Life Movements in Plants
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Life Movements in Plants

By Sir Jagadis Chunder Bose
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Table of Contents
  • LIFE MOVEMENTS IN PLANTS
  • CONTENTS
  • ILLUSTRATIONS.
  • PART I. RESPONSE OF PLANT ORGANS.
    • I.—THE PROBLEM OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS
    • II.—THE “PRAYING” PALM TREE
      • THE RECORDING APPARATUS.
      • UNIVERSALITY OF TREE MOVEMENT.
      • THE CAUSE OF PERIODIC MOVEMENT.
      • PERIODIC MOVEMENT OF TREES AND DIURNAL VARIATION OF MOTO-EXCITABILITY IN MIMOSA PUDICA.
      • RELATIVE EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE.
      • PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF THE MOVEMENT.
      • TRANSPIRATION AND DIURNAL MOVEMENT.
      • EFFECT OF VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE ON GEOTROPIC CURVATURE.
      • REVERSAL OF NATURAL RHYTHM.
      • SUMMARY.
    • THE RECORDING APPARATUS.
    • UNIVERSALITY OF TREE MOVEMENT.
    • THE CAUSE OF PERIODIC MOVEMENT.
    • PERIODIC MOVEMENT OF TREES AND DIURNAL VARIATION OF MOTO-EXCITABILITY IN MIMOSA PUDICA.
    • RELATIVE EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE.
    • PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF THE MOVEMENT.
    • TRANSPIRATION AND DIURNAL MOVEMENT.
    • EFFECT OF VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE ON GEOTROPIC CURVATURE.
    • REVERSAL OF NATURAL RHYTHM.
    • SUMMARY.
    • III.—ACTION OF STIMULUS ON VEGETABLE TISSUES
      • RESPONSE RECORDERS.
      • RESPONSE OF A RADIAL ORGAN.
      • RESPONSE OF AN ANISOTROPIC ORGAN.
      • RESPONSE OF THE PULVINUS OF MIMOSA PUDICA.
      • RESPONSE OF PULVINUS OF MIMOSA TO VARIATION OF TURGOR.
      • DIFFERENT MODES OF STIMULATION.
      • SUMMARY.
    • RESPONSE RECORDERS.
    • RESPONSE OF A RADIAL ORGAN.
    • RESPONSE OF AN ANISOTROPIC ORGAN.
    • RESPONSE OF THE PULVINUS OF MIMOSA PUDICA.
    • RESPONSE OF PULVINUS OF MIMOSA TO VARIATION OF TURGOR.
    • DIFFERENT MODES OF STIMULATION.
    • SUMMARY.
    • IV.—DIURNAL VARIATION OF MOTO-EXCITABILITY IN MIMOSA
      • UNIFORM PERIODIC STIMULATION.
      • THE RESPONSE RECORDER.
      • EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL CONDITIONS ON EXCITABILITY.
      • EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND DARKNESS.
      • EFFECT OF EXCESSIVE TURGOR.
      • INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE.
      • DIURNAL VARIATION OF EXCITABILITY.
      • EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON VARIATION OF EXCITABILITY.
      • EFFECT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL INERTIA.
      • EFFECT OF SEASON.
      • SUMMARY.
    • UNIFORM PERIODIC STIMULATION.
    • THE RESPONSE RECORDER.
    • EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL CONDITIONS ON EXCITABILITY.
    • EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND DARKNESS.
    • EFFECT OF EXCESSIVE TURGOR.
    • INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE.
    • DIURNAL VARIATION OF EXCITABILITY.
    • EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON VARIATION OF EXCITABILITY.
    • EFFECT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL INERTIA.
    • EFFECT OF SEASON.
    • SUMMARY.
    • V.—RESPONSE OF PETIOLE-PULVINUS PREPARATION OF MIMOSA PUDICA
      • EFFECT OF WOUND OR SECTION IN MODIFICATION OF NORMAL EXCITABILITY.
      • THE CHANGE OF EXCITABILITY AFTER IMMERSION IN WATER.
      • QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE RATE OF DECAY OF EXCITABILITY IN AN ISOLATED PREPARATION.
      • EFFECT OF AMPUTATION OF UPPER HALF OF PULVINUS.
      • EFFECT OF REMOVAL OF THE LOWER HALF.
      • INFLUENCE OF THE WEIGHT OF LEAF ON RAPIDITY OF RESPONSIVE FALL.
      • ACTION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS.
      • EFFECT OF “FATIGUE” ON RESPONSE.
