Oxford University Press
Chemistry in Context for Cambridge International AS & A Level
Graham Hill, John Holman, Philippa Gardom Hulme
Science & Math
Chemistry in Context for Cambridge International AS & A Level
US$ 59.99
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The ever-popular Chemistry In Context resource is written by the experienced author team to provide chemistry students with a comprehensive and dependable textbook for their studies, regardless of syllabus. Mapped to the previous Cambridge AS & A Level Chemistry syllabus (9701), this text supports students with its stretching, problem-solving approach. It helps foster long-term performance in chemistry, as well as building students' confidence for their upcoming
examinations. The practical approach helps to make chemistry meaningful and contextual, building foundations for further education.

Front Cover
Title Page
1 Atoms, molecules and equations
1.1 Atoms and molecules
1.2 Comparing the masses of atoms
1.3 Relative atomic masses – the 12C scale
1.4 Moles, molar masses and the Avogadro constant
1.5 Using mass spectra to calculate relative atomic masses
1.6 Empirical and molecular formulae
1.7 Predicting and writing chemical equations
1.8 Calculations involving formulae and equations
1.9 Determining equations
1.10 Ionic equations
1 End of chapter questions
2 Atomic and electronic structure
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Evidence for atomic structure
2.3 Sub-atomic particles
2.4 Proton number, nucleon number and isotopes
2.5 Isotopes, nucleon numbers and relative isotopic masses
2.6 Evidence for the electronic structure of atoms
2.7 Obtaining ionisation energies from emission spectra
2.8 Using ionisation energies to predict electronic structures – evidence for shells of electrons
2.9 How are the electrons arranged in larger atoms?
2.10 Evidence for sub-shells of electrons
2.11 Trends in ionisation energies
2.12 Electrons and orbitals
2 End of chapter questions
3 Chemical bonding and intermolecular forces
3.1 A theory for chemical bonding
3.2 Transfer of electrons – ionic (electrovalent) bonding
3.3 The properties of ionic compounds
3.4 Sharing electrons – covalent bonding
3.5 Describing covalent bonds in terms of overlapping orbitals
3.6 Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding
3.7 The shapes of simple molecules
3.8 Metallic bonding
3.9 Polar bonds
3.10 Polar and non-polar molecules
3.11 Intermolecular forces
3.12 Hydrogen bonding
3.13 Estimating the strength of hydrogen bonds in water
3.14 The effect and importance of hydrogen bonding in water and ice
End of chapter questions
4 States of matter
4.1 Evidence for moving particles
4.2 The kinetic–molecular theory
4.3 Changes of state
4.4 The gaseous state
4.5 The kinetic theory and ideal gases
4.6 Determining the relative molecular masses of gases and volatile liquids
4.7 The solid state
4.8 Evidence for the structure of solids
4.9 Giant metallic structures
4.10 The proprties and uses of metals
4.11 Giant ionic structures
4.12 The properties of ionic solids
4.13 Giant molecular (giant covlent) structures
4.14 Silicon(iv) oxide, silicates and ceramics – more giant structures
4.15 Simple molecular structures
4.16 Fullerenes
4.17 Materials as finite resources – recycling
4.18 Comparing typical solid structures
04.0 End of chapter questions
5 Chemical energetics
5.1 Energy and energy changes
5.2 The ideas and language of thermochemistry
5.3 Measuring enthalpy changes
5.4 The standard conditions for thermochemical measurements
5.5 Standard enthalpy changes
5.6 Measuring standard enthalpy changes of formation
5.7 Using Hess’ law and enthalpy changes of formation to calculate the energy changes in reactions
5.8 Using standard enthalpy changes of formation to predict the relative stabilities of compounds
5.9 Predicting whether reactions will occur
5.10 Enthalpy changes and bond energies
5.11 Using bond energies
5.12 Enthalpy changes and ionic bonding
5.13 Born–Haber cycles
5.14 Testing the model of ionic bonding
5.15 Enthalpy changes when ionic substances dissolve
5.16 Energy for life
0.0 End of chapter questions
6 Redox
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Redox processes in terms of electron transfer
6.3 Important types of redox reaction
6.4 Electrolysis
6.5 Explaining the electrolysis of mixtures
6.6 Electrolysis in industry
6.7 Oxidation numbers
6.8 Explaining redox in terms of oxidation numbers
6.9 The advantages and disadvantages of oxidation numbers
6 End of chapter questions
7 Equilibria
7.1 Reversible reactions
7.2 Equilibria in physical processes
7.3 Characteristic features of a dynamic equilibrium
7.4 Equilibria in chemical reactions
7.5 Studying the equilibrium of a solute between two immiscible solvents: partition coefficients
7.6 Solvent extraction
7.7 The equilibrium constant
7.8 The equilibrium law
7.9 Equilibrium constants in gaseous systems
7.10 The effect of concentration changes on equilibria
7.11 The effect of pressure changes on equilibria
7.12 The effect of catalysts on equilibria
7.13 The effect of temperature changes on equilibria
7.14 Acids, bases and equilibria
7.15 The Brønsted–Lowry theory of acids and bases
7.16 Acid–base reactions: competition for protons
End of chapter questions
8 Rates of reaction
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The concept of reaction rate
8.3 Factors affecting the rate of a reaction
8.4 Investigating the effect of concentration changes on the rates of reactions
8.5 Explaining the effect of changes inconcentration, pressure and surface areaon the rates of reactions
8.6 Investigating the effect of temperature change on the rates of reactions
8.7 Explaining the effect of temperature change on the rates of reactions
8.8 Explaining the effect of catalysts on therates of reactions
8.9 Interpreting the action of catalysts in terms of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution
8.10 The importance of transition metals and their compounds as catalysts
8 End of chapter questions
9 The periodic table and periodicity
9.1 Families of similar elements
9.2 Mendeléev’s periodic table
9.3 Modern forms of the periodic table
9.4 Metals, non-metals and metalloids
9.5 Periodic properties
9.6 The periodicity of physical properties
9.7 The periodicity of atomic properties
9.8 The periodicity of chemical properties
9.9 Variation in the oxidation numbers of the elements in Periods 2 and 3
9.10 Patterns in the properties of chlorides
9.11 Patterns in the properties of oxides
9 End of chapter questions
10 Group II – the alkaline-earth metals
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Electron structures and atomic properties
