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The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Volume 1
By R. V. (Robert Vane) Russell
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Table of Contents
  • The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India
  • Published Under the Orders of the Central Provinces Administration In Four Volumes Vol. I. Macmillan and Co., Limited St. Martin’s Street, London. 1916
  • Preface
  • Contents
  • Detailed List of Contents
  • Maps and Illustrations
    • Maps
    • Illustrations
  • Pronunciation
  • Part I.
  • Introductory Essay on Caste
  • Introductory Essay on Caste
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The Central Provinces.
    • 2. Constitution of the population.
    • 3. The word ‘Caste.’
    • 4. The meaning of the term ‘Caste.’
    • 5. The subcaste.
    • 6. Confusion of nomenclature.
    • 7. Tests of what a caste is.
    • 8. The four traditional castes.
    • 9. Occupational theory of caste.
    • 10. Racial Theory.
    • 11. Entry of the Aryans into India. The Aryas and Dasyus.
    • 12. The Sūdra.
    • 13. The Vaishya.
    • 14. Mistaken modern idea of the Vaishyas.
    • 15. Mixed unions of the four classes.
    • 16. Hypergamy.
    • 17. The mixed castes. The village menials.
    • 18. Social gradation of castes.
    • 19. Castes ranking above the cultivators.
    • 20. Castes from whom a Brāhman can take water. Higher agriculturists.
    • 21. Status of the cultivator.
    • 22. The clan and the village.
    • 23. The ownership of land.
    • 24. The cultivating status that of the Vaishya.
    • 25. Higher professional and artisan castes.
    • 26. Castes from whom a Brāhman cannot take water; the village menials.
    • 27. The village watchmen.
    • 28. The village priests. The gardening castes.
    • 29. Other village traders and menials.
    • 30. Household servants.
    • 31. Status of the village menials.
    • 32. Origin of their status
    • 33. Other castes who rank with the village menials.
    • 34. The non-Aryan tribes.
    • 35. The Kolarians and Dravidians.
    • 36. Kolarian tribes.
    • 37. Dravidian tribes.
    • 38. Origin of the Kolarian tribes
    • 39. Of the Dravidian tribes.
    • 40. Origin of the impure castes.
    • 41. Derivation of the impure castes from the indigenous tribes.
    • 42. Occupation the basis of the caste system.
    • 43. Other agents in the formation of castes.
    • 44. Caste occupations divinely ordained.
    • 45. Subcastes. local type.
    • 46. Occupational subcastes.
    • 47. Subcastes formed from social or religious differences, or from mixed descent.
    • 48. Exogamous groups.
    • 49. Totemistic clans.
    • 50. Terms of relationship.
    • 51. Clan kinship and totemism.
    • 52. Animate Creation.
    • 53. The distribution of life over the body.
    • 54. Qualities associated with animals.
    • 55. Primitive language.
    • 56. Concrete nature of primitive ideas.
    • 57. Words and names concrete.
    • 58. The soul or spirit.
    • 59. The tranmission of qualities.
    • 60. The faculty of counting. Confusion of the individual and the species.
    • 61. Similarity and identity.
    • 62. The recurrence of events.
    • 63. Controlling the future.
    • 64. The common life.
    • 65. The common life of the clan.
    • 66. Living and eating together.
    • 67. The origin of exogamy.
    • 68. Promiscuity and female descent.
    • 69. Exogamy with female descent.
    • 70. Marriage.
    • 71. Marriage by capture.
    • 72. Transfer of the bride to her husband’s clan.
    • 73. The exogamous clan with male descent and the village.
    • 74. The large exogamous clans of the Brāhmans and Rājpūts. The Sapindas, the gens and the γένος.
    • 75. Comparison of Hindu society with that of Greece and Rome. The gens.
    • 76. The clients.
    • 77. The plebeians.
    • 78. The binding social tie in the city-states.
    • 79. The Suovetaurilia.
    • 80. The sacrifice of the domestic animal.
    • 81. Sacrifices of the gens and phratry.
    • 82. The Hindu caste-feasts.
    • 83. Taking food at initiation.
    • 84. Penalty feasts.
    • 85. Sanctity of grain-food.
    • 86. The corn-sprit.
    • 87. The king.
    • 88. Other instances of the common meal as a sacrificial rite.
    • 89. Funeral feasts.
    • 90. The Hindu deities and the sacrificial meal.
    • 91. Development of the occupational caste from the tribe.
    • 92. Veneration of the caste implements.
    • 93. The caste panchāyat and its code of offences.
    • 94. The status of impurity.
    • 95. Caste and Hinduism.
    • 96. The Hindu reformers.
    • 97. Decline of the caste system.
  • Articles on Religions and Sects
  • Arya Samāj
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The founder of the sect, Dayānand Sāraswati.
    • 2. His methods and the scientific interpretation of the Vedas.
    • 3. Tenets of the Samāj.
    • 4. Modernising tendencies.
    • 5. Aims and educational institutions.
    • 6. Prospects of the sect.
  • Brahmo Samāj
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Ram Mohan Roy, founder of the sect.
    • 2. Much esteemed by the English.
    • 3. Foundation of the Brahmo Samāj.
    • 4. Debendra Nāth Tagore.
    • 5. Keshub Chandar Sen.
    • 6. The Civil Marriage Act.
    • 7. Keshub Chandar’s relapse into mysticism.