      • THE INFLUENCE OF CONSTANT ELECTRIC CURRENT ON RECOVERY.
      • ACTION OF LIGHT AND DARKNESS ON EXCITABILITY.
      • SUMMARY.
    • EFFECT OF WOUND OR SECTION IN MODIFICATION OF NORMAL EXCITABILITY.
    • THE CHANGE OF EXCITABILITY AFTER IMMERSION IN WATER.
    • QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE RATE OF DECAY OF EXCITABILITY IN AN ISOLATED PREPARATION.
    • EFFECT OF AMPUTATION OF UPPER HALF OF PULVINUS.
    • EFFECT OF REMOVAL OF THE LOWER HALF.
    • INFLUENCE OF THE WEIGHT OF LEAF ON RAPIDITY OF RESPONSIVE FALL.
    • ACTION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS.
    • EFFECT OF “FATIGUE” ON RESPONSE.
    • THE INFLUENCE OF CONSTANT ELECTRIC CURRENT ON RECOVERY.
    • ACTION OF LIGHT AND DARKNESS ON EXCITABILITY.
    • SUMMARY.
    • VI.—ON CONDUCTION OF EXCITATION IN PLANTS
      • PREFERENTIAL DIRECTION OF CONDUCTION.
      • EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE.
      • EFFECT OF SEASON.
      • EFFECT OF AGE.
      • EFFECT OF DESICCATION ON CONDUCTING TISSUES.
      • INFLUENCE OF TONIC CONDITION ON CONDUCTIVITY.
      • SUMMARY.
    • PREFERENTIAL DIRECTION OF CONDUCTION.
    • EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE.
    • EFFECT OF SEASON.
    • EFFECT OF AGE.
    • EFFECT OF DESICCATION ON CONDUCTING TISSUES.
    • INFLUENCE OF TONIC CONDITION ON CONDUCTIVITY.
    • SUMMARY.
    • VII.—ON ELECTRIC CONTROL OF EXCITATORY IMPULSE
      • METHOD OF CONDUCTIVITY BALANCE.
      • CONTROL OF TRANSMITTED EXCITATION IN AVERRHOA BILIMBI.
      • ELECTRIC CONTROL OF NERVOUS IMPULSE IN ANIMALS.
      • EFFECTS OF DIRECTION OF CURRENT ON VELOCITY OF TRANSMISSION.
      • DETERMINATION OF VARIATION OF CONDUCTIVITY BY METHOD OF MINIMAL STIMULUS AND RESPONSE.
      • AFTER-EFFECTS OF HOMODROMOUS AND HETERODROMOUS CURRENTS.
      • VARIATION OF VELOCITY OF TRANSMISSION.
      • VARIATION OF INTENSITY OF TRANSMITTED EXCITATION UNDER HETERODROMOUS AND HOMODROMOUS CURRENTS.
      • AFTER-EFFECTS OF HETERODROMOUS AND HOMODROMOUS CURRENTS.
      • LAWS OF VARIATION OF NERVOUS CONDUCTION UNDER THE ACTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS.
      • SUMMARY.
    • METHOD OF CONDUCTIVITY BALANCE.
    • CONTROL OF TRANSMITTED EXCITATION IN AVERRHOA BILIMBI.
    • ELECTRIC CONTROL OF NERVOUS IMPULSE IN ANIMALS.
    • EFFECTS OF DIRECTION OF CURRENT ON VELOCITY OF TRANSMISSION.
    • DETERMINATION OF VARIATION OF CONDUCTIVITY BY METHOD OF MINIMAL STIMULUS AND RESPONSE.
    • AFTER-EFFECTS OF HOMODROMOUS AND HETERODROMOUS CURRENTS.
    • VARIATION OF VELOCITY OF TRANSMISSION.
    • VARIATION OF INTENSITY OF TRANSMITTED EXCITATION UNDER HETERODROMOUS AND HOMODROMOUS CURRENTS.
    • AFTER-EFFECTS OF HETERODROMOUS AND HOMODROMOUS CURRENTS.
    • LAWS OF VARIATION OF NERVOUS CONDUCTION UNDER THE ACTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS.
    • SUMMARY.
    • VIII.—EFFECT OF INDIRECT STIMULUS ON PULVINATED ORGANS
      • DUAL CHARACTER OF THE TRANSMITTED IMPULSE.
      • EFFECT OF DISTANCE OF APPLICATION OF STIMULUS.
      • EFFECTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT STIMULUS.
    • DUAL CHARACTER OF THE TRANSMITTED IMPULSE.
