Introduction to Psychology: The Full Noba Collection
Free

Introduction to Psychology: The Full Noba Collection

By Robert Biswas-Diener (editor)
Free
Book Description

This textbook represents the entire catalog of Noba topics. It contains 90 learning modules covering every area of psychology commonly taught in introductory courses. This book can be modified: feel free to rearrange or remove modules to better suit your specific needs. Please note that the publisher requires you to login to access and download the textbooks.

Read online or purchase low-cost copies at Noba.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Copyright
  • About Noba
    • Acknowledgements
  • Psychology As Science
    • 1. Why Science?
      • Learning Objectives
      • Scientific Advances and World Progress
      • What Is Science?
      • Psychology as a Science
      • Psychological Science is Useful
      • Ethics of Scientific Psychology
      • Why Learn About Scientific Psychology?
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 2. Research Designs
      • Learning Objectives
      • Research Designs
      • Experimental Research
        • Other considerations
      • Correlational Designs
        • More details about the correlation
        • Problems with the correlation
      • Qualitative Designs
      • Quasi-Experimental Designs
      • Longitudinal Studies
      • Surveys
      • Tradeoffs in Research
      • Research Methods: Why You Need Them
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 3. Conducting Psychology Research in the Real World
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Rationale for Conducting Psychology Research in the Real World
      • An Overview of Research Methods for Studying Daily Life
        • Studying Daily Experiences
        • Studying Daily Behavior
        • Studying Daily Physiology
        • Studying Online Behavior
        • “Smartphone Psychology”?
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 4. Psychophysiological Methods in Neuroscience
      • Learning Objectives
      • History
      • Introduction
      • Central Nervous System (CNS)
      • Peripheral Nervous System
      • When to Use What
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
    • 5. Statistical Thinking
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
        • Key components to a statistical investigation are:
      • Distributional Thinking
      • Statistical Significance
      • Generalizability
      • Cause and Effect Conclusions
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 6. History of Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • A Prehistory of Psychology
      • Physiology and Psychophysics
      • Scientific Psychology Comes to the United States
      • Toward a Functional Psychology
      • The Growth of Psychology
      • Applied Psychology in America
      • Psychology as a Profession
      • Psychology and Society
      • Conclusion
      • Timeline
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Biological Basis of Behavior
    • 7. Neurons
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Structure of the Neuron
        • Basic Nomenclature
        • Types of Cells in the Brain
      • Communication Within and Between Neurons
        • Resting Membrane Potential
        • Action Potential
        • The Change in Membrane Potential During an Action Potential
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 8. The Nervous System
      • Learning Objectives
      • Evolution of the Nervous System
      • Development of the Nervous System
      • The Structure of the Nervous System
        • The Peripheral Nervous System
        • The Central Nervous System
      • Studying the Nervous System
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 9. The Brain
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Anatomy of the Brain
        • Brain Stem
        • Cerebellum
        • Cerebral Hemispheres
      • A Brain Divided
        • Gray Versus White Matter
      • Studying the Human Brain
        • Neuroanatomy
        • Changing the Brain
        • Neuroimaging
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 10. The Brain and Nervous System
      • Learning Objectives
      •  Nervous System development across the human lifespan
      •  The Central Nervous System (CNS): The Neurons inside the Brain
      •  The Central Nervous System: Looking at the Brain as a Whole
      • The Peripheral Nervous System
      • How we study the brain
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 11. Hormones & Behavior
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Sex Differences
      • Aggressive Behaviors
      • Parental Behaviors
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 12. Biochemistry of Love
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The evolution of social behavior
        • What is love? An evolutionary and physiological perspective
        • Is there a hormone of love and other relationships?
      • Stress and love
        • Animal models and the biology of social bonds
        • There is more to love than oxytocin
        • Functional differences between vasopressin and oxytocin
      • Fatherhood also has a biological basis
        • At the heart of the benefits of love is a sense of safety
        • The absence of love in early life can be detrimental to mental and physical health
        • Sex differences exist in the consequences of early life experiences
        • Loving relationships in early life can have epigenetic consequences
        • The absence of social behavior or isolation also has consequences for the oxytocin system
      • Can love—or perhaps oxytocin—be a medicine?
      • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 13. Evolutionary Theories in Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Basics of Evolutionary Theory
      • Sexual Selection Theory
      • Gene Selection Theory
      • Evolutionary Psychology
      • Sexual Strategies Theory
      • Error Management Theory
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 14. Epigenetics in Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Molecular control of gene expression: the dynamic epigenome
      • The primary epigenetic mark: DNA modification
      • Histone modification and the histone code
      • Early childhood experience
      • Parental investment and programming of stress responses in the offspring
      • Child nutrition and the epigenome
      • Epigenetic regulation of learning and memory
      • Epigenetic mechanisms in psychological disorders
      • Epigenetic strategy to understanding gene-environment interactions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 15. The Nature-Nurture Question
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • What Have We Learned About Nature–Nurture?
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Sensation and Perception
    • 16. Sensation and Perception
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Vision
        • How vision works
        • Dark and light adaptation
        • Color vision
      • Hearing (Audition)
        • Balance and the vestibular system
      • Touch
        • Tactile sensation
        • Pain
        • Phantom limbs
      • Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses
        • Olfaction (smell)
        • Gustation (taste)
      • Putting it all Together: Multimodal Perception
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 17. Vision
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Vision?
      • The Importance of Contrast
      • Sensitivity to Different Light Conditions
      • The Reconstruction Process
      • The Experience of Color
      • Integration with Other Modalities
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 18. Hearing
      • Learning Objectives
        • Introduction
      • Perceptual Attributes of Sound
        • Loudness
        • Pitch
        • Timbre
      • An Overview of the Auditory System
      • Audibility, Masking, and Frequency Selectivity
      • Spatial Hearing
      • Auditory Scene Analysis
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 19. Taste and Smell
      • Learning Objectives
      • The Omnivore's Dilemma
      • Taste and Smell Anatomy
      • Solving the omnivore’s dilemma: Taste affect is hard-wired
      • Another contribution to the omnivore’s dilemma: Olfactory affect is learned
      • Central interactions: Key to understanding taste damage
      • Taste damage and weight gain
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 20. Touch and Pain
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Sensation
        • Cutaneous Senses of the Skin Connect the Brain to the Body and the Outside World
        • Different Receptor Types Are Sensitive to Specific Stimuli
        • Action Potentials in the Receptor Cells Travel as Nerve Impulses with Different Speeds
        • Affective Aspects of Touch Are Important for Development and Relationships
      • Modulation
        • Pain Is Necessary for Survival, but Our Brain Can Stop It if It Needs To
        • The Motivation–Decision Model and Descending Modulation of Pain
        • The Analgesic Power of Reward
        • When Touch Becomes Painful or Pain Becomes Chronic
        • The Power of the Mind
      • Summary
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 21. The Vestibular System
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Structure of the vestibular receptors
      • The vestibular nuclei
      • Vestibuloocular system
      • Vestibulo-spinal network
      • Vestibulo-autonomic control
      • Vestibular signals in the thalamus and cortex
      • Spatial orientation and navigation
      • Motion sickness
      • Summary
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 22. Time and Culture
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Work Versus Leisure
      • Sequence
      • Clock and Event Time
      • Calendars
      • Polychronic and Monochronic Time
      • Silence and “Doing Nothing”
      • Norms Concerning Waiting
      • Temporal Orientation
      • The Pace of Life
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 23. Failures of Awareness: The Case of Inattentional Blindness
      • Learning Objectives
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 24. Multi-Modal Perception
      • Learning Objectives
      • Perception: Unified
      • Questions About Multimodal Perception
      • Biological Bases of Multimodal Perception
        • Multisensory Neurons and Neural Convergence
        • Crossmodal Receptive Fields
        • Multimodal Processing in Unimodal Cortex
      • Behavioral Effects of Multimodal Perception
      • Multimodal Phenomena
        • Audiovisual Speech
        • Tactile/Visual Interactions in Body Ownership
        • Crossmodal Phenomena
        • Visual Influence on Auditory Localization
        • Auditory Influence on Visual Perception
        • Crossmodal Speech
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 25. Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Biases
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Eyewitness Testimony?
