Chemistry in Context for Cambridge International AS & A Level
$54.99

Chemistry in Context for Cambridge International AS & A Level

By Graham Hill, John Holman, Philippa Gardom Hulme
US$ 54.99
Book Description

The ever-popular Chemistry In Context resource has been updated by the experienced author team to provide chemistry students with a comprehensive and dependable textbook for their studies, regardless of syllabus. Mapped to the latest Cambridge AS & A Level Chemistry syllabus (9701), this text supports students with its stretching, problem-solving approach. It helps foster long-term performance in chemistry, as well as building students' confidence for their
upcoming examinations. The practical approach helps to make chemistry meaningful and contextual, building foundations for further education.

Table of Contents
  • Front Cover
  • Title Page
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • 1 Atoms, molecules and equations
    • 1.1 Atoms and molecules
    • 1.2 Comparing the masses of atoms
    • 1.3 Relative atomic masses – the 12C scale
    • 1.4 Moles, molar masses and the Avogadro constant
    • 1.5 Using mass spectra to calculate relative atomic masses
    • 1.6 Empirical and molecular formulae
    • 1.7 Predicting and writing chemical equations
    • 1.8 Calculations involving formulae and equations
    • 1.9 Determining equations
    • 1.10 Ionic equations
    • 1 End of chapter questions
  • 2 Atomic and electronic structure
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Evidence for atomic structure
    • 2.3 Sub-atomic particles
    • 2.4 Proton number, nucleon number and isotopes
    • 2.5 Isotopes, nucleon numbers and relative isotopic masses
    • 2.6 Evidence for the electronic structure of atoms
    • 2.7 Obtaining ionisation energies from emission spectra
    • 2.8 Using ionisation energies to predict electronic structures – evidence for shells of electrons
    • 2.9 How are the electrons arranged in larger atoms?
    • 2.10 Evidence for sub-shells of electrons
    • 2.11 Trends in ionisation energies
    • 2.12 Electrons and orbitals
    • 2 End of chapter questions
  • 3 Chemical bonding and intermolecular forces
    • 3.1 A theory for chemical bonding
    • 3.2 Transfer of electrons – ionic (electrovalent) bonding
    • 3.3 The properties of ionic compounds
    • 3.4 Sharing electrons – covalent bonding
    • 3.5 Describing covalent bonds in terms of overlapping orbitals
    • 3.6 Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding
    • 3.7 The shapes of simple molecules
    • 3.8 Metallic bonding
    • 3.9 Polar bonds
    • 3.10 Polar and non-polar molecules
    • 3.11 Intermolecular forces
    • 3.12 Hydrogen bonding
    • 3.13 Estimating the strength of hydrogen bonds in water
    • 3.14 The effect and importance of hydrogen bonding in water and ice
    • End of chapter questions
  • 4 States of matter
    • 4.1 Evidence for moving particles
    • 4.2 The kinetic–molecular theory
    • 4.3 Changes of state
    • 4.4 The gaseous state
    • 4.5 The kinetic theory and ideal gases
    • 4.6 Determining the relative molecular masses of gases and volatile liquids
    • 4.7 The solid state
    • 4.8 Evidence for the structure of solids
    • 4.9 Giant metallic structures
    • 4.10 The proprties and uses of metals
    • 4.11 Giant ionic structures
    • 4.12 The properties of ionic solids
    • 4.13 Giant molecular (giant covlent) structures
    • 4.14 Silicon(iv) oxide, silicates and ceramics – more giant structures
    • 4.15 Simple molecular structures
    • 4.16 Fullerenes
    • 4.17 Materials as finite resources – recycling
    • 4.18 Comparing typical solid structures
    • 04.0 End of chapter questions
  • 5 Chemical energetics
    • 5.1 Energy and energy changes
    • 5.2 The ideas and language of thermochemistry
    • 5.3 Measuring enthalpy changes
    • 5.4 The standard conditions for thermochemical measurements
    • 5.5 Standard enthalpy changes
    • 5.6 Measuring standard enthalpy changes of formation