10.3 Physical properties
10.4 Chemical properties of the Group IIelements
10.5 Reactions of the compounds of Group II metals
10.6 Occurrence of the alkaline-earth metals
10.7 Uses of the alkaline-earth metals and their compounds
10 End of chapter questions
11 Group VII – the halogens
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Sources of the halogens
11.3 Obtaining the halogens
11.4 Structure and physical properties of the halogens
11.5 Chemical reactions of the halogens
11.6 The halogens as oxidising agents
11.7 The reactions of halogens with alkalis
11.8 Reactions of halide ions
11.9 Uses of the halogens and their compounds
11 End of chapter questions
12 From nitrogen and sulfur to ammonia and sulfuric acid
12.1 The properties and reactions of nitrogen and sulfur
12.2 The uses of nitrogen and sulfur
12.3 Pollution from the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur
12.4 The hydrides of nitrogen and sulfur
12.5 Ammonia as a base
12.6 The manufacture of ammonia
12.7 The modern Haber process
12.8 From ammonia to nitric acid
12.9 Fertilisers and explosives from nitric acid
12.10 Problems with the over-use of fertilisers
12.11 The manufacture of sulfuric acid
12.12 The importance and uses of sulfuric acid
12 End of chapter questions
13 Introduction to organic chemistry
13.1 Carbon – a unique element
13.2 Organic chemistry
13.3 Functional groups
13.4 Finding the formulae of organic compounds
13.5 Writing structural formulae
13.6 Isomerism
13.7 Instrumental methods of analysis
13.8 Spectroscopy
13.9 Chromatography
13 End of Chapter questions
14 Alkanes
14.1 Crude oil
14.2 The composition of crude oil
14.3 Naming alkanes
14.4 Physical properties of alkanes
14.5 Reaction types and reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry
14.6 Reactivity of alkanes
14.7 Important reactions of alkanes
14.8 The environmental impact of motor vehicle fuels
14.9 The greenhouse effect and global climate change
14 End of chapter questions
15 Alkenes
15.1 Naming alkenes
15.2 The nature of the double bond
15.3 Cis–trans isomerism
15.4 Mechanism of addition to a double bond
15.5 Important reactions of alkenes
15.6 Addition polymerisation
15.7 Rubber – a natural addition polymer
15 End of chapter questions
16 Organic halogen compounds
16.1 Anaesthetics
16.2 Naming halogen compounds
16.3The nature of the carbon–halogen bond
16.4 Nucleophilic substitution
16.5 Important at substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes
16.6 Elimination reactions
16 End of chapter questions
17 Alcohols
17.1 Fermentation
17.2 Naming alcohols
17.3 Alcohols as a homologous series
17.4 The amphoteric nature of alcohols
17.5 Reactions involving the carbon skeleton
17 End of chapter questions
18 Carbonyl compounds
18.1 The Carbonyl group
18.2 Aldehydes and ketones – nature and naming
18.3 Addition reactions of carbonyl compounds
18.4 Condensation reactions of carbonyl compounds
18.5 Oxidation of carbonyl compounds
18.6 Effect of the carbonyl group on neighbouring atoms
18.7 Sugars – naturally occurring carbonyl compounds
18 End of chapter questions
19 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives
19.1 Carboxylic acids
19.2 Some important reactions of carboxylic acids
19.3 Esters
19.4 The carboxyl group and acidity
19.5 Acyl chlorides
19 End of chapter questions
20 Electrochemistry
20.1 What is electrochemistry?
20.2 Electrochemical cells
20.3 Cell potentials
20.4 Standard electrode potentials
20.5 Measuring standard electrode potentials
20.6 Relative strengths of oxidising and reducing agents
20.7 The use of standard electrode potentials
20.8 Limitations to the predictions from standard electrode potentials
20.9 Calculating the effect of concentrationon standard electrode potential: the Nernst equation
20.10 Commercial cells
20.11 Fuel cells
20.12 Measuring the quantity of electricity (electric charge)
20.13 How much electric charge is needed to deposit one mole of copper during electrolysis?
20.14 Determining the Avogadro constant by an electrolytic method
20.15 Calculating the amounts of substances produced during electrolysis
20 End of chapter questions
21 Ionic equilibria in aqueous solution
21.1 Introduction