      • Why Is Eyewitness Testimony an Important Area of Psychological Research?
      • Misinformation
      • Identifying Perpetrators
      • Kinds of Memory Biases
      • False Memory
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Development
    • 26. Research Methods in Developmental Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Research Methods
        • Involuntary or obligatory responses
        • Voluntary responses 
        • Psychophysiology
        • Parent-report questionnaires 
        • Interview techniques 
      • Research Design
        • Longitudinal research designs
        • Cross-sectional designs 
        • Sequential research designs
      • Challenges Associated with Conducting Developmental Research
        • Ethical concerns 
        • Recruitment 
        • Attrition
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 27. Cognitive Development in Childhood
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Nature and Nurture
      • Does Cognitive Development Progress Through Distinct Stages?
      • Applications to Education
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 28. Social and Personality Development in Childhood
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Relationships
        • Peer Relationships
      • Social Understanding
      • Personality
      • Social and Emotional Competence
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 29. Adolescent Development
      • Learning Objectives
      • Adolescence Defined
        • Physical Changes
        • Cognitive Changes
        • Social Changes
        • Parents
        • Peers
        • Romantic relationships
      • Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment
        • Identity formation
        • Aggression and antisocial behavior
        • Anxiety and depression
        • Academic achievement
        • Diversity
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 30. Attachment Through the Life Course
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Attachment Theory: A Brief History and Core Concepts
      • Individual Differences in Infant Attachment
      • Antecedents of Attachment Patterns
      • Attachment Patterns and Child Outcomes
      • Attachment in Adulthood
        • Research on Attachment in Adulthood
        • Who Ends Up with Whom?
        • Relationship Functioning
        • Do Early Experiences Shape Adult Attachment?
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 31. Emerging Adulthood
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Five Features of Emerging Adulthood
      • International Variations
        • EA in OECD Countries: The Advantages of Affluence
        • EA in Developing Countries: Low But Rising
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 32. The Developing Parent
      • Learning Objectives
      • The Development of Parents
        • 1. The Image-Making Stage
        • 2. The Nurturing Stage
        • 3. The Authority Stage
        • 4. The Interpretive Stage
        • 5. The Interdependent Stage
        • 6. The Departure Stage
      • Influences on Parenting
        • Parent Characteristics
        • Child Characteristics
        • Contextual Factors and Sociocultural Characteristics
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 33. Aging
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Overview: Life Span and Life Course Perspectives on Aging
      • Cognitive Aging
      • Personality and Self-Related Processes
      • Social Relationships
      • Emotion and Well-being
      • Successful Aging and Longevity
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Cognition and Language
    • 34. Attention
      • Learning Objectives
      • What is Attention?
      • Selective Attention
        • The Cocktail Party
        • Dichotic Listening Studies
        • Models of Selective Attention
        • Treisman’s Attenuation Model
        • Late Selection Models
        • Multimode Model
      • Divided Attention and Multitasking
        • Divided Attention Tasks
        • Distracted Driving
      • Summary
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 35. States of Consciousness
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Levels of Awareness
        • Low Awareness
        • High Awareness
      • Other States of Consciousness
        • Hypnosis
        • Sleep
        • Psychoactive Drugs
        • Hallucinogens
        • Depressants
        • Stimulants
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 36. Consciousness
      • Learning Objectives
      • Conscious Experiences
        • Other Minds
        • A Science of Consciousness
      • Conscious Experiences of Visual Perception
      • Conscious Experiences of Memory
      • Conscious Experiences of Body Awareness
      • Conscious Experiences of Decision Making
      • Understanding Consciousness
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 37. The Unconscious
      • Learning Objectives
      • A Little Bit of History
      • Where Action Originates
      • The Unconscious in Social Psychological Processes
      • Unconscious Processing and the Role of Attention
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 38. Categories and Concepts
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Nature of Categories
        • Fuzzy Categories
          • Borderline Items  
          • Typicality
      • Source of Typicality
      • Category Hierarchies
      • Theories of Concept Representation
      • Knowledge
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 39. Intelligence
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Defining and Measuring Intelligence
      • Types of Intelligence
      • Correlates of Intelligence
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 40. Judgment and Decision Making
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • What Would a Rational Decision Look Like?