    • 5.7 Using Hess’ law and enthalpy changes of formation to calculate the energy changes in reactions
    • 5.8 Using standard enthalpy changes of formation to predict the relative stabilities of compounds
    • 5.9 Predicting whether reactions will occur
    • 5.10 Enthalpy changes and bond energies
    • 5.11 Using bond energies
    • 5.12 Enthalpy changes and ionic bonding
    • 5.13 Born–Haber cycles
    • 5.14 Testing the model of ionic bonding
    • 5.15 Enthalpy changes when ionic substances dissolve
    • 5.16 Energy for life
    • 0.0 End of chapter questions
  • 6 Redox
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Redox processes in terms of electron transfer
    • 6.3 Important types of redox reaction
    • 6.4 Electrolysis
    • 6.5 Explaining the electrolysis of mixtures
    • 6.6 Electrolysis in industry
    • 6.7 Oxidation numbers
    • 6.8 Explaining redox in terms of oxidation numbers
    • 6.9 The advantages and disadvantages of oxidation numbers
    • 6 End of chapter questions
  • 7 Equilibria
    • 7.1 Reversible reactions
    • 7.2 Equilibria in physical processes
    • 7.3 Characteristic features of a dynamic equilibrium
    • 7.4 Equilibria in chemical reactions
    • 7.5 Studying the equilibrium of a solute between two immiscible solvents: partition coefficients
    • 7.6 Solvent extraction
    • 7.7 The equilibrium constant
    • 7.8 The equilibrium law
    • 7.9 Equilibrium constants in gaseous systems
    • 7.10 The effect of concentration changes on equilibria
    • 7.11 The effect of pressure changes on equilibria
    • 7.12 The effect of catalysts on equilibria
    • 7.13 The effect of temperature changes on equilibria
    • 7.14 Acids, bases and equilibria
    • 7.15 The Brønsted–Lowry theory of acids and bases
    • 7.16 Acid–base reactions: competition for protons
    • End of chapter questions
  • 8 Rates of reaction
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 The concept of reaction rate
    • 8.3 Factors affecting the rate of a reaction
    • 8.4 Investigating the effect of concentration changes on the rates of reactions
    • 8.5 Explaining the effect of changes inconcentration, pressure and surface areaon the rates of reactions
    • 8.6 Investigating the effect of temperature change on the rates of reactions
    • 8.7 Explaining the effect of temperature change on the rates of reactions
    • 8.8 Explaining the effect of catalysts on therates of reactions
    • 8.9 Interpreting the action of catalysts in terms of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution
    • 8.10 The importance of transition metals and their compounds as catalysts
    • 8 End of chapter questions
  • 9 The periodic table and periodicity
    • 9.1 Families of similar elements
    • 9.2 Mendeléev’s periodic table
    • 9.3 Modern forms of the periodic table
    • 9.4 Metals, non-metals and metalloids
    • 9.5 Periodic properties
    • 9.6 The periodicity of physical properties
    • 9.7 The periodicity of atomic properties
    • 9.8 The periodicity of chemical properties
    • 9.9 Variation in the oxidation numbers of the elements in Periods 2 and 3
    • 9.10 Patterns in the properties of chlorides
    • 9.11 Patterns in the properties of oxides
    • 9 End of chapter questions
  • 10 Group II – the alkaline-earth metals
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Electron structures and atomic properties
    • 10.3 Physical properties
    • 10.4 Chemical properties of the Group IIelements
    • 10.5 Reactions of the compounds of Group II metals
    • 10.6 Occurrence of the alkaline-earth metals
    • 10.7 Uses of the alkaline-earth metals and their compounds
    • 10 End of chapter questions
  • 11 Group VII – the halogens
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Sources of the halogens
    • 11.3 Obtaining the halogens
    • 11.4 Structure and physical properties of the halogens
    • 11.5 Chemical reactions of the halogens
    • 11.6 The halogens as oxidising agents
