The Ecological Scarcity Method for the European Union: A Volkswagen Research Initiative: Environmental Assessments
Free

The Ecological Scarcity Method for the European Union: A Volkswagen Research Initiative: Environmental Assessments

By Stephan Ahbe
Free
Book Description

This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This report transfers the Ecological Scarcity Method (ESM) to the EU and its 28 member states. It provides a powerful tool for unbiased environmental assessments in enterprises and surveys the current impacts and the targets published by environmental authorities, specifically the European Environment Agency. ESM assesses environmental impacts of manufacturing sites and production processes. Developed in 1990 in Switzerland, ESM has already gained regulatory status in proving entitlements for tax exemptions. The method assesses all important impacts in air, water, energy consumption, waste generation and freshwater consumption and also supports en vironmental investment decisions.ContentsMethodological Basics Data Research and ResultsEco Factors for EU28Target GroupsPractitioners in industries and public authorities in the field of Environment Researchers and students of Ecological Sciences and Industrial ManagementAbout the AuthorsDr. Stephan Ahbe is initiator and author of Swiss Ecological Scarcity Method published in 1990 and today develops Environmental Management Systems at SYRCON in Darmstadt, Germany.

Dr. Simon Weihofen is Environmental and Energy Manager in Group Management at E.ON SE in Essen, Germany.

Dr. Steffen Wellge is an Environmental and Energy Management Specialist at the Volkswagen Group Research, Wolfsburg, Germany.

Table of Contents
  • Acknowledgement
  • Preliminary Remarks
  • Table of Contents
  • Table of Figures and Tables
  • 1 Management Summary
  • 2 Introduction
    • 2.1 Method Description
    • 2.2 Initial Situation and Aim of the Initiative
    • 2.3 Objectives for European Data
    • 2.4 Project Implementation
  • 3 Methodological Bases
    • 3.1 Ecological Scarcity Method
      • 3.1.1 How does the ESM fit to the Phases of the ISO Standard?
      • 3.1.2 What are the Elements of the ESM?
    • 3.2 Basic Principle
      • 3.2.1 How can the ESM be applied?
      • 3.2.2 Which Requirement apply to the ESM and its underlying Data?
      • 3.2.3 Coordination with Environmental Authorities
      • 3.2.4 Requirements for European Eco Factors
    • 3.3 Method
      • 3.3.1 Requirements for European Eco Factors
      • 3.3.2 What further Options are there for Applying the ESM?
      • 3.3.3 How can Traceability be communicated?
      • 3.3.4 What Transparency Rules need to be observed?
      • 3.3.5 Basis for Assessment
      • 3.3.6 Rules for Assessment
      • 3.3.7 What must be borne in Mind when drawing up Assessment?
    • 3.4 Methods
      • 3.4.1 The ESM: Midpoint or Endpoint Method?
      • 3.4.2 Does the ESM comply with ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006?
    • 3.5 Responsible Use of Environmental Impact Assessments
    • 3.6 Use of Data
      • 3.6.1 Types of Impact under Consideration
      • 3.6.2 Comparability of Eco Factors and Eco Points
  • 4 Data Collection
    • 4.1 Methodology
    • 4.2 Principles for Deriving Eco Factors
    • 4.3 Use for Characterization Factors
      • 4.3.1 Determination of Normalisation
      • 4.3.2 Determination of Weighting
      • 4.3.3 Eco-Factor Determination
      • 4.3.4 Temporal Aspects of the Eco-Factor Dermination/ Time Horizons
    • 4.4 General Data Situation
      • 4.4.1 Reccording the Actual State
      • 4.4.2 Articulating Political Will
      • 4.4.3 Discussion of Procedure
  • 5 Results Type of Impact
    • 5.1 Emission to Air
      • 5.1.1 Greenhouse Gases
      • 5.1.2 Characterization
      • 5.1.3 Preliminary Remarks on Air Pollutants
      • 5.1.4 NMVOC
      • 5.1.5 NO
      • 5.1.6 SO
      • 5.1.7 PM2.5
      • 5.1.8 NH
    • 5.2 Emissions Surface Water
      • 5.2.1 Nitrogen (as N)
      • 5.2.2 Phosphorus (as P)
      • 5.2.3 Nickel
      • 5.2.4 Zinc
      • 5.2.5 COD
      • 5.2.6 Lead
      • 5.2.7 Cadmium
      • 5.2.8 Copper
      • 5.2.9 EPA-PAH16
    • 5.3 Consumption of Resources
      • 5.3.1 Freshwater Consumption
      • 5.3.2 Primary and Renewable Energy Consumption
    • 5.4 Waste Generation
      • 5.4.1 Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Waste
    • 5.5 Derived Data Sets for Individual EU Countries
      • 5.5.1 References to Calculation in the Datasheets
  • 6 Eco Factors for EU-28 and Member States
    • 6.1 EU-28 (Regarded as one Environmentally Decision-Making Unit)
    • 6.2 Data sets of the EU Member States
      • 6.2.1 Austria
      • 6.2.2 Belgium
      • 6.2.3 Bulgaria
      • 6.2.4 Croatia
      • 6.2.5 Cyprus
      • 6.2.6 Czech. Republik
      • 6.2.7 Denmark
      • 6.2.8 Estonia
      • 6.2.9 Finland
      • 6.2.10 France
      • 6.2.11 Germany (for the purpose of comparision)
      • 6.2.12 Greece
      • 6.2.13 Hungary
      • 6.2.14 Ireland
      • 6.2.15 Italy
      • 6.2.16 Latvia
      • 6.2.17 Lithuania
      • 6.2.18 Luxembourg
      • 6.2.19 Malta
      • 6.2.20 Netherlands
      • 6.2.21 Poland
      • 6.2.22 Portugal
      • 6.2.23 Romania
      • 6.2.24 Slovakia
      • 6.2.25 Slovenia
      • 6.2.26 Spain
      • 6.2.27 Sweden
      • 6.2.28 United Kingdom
  • 7 Environmental Impact Calculation
  • 8 Sources
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