      • Biases in Our Decision Process
        • Problem 1 (adapted from Alpert & Raiffa, 1969):
        • Problem 2 (adapted from Joyce & Biddle, 1981):
        • Problem 3 (adapted from Tversky & Kahneman, 1981):
        • Overconfidence
        • Anchoring
        • Framing
      • Contemporary Developments
      • Fixing Our Decisions
      • Concluding Thoughts
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 41. Language and Language Use
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • How Do We Use Language?
      • What Do We Talk About?
      • Psychological Consequences of Language Use
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 42. Theory of Mind
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Role of Theory of Mind in Social Life
      • Autism and Theory of Mind
      • The Mental Processes Underlying Theory of Mind
      • Agents, Goals, and Intentionality
      • Imitation, Synchrony, and Empathy
      • Joint Attention, Visual Perspective Taking
      • Projection, Simulation (and the Specter of Egocentrism)
      • Explicit Mental State Inference
      • Tools in Summary
      • Folk Explanations of Behavior
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Learning and Memory
    • 43. Factors Influencing Learning
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Learners
      • Encoding Activities
      • General Principles of Learning
        • The value of effective metacognition
        • Transfer-appropriate processing
        • The value of forgetting
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 44. Conditioning and Learning
      • Learning Objectives
      • Two Types of Conditioning
      • Useful Things to Know about Classical Conditioning
        • Classical Conditioning Has Many Effects on Behavior
        • The Learning Process
        • Erasing Classical Learning
      • Useful Things to Know about Instrumental Conditioning
        • Instrumental Responses Come Under Stimulus Control
        • Operant Conditioning Involves Choice
        • Cognition in Instrumental Learning
      • Putting Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Together
      • Observational Learning
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 45. Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Varieties of Memory
      • Three Stages of the Learning/Memory Process
      • Encoding
      • Storage
      • Retrieval
      • Putting It All Together: Improving Your Memory
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 46. Forgetting and Amnesia
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Causes of Forgetting
      • Adaptive Forgetting
      • Amnesia
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Social
    • 47. An Introduction to the Science of Social Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Social Psychology is a Science
      • What is Included in Social Psychology?
        • Attraction 
        • Attitudes
        • Peace & Conflict
        • Social Influence
        • Social Cognition
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 48. Research Methods in Social Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Research Methods in Social Psychology
        • Laboratory Research
        • Field Research
        • Survey Research
        • Subtle/Nonconscious Research Methods
        • Archival Research
      • Research Issues in Social Psychology
        • The Question of Representativeness
        • Ethics in Social Psychological Research
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 49. Social Neuroscience
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Social Neuroscience?
      • How Automatically Do We Judge Other People?
      • Do We Use Our Own Behavior to Help Us Understand Others?
      • What Is the Cost of Social Stress?
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 50. Social Cognition and Attitudes
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Simplifying Our Social World
      • Making Predictions About the Social World
      • Hot Cognition: The Influence of Motivations, Mood, and Desires on Social Judgment
      • Automaticity
      • Attitudes and Attitude Measurement
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 51. The Family
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • What is Family?
      • How Families Develop
        • Intimacy
        • Dating, Courtship, and Cohabitation
        • Engagement and Marriage
        • Children?
        • Parenting in Later Life
      • Family Issues and Considerations
        • Divorce
        • Abuse
        • Adoption
      • Happy Healthy Families
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 52. Culture
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Social Psychology Research Methods
      • What is Culture?
        • Defining Culture
        • Thinking about Culture
      • The Self and Culture
      • Culture is Learned
      • Cultural Relativism
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 53. Social Comparison
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction: Social Comparison
      • Social Comparison: Basics
      • Relevance and Similarity
      • Direction of Comparison
      • Consequences of Social Comparison
      • Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model
      • Individual Differences
      • Situational factors
        • Number
        • Local
        • Proximity to a Standard
        • Social Category Lines
      • Related Phenomena
        • Frog Pond Effect
        • The Dunning-Kruger Effect
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 54. Persuasion: So Easily Fooled
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Two Paths to Persuasion
      • Triggers and Fixed Action Patterns
      • The Source of Persuasion: The Triad of Trustworthiness
        • Authority
        • Honesty
        • Likability
      • Manipulating the Perception of Trustworthiness
        • Testimonials and Endorsement
        • Presenting the Message as Education
        • Word of Mouth
        • The Maven
      • Other Tricks of Persuasion
        • Reciprocity
        • Social Proof
        • Commitment and Consistency
        • A Door in the Face
        • And That’s Not All!
