Painting and Publishing as Cultural Industries
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Painting and Publishing as Cultural Industries

By Claartje Rasterhoff
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Book Description

The Dutch Republic was a cultural powerhouse in the modern era, producing lasting masterpieces in painting and publishing-and in the process transforming those fields from modest trades to booming industries. This book asks the question of how such a small nation could become such a major player in those fields. Claartje Rasterhoff shows how industrial organisations played a role in shaping patterns of growth and innovations. As early modern Dutch cultural industries were concentrated geographically, highly networked, and institutionally embedded, they were able to reduce uncertainty in the marketplace and stimulate the commercial and creative potential of painters and publishers-though those successes eventually came up against the limits of a saturated domestic market and an aversion to risk on the part of producers that ultimately brought an end to the boom.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Contents
    • Acknowledgements
    • List of figures, tables, and illustrations
      • Figures
        • Fig. 1.1 – Number of painters and publishers active in the Dutch Republic, 1580-1800
        • Fig. 1.2 – Representation of diamond model (Michael Porter)
        • Fig. 1.3 – Stylized ‘life cycle’ representation of industrial development
        • Fig. 2.1 – Number of publishers (left) and number of titles (right) in the Northern Netherlands/ Dutch Republic, 1570-1620
        • Fig. 2.2 – Distribution of publishers in 1580 (left) and 1610 (right)
        • Fig. 3.1 – Number of publishers (left) and titles (right), 1600-1700
        • Fig. 3.2 – Title production in Dutch per 100,000 literate adults, 1580-1700
        • Fig. 3.3 – Distribution of titles according to size, Abraham I Elzevier, 1625-1650
        • Fig. 3.4 – Distribution of titles produced in Amsterdam according to size, 1590-1670
        • Fig. 3.5 – Paper prices per ream in guilders in Amsterdam, 1570-1699
        • Fig. 4.1 – Local shares of book production, measured in number of people active per decade (%), 1585-1699
        • Fig. 4.2 – Distribution of publishers in 1610 (left) and 1650 (right)
        • Fig. 4.3 – Entry rates, exit rates, turbulence rates, and number of newcomers (semi-log scale), per year in Amsterdam, 1580-1700 (clockwise)
        • Fig. 4.4 – Five and ten year survival chances of new Amsterdam-based firms in their commencement decade, 1590-1700
        • Fig. 5.1 – Number of publishers (left) and titles (right) in the Dutch Republic, 1670-1800
        • Fig. 5.2 – Local shares of book production, measured in number of people active per decade (%), 1660-1799
        • Fig. 5.3 – Distribution of publishers in 1680, 1710, 1740, and 1780
        • Fig. 5.4 – Entry rates Amsterdam publishers (%), 1600-1800 (10-year moving average; including half of one-year hits)
        • Fig. 5.5 – Number of entries in the Amsterdam booksellers’ guild per year, 1600-1800
        • Fig. 6.1 – Number of painters active in the Dutch Republic 1580-1620
        • Fig. 6.2 – Entry rates and number of newcomers in the seven largest towns (left) and Amsterdam (right), 1585-1610
        • Fig. 6.4 – Distribution of painters in 1580 (left) and 1610 (right)
        • Fig. 7.1 – Number of active painters in the Dutch Republic per year, 1590-1670
        • Fig. 7.2 – Age cohort significant European painters, per decade, 1600-1810
        • Fig. 7.3 – Entry rates and number of newcomers in the seven largest towns (left) and Amsterdam (right), 1590-1670
        • Fig. 7.4 – Number of prominent painters born per decade, 1540-1680, per sample
        • Fig. 8.1 – Number of painters active in the seven largest artistic communities, 1600-1650
        • Fig. 8.2 – Distribution of painters in 1650 (left) and 1680 (right)
        • Fig. 8.3 – Distribution of prominent painters, according to main work location (C sample), start career between 1590-1629 (left), and between 1630-1669 (right)
        • Fig. 9.1 Number of painters active in the Dutch Republic, 1580-1800
        • Fig. 9.2 Entry rates and number of newcomers in the seven largest towns (left) and Amsterdam (right), 1650-1700
        • Fig. 9.3 – Number of painters active in the seven largest artistic communities, 1650-1700
        • Fig. 9.4 – Distribution of prominent painters, according to main work location (C sample), start career between 1630-1669, 1670-1709, 1710-1749, 1750-later
        • Fig. 9.5 – Artists in A/B (left) and C samples (right), distributed according to decade of birth, 1630-1770
        • Fig. 9.6 – Number of annual registrations in the Amsterdam Guild of St. Luke, 1750-1800
        • Fig. 9.7 – Occupational distribution of entrants in the Amsterdam Guild of St. Luke, 1750-1800
      • Tables
        • Table 1.1 – Properties of creative industries