    • 11.7 The reactions of halogens with alkalis
    • 11.8 Reactions of halide ions
    • 11.9 Uses of the halogens and their compounds
    • 11 End of chapter questions
  • 12 From nitrogen and sulfur to ammonia and sulfuric acid
    • 12.1 The properties and reactions of nitrogen and sulfur
    • 12.2 The uses of nitrogen and sulfur
    • 12.3 Pollution from the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur
    • 12.4 The hydrides of nitrogen and sulfur
    • 12.5 Ammonia as a base
    • 12.6 The manufacture of ammonia
    • 12.7 The modern Haber process
    • 12.8 From ammonia to nitric acid
    • 12.9 Fertilisers and explosives from nitric acid
    • 12.10 Problems with the over-use of fertilisers
    • 12.11 The manufacture of sulfuric acid
    • 12.12 The importance and uses of sulfuric acid
    • 12 End of chapter questions
  • 13 Introduction to organic chemistry
    • 13.1 Carbon – a unique element
    • 13.2 Organic chemistry
    • 13.3 Functional groups
    • 13.4 Finding the formulae of organic compounds
    • 13.5 Writing structural formulae
    • 13.6 Isomerism
    • 13.7 Instrumental methods of analysis
    • 13.8 Spectroscopy
    • 13.9 Chromatography
    • 13 End of Chapter questions
  • 14 Alkanes
    • 14.1 Crude oil
    • 14.2 The composition of crude oil
    • 14.3 Naming alkanes
    • 14.4 Physical properties of alkanes
    • 14.5 Reaction types and reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry
    • 14.6 Reactivity of alkanes
    • 14.7 Important reactions of alkanes
    • 14.8 The environmental impact of motor vehicle fuels
    • 14.9 The greenhouse effect and global climate change
    • 14 End of chapter questions
  • 15 Alkenes
    • 15.1 Naming alkenes
    • 15.2 The nature of the double bond
    • 15.3 Cis–trans isomerism
    • 15.4 Mechanism of addition to a double bond
    • 15.5 Important reactions of alkenes
    • 15.6 Addition polymerisation
    • 15.7 Rubber – a natural addition polymer
    • 15 End of chapter questions
  • 16 Organic halogen compounds
    • 16.1 Anaesthetics
    • 16.2 Naming halogen compounds
    • 16.3The nature of the carbon–halogen bond
    • 16.4 Nucleophilic substitution
    • 16.5 Important at substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes
    • 16.6 Elimination reactions
    • 16 End of chapter questions
  • 17 Alcohols
    • 17.1 Fermentation
    • 17.2 Naming alcohols
    • 17.3 Alcohols as a homologous series
    • 17.4 The amphoteric nature of alcohols
    • 17.5 Reactions involving the carbon skeleton
    • 17 End of chapter questions
  • 18 Carbonyl compounds
    • 18.1 The Carbonyl group
    • 18.2 Aldehydes and ketones – nature and naming
    • 18.3 Addition reactions of carbonyl compounds
    • 18.4 Condensation reactions of carbonyl compounds
    • 18.5 Oxidation of carbonyl compounds
    • 18.6 Effect of the carbonyl group on neighbouring atoms
    • 18.7 Sugars – naturally occurring carbonyl compounds
    • 18 End of chapter questions
  • 19 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives
    • 19.1 Carboxylic acids
    • 19.2 Some important reactions of carboxylic acids
    • 19.3 Esters
    • 19.4 The carboxyl group and acidity
    • 19.5 Acyl chlorides
    • 19 End of chapter questions
  • 20 Electrochemistry
    • 20.1 What is electrochemistry?
    • 20.2 Electrochemical cells
    • 20.3 Cell potentials
    • 20.4 Standard electrode potentials
    • 20.5 Measuring standard electrode potentials
    • 20.6 Relative strengths of oxidising and reducing agents
    • 20.7 The use of standard electrode potentials
    • 20.8 Limitations to the predictions from standard electrode potentials
    • 20.9 Calculating the effect of concentrationon standard electrode potential: the Nernst equation
    • 20.10 Commercial cells
    • 20.11 Fuel cells
    • 20.12 Measuring the quantity of electricity (electric charge)
    • 20.13 How much electric charge is needed to deposit one mole of copper during electrolysis?