21.2 The solubility of sparingly soluble ionic solids in water
21.3 Calculating solubility products and solubilities
21.4 Limitations to the solubility product concept
21.5 Using the solubility product concept
21.6 The strengths of acids and bases
21.7 The dissociation of water
21.8 The pH scale
21.9 Measuring the hydrogen ion concentration and pH
21.10 Dissociation constants of acids and bases
21.11 Acid–base indicators
21.12 pH changes during acid–base titrations
21.13 Buffer solutions
21 End of chapter questions
22 Reaction kinetics
22.1 Introducing reaction kinetics
22.2 Techniques for studying therates of reactions
22.3 Investigating the effect of concentration on reaction rate more fully – rate equations
22.4 Order of reaction and rate equations
22.5 The initial rates method for determining rate equations
22.6 investigating the reaction betweenhydrogen and nitrogen monoxide usingthe initial rates method
22.7 The effect of temperature change on reaction rates
22.8 The effect of catalysts on reaction rates
22.9 The importance of reaction rate studies
22 End of chapter questions
23 Entropy and Gibbs free energy
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Chance, probability and the direction of change
23.3 Entropy
23.4 Entropy changes
23.5 Entropy changes and Gibbs free energy changes
23 End of chapter questions
24 Group IV – Carbon to lead, non-metal to metal
24.1 Introducing Group IV
24.2 The occurrence, extraction and uses of Group IV elements
24.3 Variation in the physical properties of the elements
24.4 Variation in the chemical properties of the elements
24.5 General features of the compounds
24.6 Bonding and properties of the tetrachlorides
24.7 Bonding and properties of the oxides
24 End of chapter questions
25 The transition elements
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Ions of the transition metals
25.3 What is a transition element?
25.4 Trends in atomic properties across the transition metals
25.5 General properties of the first transition series (Ti to Cu)
25.6 Variable oxidation states
25.7 The formation of complex ions
25.8 Naming complex ions
25.9 The structure of complex ions
25.10 Ligand exchange reactions
25.11 Stability constants
25.12 The importance and use of complex ions
25.13 Coloured compounds and coloured ions
25.14 Catalytic properties
25.15 Toxic trace metals in the environment
25.16 Fundamental reactions in inorganic chemistry
25 End of chapter questions
26 Aromatic hydrocarbons and phenol
26.1 Aromatic hydrocarbons
26.2 The structure of benzene
26.3 Naming aromatic compounds
26.4 Chemical characteristics of benzene
26.5 The mechanism of substitution reactions of benzene
26.6 Important electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene
26.7 Other important reactions of benzene
26.8 Other arenes
26.9 The position of substitutionin benzene derivatives
26.10 Phenol – an aromatic hydroxyl compound
26.11 Substitution reactions of the aromatic ring in phenol
26 End of chapter questions
27 Organic nitrogen compounds
27.1 Dyes and the development of the organic chemical industry
27.2 Important organic nitrogen compounds
27.3 The nature and occurrence of amines
27.4 Making amines
27.5 Amines as bases
27.6 Other reactions of phenylamine
27.7 Diazonium salts
27.8 Amides
27.9 Amino acids, proteins and polymers
27 End of chapter questions
28 Polymers
28.1 The importance of polymers
28.2 Polymer properties
28.3 Types of polymerisation: addition and condensation
28.4 Important condensation polymers: polyesters and polyamides
28.5 Recycling polymers
28 End of chapter questions
29 Proteins and DNA
29.1 Sickle cell disease
29.2 Amino acids, the building blocks for proteins
29.3 The structure of proteins
29.4 Enzymes
29.5 Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
29.6 From DNA to proteins
29.7 Using DNA
29 End of chapter questions
30 Organic synthesis
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Polyfunctional compounds
30.3 Principles of organic synthesis
30.4 Working out synthetic routes
30.5 Synthesis and chiral molecules
30 End of chapter questions
Periodic table of elements
Back Cover
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