        • Table 2.1 – Distribution of publishers in the Dutch Republic, 1570, 1585, and 1610
        • Table 2.2 – Distribution of names found on imprints published or printed in Amsterdam, 1585-1589 and 1600-1604
        • Table 2.3 – Genre distribution Cornelis Claesz (1582-1609), Harmen Jansz Muller (1572-1617), and Laurens Jacobsz (1588-1603)
        • Table 4.1 – Distribution of booksellers, titles, and non-ephemeral titles, 1610-1619 and 1650-1659
        • Table 4.2 – Output per firm active in Amsterdam 1585, 1600, 1630, 1674
        • Table 4.3 – Distribution of Amsterdam publishers according to size, 1585, 1600, 1630, 1674
        • Table 4.4 – Concentration indices Amsterdam 1585, 1600, 1630, 1674
        • Table 4.5 – Concentration indices Amsterdam per genre 1600-1609, 1650-1659
        • Table 5.1 – Distribution of booksellers, titles, and non-ephemeral titles, 1700-1709 and 1770-1779
        • Table 5.2 – Concentration indices Amsterdam 1674, 1710, 1742
        • Table 5.3 – Number and geographical distribution of major publishers, 1575-1800
        • Table 5.4 – Output per firm active in Amsterdam 1674, 1710, 1742
        • Table 5.5 – Distribution of Amsterdam publishers according to size, 1585, 1600, 1630, 1674, 1710, 1742
        • Table 6.1 – Number of painters per 10,000 inhabitants, 1570-1610
        • Table 6.2 – Origin of entrants in the top ten artistic centres, 1580-1610
        • Table 6.4 – Samples of prominent artists based in the Dutch Republic, 1580-1800
        • Table 6.3 – Place of origin of painters active in eight top artistic centres, 1580-1610
        • Table 8.1 – Number of painters per 10,000 inhabitants, 1610-1640
        • Table 8.2 – Number of painters active in the Dutch Republic in the fifteen largest towns, 1600-1699
        • Table 8.3 – Distribution of painters according to place of birth, born between 1540-1670
        • Table 8.4 – Distribution of painters according to main work location, born between 1540-1670
        • Table 8.5 – Distribution of spin-offs according to starting location, A sample
        • Table 8.6 – Distribution of spin-offs according to main work location, A sample
        • Table 8.7 – Relation between variables, per birth cohort, A sample
        • Table 9.1 – Place of birth and main work location, AB samples, artists active in the eighteenth century
        • Table 9.2 – Place of birth and main work location, C sample, birth cohorts 1630-1790
        • Table A1 – Number of producers in Amsterdam prosopographies per benchmark year
    • 1. Introduction
      • The Dutch Golden Age
      • Cultural industries
      • Spatial clustering
      • A dynamic analytical framework
      • Book structure and approach
  • Part I – Publishing
    • 2. 1580-1610: Window of Opportunity
      • The Dutch Revolt, an external shock
      • New publishers, new markets
      • New markets, new products
      • Business structure and strategy
      • Conclusion
    • 3. 1610-1650: Unlocking Potential
      • Differentiation of demand
      • Book sizes and prices
      • Related and supporting industries
      • Conclusion
    • 4. 1610-1650: Buzz and Pipelines
      • A polycentric urban structure
      • Local competition
      • Openness and embeddedness
      • Conclusion
    • 5. 1650-1800: Mature Markets
      • Economic setbacks
      • International markets
      • A reading revolution?
      • Geographic distribution
      • Related and supporting industries
      • From production to distribution
      • Distribution and finance
      • Reproduction of skills and routines
      • Competition
      • Conclusion
  • Part II – Painting
    • 6. 1580-1610: A Period of Transition
      • Expansion of the art market
      • Spatial clustering and the impact of immigration
      • Measuring artistic prominence
      • Prominence in Dutch painting
      • Styles, genres, and ties with related industries
      • Conclusion
    • 7. 1610-1650: Unlocking Potential
      • Golden Age painting
      • From large potential to real consumption
      • Artistic novelties of the 1610s and 1620s
      • Product and process innovations
      • The invisible hand of supply and demand
      • Competition
      • Conclusion
    • 8. 1610-1650: Buzz and Pipelines
      • Geography of production
      • Quality and quantity
      • Spin-offs and spillovers
      • Institutional organization
      • Distribution
      • Conclusion
    • 9. 1650-1800: Mature Markets
      • The downturn in the art market
      • Geographic distribution
      • Artistic decline
      • Artists’ strategies
      • Luxury and elegance
      • Institutional organization
      • Conclusion
    • 10. Conclusion
      • The life cycles of painting and publishing
      • Painting and publishing as cultural industries
      • Spatial clustering as an explanatory framework
      • Creative flames and golden ages
  • Appendix 1. Methods and Data
  • Sources and Bibliography
  • Index
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