        • The Sunk Cost Trap
        • Scarcity and Psychological Reactance
      • Defending Against Unwelcome Persuasion
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 55. Conformity and Obedience
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Conformity
      • Obedience
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 56. Cooperation
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Prisoner’s Dilemma
      • Individual Differences in Cooperation
        • Social Value Orientation
        • Empathic Ability
      • Situational Influences of Cooperation
        • Communication and Commitment
        • Trust
        • Group Identification
        • Culture
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 57. Love, Friendship, and Social Support
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Attraction: The Start of Friendship and Love
        • Proximity
        • Familiarity
        • Similarity
        • Reciprocity
      • Friendship
        • Workplace friendships
        • Internet friendships
      • Love
        • Love and the Internet
      • Social Support
        • Perceived Social Support
        • Received Social Support
        • Quality or Quantity?
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 58. The Psychology of Groups
      • Learning Objectives
      • The Psychology of Groups
      • The Psychological Significance of Groups
        • The Need to Belong
        • Affiliation in Groups
        • Identity and Membership
        • Evolutionary Advantages of Group Living
      • Motivation and Performance
        • Social Facilitation in Groups
        • Social Loafing
        • Teamwork
        • Group Development
        • Focus Topic 1: Group Development Stages and Characteristics
      • Making Decisions in Groups
        • Group Polarization
        • Common Knowledge Effect
        • Groupthink
      • You and Your Groups
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 59. Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotyping
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Old-fashioned Biases: Almost Gone
        • Social Dominance Orientation
        • Right-wing Authoritarianism
      • 20th Century Biases: Subtle but Significant
        • Automatic Biases
        • Ambiguous Biases
        • Bias Can Be Complicated - Ambivalent Biases
      • Conclusion: 21st Century Prejudices
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 60. Aggression and Violence
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Internal Factors
        • Age
        • Gender
        • Personality Traits Related to Aggression
        • Hostile Cognitive Biases
      • External Factors
        • Frustration and Other Unpleasant Events
        • Weapons
        • Violent Media
        • Alcohol
      • Reducing Aggression
        • Catharsis
        • Punishment
        • Successful Interventions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 61. Helping and Prosocial Behavior
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • When Do People Help?
        • Defining the situation: The role of pluralistic ignorance
        • Do I have to be the one to help?: Diffusion of responsibility
        • The costs and rewards of helping
      • Who Helps?
        • Who are more helpful—men or women?
        • A trait for being helpful: Agreeableness
        • Searching for the prosocial personality
      • Why Help?
        • Evolutionary roots for prosocial behavior
        • Egoistic motivation for helping
        • Altruistic help
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 62. Relationships and Well-being
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Importance of Relationships
      • The Question of Measurement
      • Presence and Quality of Relationships and Well-Being
        • Presence of relationships
        • Quality of relationships
      • Types of Relationships
        • Intimate relationships
      • Work Relationships and Well-Being
      • Fact or Myth: Are Social Relationships the Secret to Happiness?
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 63. Positive Relationships
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Magic Formula
      • Positive Relationship Deposits
      • Common Opportunities for Daily Positive Deposits
      • Building Intimacy Through Capitalization and Active-Constructive Responding
      • Gratitude
      • Forgiveness
      • Spending Time in Meaningful Ways
      • Accumulated Positive Deposits and Conflict Management
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 64. Attraction and Beauty
      • Learning Objectives
      • The Advantages of Attractiveness
      • What Makes a Person Attractive?
      • Why Are Certain People Attractive?
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 65. Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • What is Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology?
      • What Does an I/O Psychologist Do?