    • 8. Recent history of the Samāj.
    • 9. Character of the movement.
  • Dādupanthi Sect.1
  • Dhāmi, Prannāthi Sect.
  • Jain Religion
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Numbers and distribution.
    • 2. The Jain religion. Its connection with Buddhism.
    • 3. The Jain tenets. The Tirthakars.
    • 4. The transmigration of souls.
    • 5. Strict rules against taking life.
    • 6. Jain sects.
    • 7. Jain ascetics.
    • 8. Jain subcastes of Banias.
    • 9. Rules and customs of the laity.
    • 10. Connection with Hinduism.
    • 11. Temple and car festival.
    • 12. Images of the Tirthakārs.
    • 13. Religious observances.
    • 14. Tenderness for animal life.
    • 15. Social condition of the Jains.
  • Kabīrpanthi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Life of Kabīr.
    • 2. Kabīr’s teachings.
    • 3. His sayings
    • 4. The Kabīrpanthi Sect in the Central Provinces.
    • 5. The religious service.
    • 6. Initiation.
    • 7. Funeral rites.
    • 8. Idol worship.
    • 9. Statistics of the sect.
  • Lingāyat Sect
  • Muhammadan Religion
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Statistics and distribution.
    • 2. Occupations.
    • 3. Muhammadan castes.
    • 4. The four tribal divisions.
    • 5. Marriage.
    • 6. Polygamy, divorce and widow-remarriage.
    • 7. Devices for procuring children, and beliefs about them.
    • 8. Pregnancy rites.
    • 9. Childbirth and naming children.
    • 10. The Ukīka sacrifice.
    • 11. Shaving the hair and ear-piercing.
    • 12. Birthdays.
    • 13. Circumcision, and maturity of girls.
    • 14. Funeral rites.
    • 15. Muhammadan sects. Shiah and Sunni.
    • 16. Leading religious observances. Prayer.
    • 17. The fast of Ramazān.
    • 18. The pilgrimage to Mecca.
    • 19. Festivals. The Muharram.
    • 20. Id-ul-Fitr.
    • 21. Id-ul-Zoha
    • 22. Mosques.
    • 23. The Friday service.
    • 24. Priests, Mulla and Maulvi.
    • 25. The Kāzi.
    • 26. General features of Islām.
    • 27. The Korān.
    • 28. The Traditions.
    • 29. The schools of law.
    • 30. Food.
    • 31. Dress.
    • 32. Social rules. Salutations.
    • 33. Customs.
    • 34. Position of women.
    • 35. Interest on money.
    • 36. Muhammadan education.
  • Nānakpanthi
    • 1. Account of the sect.
    • 2. Nānakpanthis in the Central Provinces.
    • 3. Udasis.
    • 4. Suthra Shāhis.
  • Parmārthi Sect
  • Pārsi or Zoroastrian Religion
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Introductory.
    • 2. The Zoroastrian religion.
    • 3. The Zend-Avesta.
    • 4. The Zend Avesta and the Vedas.
    • 5. Reasons for the schism between the Persian and Indian Aryans.
    • 6. The dual principles and the conflict between good and evil.
    • 7. The dual principle derived from the antagonism of light and darkness.
    • 8. The Zoroastrians in Persia.
    • 9. Their migration to India and settlement there.
    • 10. Their wealth and prosperity.
    • 11. Marriage customs.
    • 12. Religion. Worship of fire.
    • 13. The Homa liquor.
    • 14. Pārsi priests.
    • 15. The sacred shirt and cord.
    • 16. Disposal of the dead.
    • 17. Previous exposure of the dead, and migration of souls.
    • 18. Clothes, food and ceremonial observances.
  • Saiva, Shaiva, Sivite Sect
  • Sākta, Shakta Sect
  • Satnāmi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the sect.
    • 2. Ghāsi Dās, founder of the Satnāmi sect.
    • 3. The message of Ghāsi Dās.
    • 4. Subsequent history of the Satnāmis.
    • 5. Social profligacy.
    • 6. Divisions of the Satnāmis.
    • 7. Customs of the Satnāmis.
    • 8. Character of the Satnāmi movement.
  • Sikh Religion
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Foundation of Sikhism—Bāba Nānak.
    • 2. The earlier Gurus.
    • 3. Guru Govind Singh.
    • 4. Sikh initiation and rules.
    • 5. Character of the Nānakpanthis and Sikh sects.
    • 6. The Akālis.
    • 7. The Sikh Council or Guru-Māta. Their communal meal.
  • Smārta Sect
  • Swāmi-Nārāyan Sect
    • 1. The founder.
    • 2. Tenets of the sect.
    • 3. Meeting with Bishop Heber.
    • 4. Meeting with Governor of Bombay.
    • 5. Conclusion.
  • Vaishnava, Vishnuite Sect
    • 1. Vishnu as representing the sun.
    • 2. His incarnations.
    • 3. Worship of Vishnu and Vaishnava doctrines.
  • Vām-Mārgi, Bām-Mārgi, Vāma-Chari Sect.
  • Wahhābi Sect
  • Part I
  • Glossary of Minor Castes and Other Articles, Synonyms, Subcastes, Titles and Names of Exogamous Septs or Clans
  • Glossary
  • Subject Index
  • Colophon
    • Availability
    • Encoding
    • Revision History
    • Corrections
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