    • EFFECT OF DISTANCE OF APPLICATION OF STIMULUS.
    • EFFECTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT STIMULUS.
    • IX.—MODIFYING INFLUENCE OF TONIC CONDITION ON RESPONSE
      • THEORY OF ASSIMILATION AND DISSIMILATION.
      • UNMASKING OF THE POSITIVE EFFECT.
      • ARTIFICIAL DEPRESSION OF TONIC CONDITION AND MODIFICATION OF RESPONSE.
      • POSITIVE RESPONSE IN SUB-TONIC SPECIMEN.
      • SUMMARY.
    • THEORY OF ASSIMILATION AND DISSIMILATION.
    • UNMASKING OF THE POSITIVE EFFECT.
    • ARTIFICIAL DEPRESSION OF TONIC CONDITION AND MODIFICATION OF RESPONSE.
    • POSITIVE RESPONSE IN SUB-TONIC SPECIMEN.
    • SUMMARY.
  • PART II. GROWTH AND ITS RESPONSIVE VARIATIONS.
    • X.—THE HIGH MAGNIFICATION CRESCOGRAPH FOR RESEARCHES ON GROWTH[S]
      • METHOD OF HIGH MAGNIFICATION.
      • AUTOMATIC RECORD OF THE RATE OF GROWTH.
      • EXPERIMENTAL ADJUSTMENTS.
      • DETERMINATION OF LATENT PERIOD AND TIME-RELATIONS OF RESPONSE.
      • MAGNETIC AMPLIFICATION.
      • THE DEMONSTRATION CRESCOGRAPH.
      • SUMMARY.
    • METHOD OF HIGH MAGNIFICATION.
    • AUTOMATIC RECORD OF THE RATE OF GROWTH.
    • EXPERIMENTAL ADJUSTMENTS.
    • DETERMINATION OF LATENT PERIOD AND TIME-RELATIONS OF RESPONSE.
    • MAGNETIC AMPLIFICATION.
    • THE DEMONSTRATION CRESCOGRAPH.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XI.—EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH
      • METHOD OF DISCONTINUOUS OBSERVATION.
      • METHOD OF CONTINUOUS OBSERVATION.
      • DETERMINATION OF THE CARDINAL POINTS OF GROWTH.
      • THE THERMO-CRESCENT CURVE.
      • SUMMARY.
    • METHOD OF DISCONTINUOUS OBSERVATION.
    • METHOD OF CONTINUOUS OBSERVATION.
    • DETERMINATION OF THE CARDINAL POINTS OF GROWTH.
    • THE THERMO-CRESCENT CURVE.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XII.—THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AGENTS ON GROWTH
      • EFFECT OF STIMULANTS.
      • EFFECT OF ANÆSTHETICS.
      • ACTION OF DIFFERENT GASES.
      • ACTION OF POISONS.
      • SUMMARY.
    • EFFECT OF STIMULANTS.
    • EFFECT OF ANÆSTHETICS.
    • ACTION OF DIFFERENT GASES.
    • ACTION OF POISONS.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XIII.—EFFECT OF VARIATION OF TURGOR AND OF TENSION ON GROWTH
      • RESPONSE TO POSITIVE VARIATION OF TURGOR.
      • EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL INCREASE OF INTERNAL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.
      • RESPONSE TO NEGATIVE VARIATION OF TURGOR.
      • RESPONSE OF MOTILE AND GROWING ORGANS TO VARIATION OF TURGOR.
      • EFFECT OF EXTERNAL TENSION.
      • SUMMARY.
    • RESPONSE TO POSITIVE VARIATION OF TURGOR.
    • EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL INCREASE OF INTERNAL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.
    • RESPONSE TO NEGATIVE VARIATION OF TURGOR.
    • RESPONSE OF MOTILE AND GROWING ORGANS TO VARIATION OF TURGOR.
    • EFFECT OF EXTERNAL TENSION.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XIV.—EFFECT OF ELECTRIC STIMULUS ON GROWTH
      • EFFECT OF ELECTRIC STIMULUS OF VARYING INTENSITY AND DURATION.
      • CONTINUITY BETWEEN INCIPIENT AND ACTUAL CONTRACTION.
      • SUMMARY.
    • EFFECT OF ELECTRIC STIMULUS OF VARYING INTENSITY AND DURATION.
    • CONTINUITY BETWEEN INCIPIENT AND ACTUAL CONTRACTION.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XV.—EFFECT OF MECHANICAL STIMULUS ON GROWTH
      • EFFECT OF MECHANICAL IRRITATION.
