Structure
2.2.2 MAHB’s Research Approach
2.3 A Research Agenda for and from MAHB
2.3.1 Socio-cultural Change for Sustainability
2.3.2 Population and Sustainability
2.3.3 Environmental Governance for Sustainability
2.3.4 Inequity and Sustainability
2.4 Concluding Reflections
Part II: Topics in Integration
Chapter 3: Science During Crisis: The Application of Interdisciplinary and Strategic Science During Major Environmental Crises
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Science During Crisis: Two Examples
3.2.1 2010: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
3.2.2 2012: Hurricane Sandy
3.3 Examples of Social Science During Environmental Crisis Events
3.4 Distinctive Characteristics of Science During Environmental Crises
3.4.1 The Importance of Coupled Human-Natural Systems
3.4.2 The Challenge of Collaboration and Interdisciplinary Teams
3.4.3 The Importance of Uncertainties and Limitations
3.4.4 The Value of Cascading Consequences and Assessing Impacts
3.4.5 The Need for Sense of Place
3.4.6 The Demands of Communicating Science During Crisis
3.5 A Modest Research Agenda
3.6 Conclusion
Chapter 4: Who’s Afraid of Thomas Malthus?
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Classical Malthusianism
4.2.1 The Logical Structure of Malthusianism
4.2.2 Why Malthus Was Wrong
4.2.3 Why Malthus May Still Turn Out to Be Right
4.2.4 Science Integration
4.3 Simple Neo-Malthusian Theories
4.3.1 Environmental Neo-Malthusianism
4.3.2 Climate-Based Neo-Malthusianism
4.3.3 Energy-Based Neo-Malthusianism
4.3.4 Critique of Simple Neo-Malthusianism
4.4 Complex Neo-Malthusian Theories
4.4.1 Limits to Growth
4.4.2 Eco-scarcity Theory
4.4.3 Critique of Eco-scarcity Theory
4.4.4 Climate-Based Eco-scarcity
4.4.5 The Future in the Past
4.4.6 Science Integration
4.4.7 Civilizational Neo-Malthusianism
4.5 The Role of Social Science
4.6 Conclusion
Chapter 5: A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Social-Ecological Models of Emerging Infectious Diseases
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Integrating Social Science Theories Relevant to Development Transitions
5.3 Anthropogenic and Ecological Determinants of HPAI in Southeast Asia
5.4 Developing and Testing the Framework
5.5 Lessons Learned About Social Science Integration
5.6 Conclusion
Chapter 6: Studying Power with the Social-Ecological System Framework
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Incorporating Power Within The SES Framework
6.3 Overview of the SES Framework
6.4 Operationalizing Research on the Role of Power in Social-Ecological Systems
6.5 Analyzing Power Within The SES Framework
6.6 Institutional Power
6.7 Elinor Ostrom’s Definition of Power
6.8 Steven Lukes’s Three Faces of Power
6.9 Douglass North and the Institutional Matrix
6.10 Discussion
6.11 Conclusions: An Interdisciplinary Agenda for the Study of Power in SESs
Chapter 7: Considerations in Representing Human Individuals in Social-Ecological Models
7.1 Purpose
7.2 Impetus for Change Emanating from Ecological Sciences
7.3 A Need for Greater Inclusion of the Individual in Ecosystem Models
7.4 Human Thought as Dynamic and Adaptive
7.4.1 Dual Adaptive Systems in Humans
7.5 The Individual in a Multi-level Context
7.5.1 Hierarchies Within the Individual
7.5.2 The Individual-Group Hierarchy
7.5.3 Institutional and Structural Factors Economic Development Governance Systems Geographic Regions Cultural Groups
7.6 Mutually Constructed Nature of Human Thought and the Social and Natural Environment
7.7 Conclusion
Part III: Methodological Advances for Facilitating Social Science Integration
Chapter 8: The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Research and Modelling
8.1 Introduction: Land Change and Spatial Models
8.2 The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Models
8.2.1 Different Perspectives and Research Approaches
8.2.2 Using Social Science Case-Studies to Help Parameterize Land Change Models
8.2.3 Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Models
8.3 Land Change Models as a Platform for Social Science Integration
Chapter 9: Simulation as an Approach to Social-­Ecological Integration, with an Emphasis on Agent-Based Modeling
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Utilities of Simulations
9.3 Integrated Modeling
9.3.1 Ecological and Social Models
9.3.2 Integrated Modeling with Stakeholders
9.4 Agent-Based Modeling
9.5 Examples
9.5.1 Integrated Assessments with S avanna and DECUMA
9.5.2 Balinese Water Temple Networks
9.5.3 Wet Season Versus Dry Season Livestock Dispersal
9.6 Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 10: Inter-disciplinary Analysis of Climate Change and Society: A Network Approach
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Structure, Function and Power in Social Networks
10.3 Action Networks and Discourse Networks
10.3.1 Culture as Context in Social Network Analysis
10.3.2 Discourse Networks Around Climate Change
10.3.3 Policy Networks Around Climate Change
10.4 Conclusion
Chapter 11: Designing Social Learning Systems for Integrating Social Sciences into Policy Processes: Some Experiences of Water Managing
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Framing Choices in Environmental Policy Situations
11.3 Integration and Systems
11.4 Designing Social Learning Systems for Social Science Integration
11.5 Case Studies of Designing Social Learning Systems
11.5.1 Integrating Environment Agency Catchment Science into Policy
11.5.2 Creating Water Sensitive Cities in Australia
11.5.3 Social Learning for Ecosystem Services in Lake Baiyangdian, China
11.6 Constraints and Opportunities for Social Learning for Integration
11.7 Concluding Comments and Implications for Future Integrated Policy-Making
Author Bios
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