    • 20.14 Determining the Avogadro constant by an electrolytic method
    • 20.15 Calculating the amounts of substances produced during electrolysis
    • 20 End of chapter questions
  • 21 Ionic equilibria in aqueous solution
    • 21.1 Introduction
    • 21.2 The solubility of sparingly soluble ionic solids in water
    • 21.3 Calculating solubility products and solubilities
    • 21.4 Limitations to the solubility product concept
    • 21.5 Using the solubility product concept
    • 21.6 The strengths of acids and bases
    • 21.7 The dissociation of water
    • 21.8 The pH scale
    • 21.9 Measuring the hydrogen ion concentration and pH
    • 21.10 Dissociation constants of acids and bases
    • 21.11 Acid–base indicators
    • 21.12 pH changes during acid–base titrations
    • 21.13 Buffer solutions
    • 21 End of chapter questions
  • 22 Reaction kinetics
    • 22.1 Introducing reaction kinetics
    • 22.2 Techniques for studying therates of reactions
    • 22.3 Investigating the effect of concentration on reaction rate more fully – rate equations
    • 22.4 Order of reaction and rate equations
    • 22.5 The initial rates method for determining rate equations
    • 22.6 investigating the reaction betweenhydrogen and nitrogen monoxide usingthe initial rates method
    • 22.7 The effect of temperature change on reaction rates
    • 22.8 The effect of catalysts on reaction rates
    • 22.9 The importance of reaction rate studies
    • 22 End of chapter questions
  • 23 Entropy and Gibbs free energy
    • 23.1 Introduction
    • 23.2 Chance, probability and the direction of change
    • 23.3 Entropy
    • 23.4 Entropy changes
    • 23.5 Entropy changes and Gibbs free energy changes
    • 23 End of chapter questions
  • 24 Group IV – Carbon to lead, non-metal to metal
    • 24.1 Introducing Group IV
    • 24.2 The occurrence, extraction and uses of Group IV elements
    • 24.3 Variation in the physical properties of the elements
    • 24.4 Variation in the chemical properties of the elements
    • 24.5 General features of the compounds
    • 24.6 Bonding and properties of the tetrachlorides
    • 24.7 Bonding and properties of the oxides
    • 24 End of chapter questions
  • 25 The transition elements
    • 25.1 Introduction
    • 25.2 Ions of the transition metals
    • 25.3 What is a transition element?
    • 25.4 Trends in atomic properties across the transition metals
    • 25.5 General properties of the first transition series (Ti to Cu)
    • 25.6 Variable oxidation states
    • 25.7 The formation of complex ions
    • 25.8 Naming complex ions
    • 25.9 The structure of complex ions
    • 25.10 Ligand exchange reactions
    • 25.11 Stability constants
    • 25.12 The importance and use of complex ions
    • 25.13 Coloured compounds and coloured ions
    • 25.14 Catalytic properties
    • 25.15 Toxic trace metals in the environment
    • 25.16 Fundamental reactions in inorganic chemistry
    • 25 End of chapter questions
  • 26 Aromatic hydrocarbons and phenol
    • 26.1 Aromatic hydrocarbons
    • 26.2 The structure of benzene
    • 26.3 Naming aromatic compounds
    • 26.4 Chemical characteristics of benzene
    • 26.5 The mechanism of substitution reactions of benzene
    • 26.6 Important electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene
    • 26.7 Other important reactions of benzene
    • 26.8 Other arenes
    • 26.9 The position of substitutionin benzene derivatives
    • 26.10 Phenol – an aromatic hydroxyl compound
    • 26.11 Substitution reactions of the aromatic ring in phenol
    • 26 End of chapter questions
  • 27 Organic nitrogen compounds
    • 27.1 Dyes and the development of the organic chemical industry
    • 27.2 Important organic nitrogen compounds
    • 27.3 The nature and occurrence of amines
    • 27.4 Making amines
    • 27.5 Amines as bases
    • 27.6 Other reactions of phenylamine
    • 27.7 Diazonium salts
    • 27.8 Amides
    • 27.9 Amino acids, proteins and polymers
    • 27 End of chapter questions
  • 28 Polymers
    • 28.1 The importance of polymers
    • 28.2 Polymer properties
    • 28.3 Types of polymerisation: addition and condensation
    • 28.4 Important condensation polymers: polyesters and polyamides
    • 28.5 Recycling polymers
    • 28 End of chapter questions
  • 29 Proteins and DNA
    • 29.1 Sickle cell disease
    • 29.2 Amino acids, the building blocks for proteins
    • 29.3 The structure of proteins
    • 29.4 Enzymes
    • 29.5 Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
    • 29.6 From DNA to proteins
    • 29.7 Using DNA
    • 29 End of chapter questions
  • 30 Organic synthesis
    • 30.1 Introduction
    • 30.2 Polyfunctional compounds
    • 30.3 Principles of organic synthesis
    • 30.4 Working out synthetic routes
    • 30.5 Synthesis and chiral molecules
    • 30 End of chapter questions
  • Index
  • Periodic table of elements
  • Back Cover
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