      • Careers in I/O Psychology
      • History of I/O Psychology
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Personality
    • 66. The Psychodynamic Perspective
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Core Assumptions of the Psychodynamic Perspective
        • Assumption 1:Primacy of the Unconscious
        • Assumption 2: Critical Importance of Early Experiences
        • Assumption 3: Psychic Causality
      • The Evolution of Psychodynamic Theory
        • The Topographic Model
        • The Psychosexual Stage Model
        • The Structural Model
        • The Ego and Its Defenses
      • Psychodynamic Theories: Where Are We Now?
        • Object Relations Theory and the Growth of the Psychodynamic Perspective
        • Empirical Research on Psychodynamic Theories
        • Psychoanalysis and Culture
        • The Opportunities and Challenges of Neuroscience
      • Looking Ahead: Psychodynamic Theory in the 21st Century (and Beyond)
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 67. Personality Traits
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
        • The Five-Factor Model of Personality
      • Facets of Traits (Subtraits)
      • Other Traits Beyond the Five-Factor Model
      • The Person-Situation Debate and Alternatives to the Trait Perspective
      • Appendix
        • The Mini-IPIP Scale
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 68. Self and Identity
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Social Actor
      • The Motivated Agent
      • The Autobiographical Author
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 69. Gender
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Gender Differences
      • Gender Roles
      • Gender Sexism and Socialization
        • Important Gender-related Events in the United States
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 70. Personality Stability and Change
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Defining Different Kinds of Personality Stability
      • Basic Findings about Absolute and Differential Stability
      • Key Messages So Far
      • The How and Why of Personality Stability and Change: Different Kinds of Interplay Between Individuals and Their Environments
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 71. Personality Assessment
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Objective Tests
        • Definition
      • Basic Types of Objective Tests
        • Self-report measures
        • Informant ratings
      • Other Ways of Classifying Objective Tests
        • Comprehensiveness
        • Breadth of the target characteristics
      • Projective and Implicit Tests
        • Projective Tests
        • Implicit Tests
      • Behavioral and Performance Measures
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 72. Self-Regulation and Conscientiousness
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Early Work on Delay of Gratification
      • Benefits of Self-Control
      • Three Ingredients of Effective Self-Regulation
      • Conscientiousness
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 73. Creativity
      • Learning Objectives
      • Creativity: What Is It?
      • Cognitive Processes: How Do Creators Think?
      • Personal Characteristics: Who Is Creative?
      • Social Contexts: What Environments Affect Creativity?
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 74. Self-Efficacy
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction: What Is Self-Efficacy?
      • How Do We Measure Self-Efficacy?
      • What Are the Major Influences on Self-Efficacy?
      • When and How Does Self-Efficacy Develop?
      • What Are the Benefits of High Self-Efficacy?
        • Academic Achievement
        • Healthy Behaviors
        • Athletic Performance
        • Self-Regulation
      • Collective Efficacy
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 75. Intellectual Abilities, Interests, and Mastery
      • Learning Objectives
      • A Framework for Understanding Talent Development
      • Cognitive Abilities
      • Interests
      • Mastery
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Emotions and Motivation
    • 76. Affective Neuroscience
      • Learning Objectives
      • Affective Neuroscience: What is it?