      • EFFECT OF WOUND.
      • SUMMARY.
    • EFFECT OF MECHANICAL IRRITATION.
    • EFFECT OF WOUND.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XVI.—ACTION OF LIGHT ON GROWTH
      • METHOD OF EXPERIMENT.
      • NORMAL EFFECT OF LIGHT.
      • DETERMINATION OF THE LATENT PERIOD.
      • EFFECT OF INTENSITY OF LIGHT.
      • EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS LIGHT.
      • EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT RAYS OF THE SPECTRUM.
      • SUMMARY.
    • METHOD OF EXPERIMENT.
    • NORMAL EFFECT OF LIGHT.
    • DETERMINATION OF THE LATENT PERIOD.
    • EFFECT OF INTENSITY OF LIGHT.
    • EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS LIGHT.
    • EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT RAYS OF THE SPECTRUM.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XVII.—EFFECT OF INDIRECT STIMULUS ON GROWTH
      • MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL RESPONSE TO INDIRECT STIMULUS.
      • VARIATION OF GROWTH UNDER INDIRECT STIMULUS.
      • SUMMARY.
    • MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL RESPONSE TO INDIRECT STIMULUS.
    • VARIATION OF GROWTH UNDER INDIRECT STIMULUS.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XVIII.—RESPONSE OF GROWING ORGANS IN STATE OF SUB-TONICITY
      • ABNORMAL ACCELERATION OF GROWTH UNDER STIMULUS.
      • CONTINUITY BETWEEN ABNORMAL AND NORMAL RESPONSES.
      • SUMMARY.
    • ABNORMAL ACCELERATION OF GROWTH UNDER STIMULUS.
    • CONTINUITY BETWEEN ABNORMAL AND NORMAL RESPONSES.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XIX.—RESUMPTION OF AUTONOMOUS PULSATION AND OF GROWTH UNDER STIMULUS
      • REVIVAL OF AUTONOMOUS PULSATION UNDER STIMULUS.
      • REVIVAL OF GROWTH UNDER STIMULUS.
      • LAWS OF EFFECTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT STIMULUS.
      • SUMMARY.
    • REVIVAL OF AUTONOMOUS PULSATION UNDER STIMULUS.
    • REVIVAL OF GROWTH UNDER STIMULUS.
    • LAWS OF EFFECTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT STIMULUS.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XX.—ACTION OF LIGHT AND WARMTH ON AUTONOMOUS ACTIVITY
      • THE OSCILLATING RECORDER.
      • RECORD OF PULSATION OF DESMODIUM GYRANS.
      • EFFECT OF DIFFUSE LIGHT ON PULSATION OF DESMODIUM.
      • EFFECT OF RISE OF TEMPERATURE ON PULSATION.
      • SUMMARY.
    • THE OSCILLATING RECORDER.
    • RECORD OF PULSATION OF DESMODIUM GYRANS.
    • EFFECT OF DIFFUSE LIGHT ON PULSATION OF DESMODIUM.
    • EFFECT OF RISE OF TEMPERATURE ON PULSATION.
    • SUMMARY.
    • XXI.—A COMPARISON OF RESPONSES IN GROWING AND NON-GROWING ORGANS
      • CONTRACTILE RESPONSE OF GROWING AND NON-GROWING ORGANS.
      • CONTRACTILE RESPONSE OF PULVINATED AND GROWING ORGANS.
      • MODIFICATION OF RESPONSE BY CONDITION OF SUB-TONICITY.
      • EFFECTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT STIMULUS.
      • MODIFICATION OF AUTONOMOUS ACTIVITY.
      • EXCITATORY EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULI ON PULVINATED AND GROWING ORGANS.
      • EFFECT OF LIGHT ON PULVINATED ORGANS.
      • DIVERSE MODES OF RESPONSE TO STIMULUS.
      • SUMMARY.
    • CONTRACTILE RESPONSE OF GROWING AND NON-GROWING ORGANS.
    • CONTRACTILE RESPONSE OF PULVINATED AND GROWING ORGANS.
    • MODIFICATION OF RESPONSE BY CONDITION OF SUB-TONICITY.
    • EFFECTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT STIMULUS.
    • MODIFICATION OF AUTONOMOUS ACTIVITY.
    • EXCITATORY EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULI ON PULVINATED AND GROWING ORGANS.
    • EFFECT OF LIGHT ON PULVINATED ORGANS.
    • DIVERSE MODES OF RESPONSE TO STIMULUS.
    • SUMMARY.
  • FOOTNOTES:
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