      • Basic Emotions
        • Desire: The neural systems of reward seeking
        • “Liking”: The neural circuits of pleasure and enjoyment
        • Fear: The neural system of freezing and fleeing
        • Rage: The circuits of anger and attack
        • Love: The neural systems of care and attachment
        • Grief: The neural networks of loneliness and panic
      • Plasticity: Experiences can alter the brain
      • Brain structures have multiple functions
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 77. Functions of Emotions
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion
        • Emotions Help us Act Quickly with Minimal Conscious Awareness
        • Emotions Prepare the Body for Immediate Action
        • Emotions Influence Thoughts
        • Emotions Motivate Future Behaviors
      • Interpersonal Functions of Emotion
        • Emotional Expressions Facilitate Specific Behaviors in Perceivers
        • Emotional Expressions Signal the Nature of Interpersonal Relationships
        • Emotional Expressions Provide Incentives for Desired Social Behavior
      • Social and Cultural Functions of Emotion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 78. Emotion Experience and Well-Being
      • Learning Objectives
      • Feelings contribute to well-being
      • The intensity of the emotion matters
      • The fluctuation of the emotion matters
      • The context of the emotion experience matters
        • The external environment
        • Other emotional responses
        • Other emotions
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 79. Emotional Intelligence
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • History of EI
      • Models and Measures of EI
        • Ability Models: Mayer and Salovey Four-Branch Model of EI
        • 1. Perception of Emotion
        • 2. Use of Emotion to Facilitate Thinking
        • 3. Understanding of Emotion
        • 4. Management of Emotion
      • Measuring EI with Performance Measures
      • Mixed and Trait Models of EI
      • Mixed and Trait Model Assessment: Self-Report
      • Room for Debate
      • Outcomes
        • Workplace
        • Schools
      • Limitations and Future Directions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 80. Culture and Emotion
      • Learning Objectives
      • Historical Background
      • Current and Research Theory
      • Cultural Models of Self in North American and East Asian Contexts
      • Cultural Similarities and Differences in Emotion: Comparisons of North American and East Asian Contexts
        • People’s Physiological Responses to Emotional Events Are Similar Across Cultures, but Culture Influences People’s Facial Expressive Behavior
        • People Suppress Their Emotions Across Cultures, but Culture Influences the Consequences of Suppression for Psychological Well-Being
        • People Feel Good During Positive Events, but Culture Influences Whether People Feel Bad During Positive Events
        • People Want to Feel Good Across Cultures, but Culture Influences the Specific Good States People Want to Feel (Their “Ideal Affect”)
        • People Base Their Happiness on Similar Factors Across Cultures, but Culture Influences the Weight Placed on Each Factor
      • Why Do Cultural Similarities And Differences In Emotion Matter?
      • Current Directions In Culture And Emotion Research
        • What About Other Cultures?
        • How Are Cultural Differences in Beliefs About Emotion Transmitted?
        • Could These Cultural Differences Be Due to Temperament?
      • Summary
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 81. Knowledge Emotions: Feelings that Foster Learning, Exploring, and Reflecting
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Some Background About Emotions
      • Surprise
      • Interest
      • Confusion
      • Awe
      • Implications of the Knowledge Emotions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 82. Motives and Goals
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Origins and Manifestation of Goals
        • Goal Adoption
        • Goal Priming
        • Consequences of Goal Activation
      • Self-Regulation in Goal Pursuit
        • From Deliberation to Implementation
        • Regulation of Ought- and Ideals-Goals
        • A Cybernetic Process of Self-Regulation
        • Highlighting One Goal or Balancing Between Goals
      • Conflicting Goals and Self-Control
        • Self-Control as an Innate Ability
        • Self-Control as a Limited Resource
        • A Prerequisite to Self-Control: Identification
        • Self-Control Processes: Counteracting Temptation
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 83. Drive States
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Key Properties of Drive States
        • Homeostasis
        • The Narrowing of Attention
      • Two Illustrative Drive States
        • Hunger
        • Sexual Arousal
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Psychological Disorders
    • 84. History of Mental Illness
      • Learning Objectives
      • History of Mental Illness
      • Diagnosis of Mental Illness
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 85. Therapeutic Orientations
      • Learning Objectives
      •  Introduction
      • Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy
        • History of Psychoanalytic Therapy
        • Techniques in Psychoanalysis
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Psychoanalytic Therapy
      • Humanistic and Person-Centered Therapy
        • History of Person-Centered Therapy
        • Techniques in Person-Centered Therapy
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Person-Centered Therapy
      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • History of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • Techniques in CBT
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of CBT
      • Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approaches
        • Techniques in Mindfulness-Based Therapy
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Mindfulness-Based Therapy
      • Emerging Treatment Strategies
      • Pharmacological Treatments
      • Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 86. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • The phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders
      • The Cognitive Neuroscience of Schizophrenia
      • Risk Factors for Developing Schizophrenia
      • Treatment of Schizophrenia
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 87. Anxiety and Related Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
      • Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
      • Specific Phobia
      • Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
      • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
      • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      • Treatments for Anxiety and Related Disorders
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 88. Mood Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Are Mood Disorders?
        • Mood Episodes
          • Major Depressive Episode
          • Manic or Hypomanic Episode
        • Mood Disorders
          • Unipolar Mood Disorders
          • Bipolar Mood Disorders
      • How Common Are Mood Disorders? Who Develops Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • What Are Some of the Factors Implicated in the Development and Course of Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • What Are Some of the Well-Supported Treatments for Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 89. Personality Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • DSM-5 Personality Disorders
      • Description
      • Validity
      • Treatment
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 90. Dissociative Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
        • Is it real?
        • Defining dissociation
        • Measuring dissociation
      • Dissociation and Trauma
        • Causality and evidence
      • Dissociation and Sleep
        • A little history
        • Sleep problems in patients with dissociative disorders
        • Studying the relationship between dissociation and sleep
        • Inducing and reducing sleep problems
      • Implications and Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 91. Autism: Insights from the Study of the Social Brain
      • Learning Objectives
      • Defining Autism Spectrum Disorder
      • Defining the Social Brain
      • Current Understanding of Social Perception in ASD
      • Exploring Diversity in ASD
      • Atypical Brain Development Before the Emergence of Atypical Behavior
      • Hope for Improved Outcomes
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 92. Psychopathy
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Historic Conceptions
      • Contemporary assessment methods
        • Psychopathy in adult criminal offenders
        • Psychopathy in noncriminal adults
        • Psychopathy in child and adolescent clinical samples
      • Core ingredients of psychopathy: disinhibition, boldness, and meanness
        • Definitions
      • Causal factors
      • Triarchic model perspective on long-debated issues regarding psychopathy
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 93. ADHD and Behavior Disorders in Children
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Why Diagnose Children’s Behavior Problems?
        • Are These Diagnoses Valid?
        • Focus Topic 1: Adult outcomes of children with ADHD
        • Focus Topic 2: Two children referred for problems with noncompliance and hyperactivity
          • Case 1 - Michael
          • Case 2 - Jake
      • Why Do Some Children Develop Behavior Disorders?
        • Controversies on Causes of ADHD
      • Methods of Treating ADHD in Children
        • Medication
        • Parent Management Training
        • Focus Topic 3: Treating ADHD in Schools
          • Token reinforcement program
          • Time out
          • Daily report card
          • Educational services and accommodations
        • What Works Best? The Multimodal Treatment Study
      • The Future of ADHD
        • Controlling Access to Stimulant Medication
        • The Role of Neuroscience and Behavioral Genetics in Understanding ADHD
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 94. Social Anxiety
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Social Anxiety Disorder
      • Fear of Evaluation
      • Biased Attention and Interpretation
      • Deficient Positive Experiences
      • Problematic Emotion Regulation
      • Treatments
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 95. Psychopharmacology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacokinetics: What Is It – Why Is It Important?
        • Drug Administration
        • Drug Metabolism
      • Recent Issues Related to Psychotropic Drugs and Metabolism
        • Grapefruit Juice and Metabolism
        • Individualized Therapy, Metabolic Differences, and Potential Prescribing Approaches for the Future
      • Other Controversial Issues
        • Juveniles and Psychopharmacology
        • The Elderly and Psychopharmacology
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Well-Being
    • 96. The Healthy Life
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Health Psychology?
      • Stress And Health
      • Protecting Our Health
        • Coping Strategies
        • Control and Self-Efficacy
        • Social Relationships
        • Dispositions and Emotions: What’s Risky and What’s Protective?
        • Stress Management
      • The Importance Of Good Health Practices
      • Psychology And Medicine
      • Being A Health Psychologist
      • The Future Of Health Psychology
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 97. Happiness: The Science of Subjective Well-Being
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Types of Happiness
      • Causes of Subjective Well-Being
      • Societal Influences on Happiness
        • Money and Happiness
      • Adaptation to Circumstances
      • Outcomes of High Subjective Well-Being
      • Measuring Happiness
      • Some Ways to Be Happier
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 98. Positive Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Three Key Strengths
        • Forgiveness
        • Gratitude
        • Humility
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 99. Optimal Levels of Happiness
      • Contents
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Index
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