Outlines of Jewish History from B.C. 586 to C.E. 1885
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Outlines of Jewish History from B.C. 586 to C.E. 1885

By Lady Katie Magnus
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Table of Contents
  • E-text prepared by Richard Hulse and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net) from page images generously made available by Internet Archive (https://archive.org)
  • Outlines of Jewish History
    • NOTE.
    • PREFACE.
    • DATES OF CHIEF EVENTS AND CHIEF PEOPLE.
    • CONTENTS.
    • BOOK I. 500 B.C. TO 70 A.C. IN THE SHADOW OF THE SWORD.
      • CHAPTER I. THE JEWS IN BABYLON.
        • 1. Babylonian Exiles.
        • 2. Persian Conquest of Babylon.
        • 3. The Influences of the Exile.
        • 4. How Cyrus’s Permission was received.
        • 5. The End of the Exile.
      • CHAPTER II. THE RETURN TO PALESTINE.
        • 1. The Rebuilding of the Temple.
        • 2. The Samaritans.
        • 3. The Feast of Purim.
        • 4. Ezra the Scribe.
        • 5. The Work of Ezra and Nehemiah.
      • CHAPTER III. LIFE IN PALESTINE.
        • 1. Condition of the People.
        • 2. Literary Labours.
        • 3. Alexandrian Jews.
        • 4. The Septuagint.
        • 5. Under Egyptian Rule.
        • 6. Under Syrian Rule.
        • 7. Home Rule.
      • CHAPTER IV. THE MACCABEAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE.
        • 1. Antiochus Epiphanes.
        • 2. Antiochus’s Tyranny.
        • 3. Resistance of Mattathias.
        • 4. Chasidim and Zaddikim.
        • 5. The Success of Judas Maccabeus.
        • 6. Institution of Hanucah.
        • 7. Treaty with Rome.
      • CHAPTER V. PALESTINE UNDER NATIVE RULE.
        • 1. Death of Judas Maccabeus.
        • 2. Jonathan the Maccabee.
        • 3. Simon, the First of the Priest-king Dynasty.
        • 4. The Sons of Simon.
        • 5. Reign of John Hyrcanus.
        • 6. His Last Years.
      • CHAPTER VI. JUDEA DURING THE REMAINDER OF THE RULE OF THE ASMONEANS.
        • 1. Rival Factions. Pharisees and Sadducees.
        • 2. How they got their Names.
        • 3. Their Tenets and Position, Religions and Political.
        • 4. State Quarrel with the Pharisees.
        • 5. The Essenes.
        • 6. Reign of Alexander Jannæus (105‒79 B.C.).
        • 7. After the Death of Alexander Jannæus.
      • CHAPTER VII. A NEW DYNASTY.
        • 1. Antipater the Idumean.
        • 2. Rome arbitrates.
        • 3. Antipater’s Plans.
        • 4. The Sanhedrin.
        • 5. The Fall of the Asmonean House.
      • CHAPTER VIII. REIGN OF HEROD.
        • 1. Antipater’s ‘Desire’ fulfilled.
        • 2. How Herod strengthened his Position.
        • 3. Herod as Husband.
        • 4. Herod as Father.
        • 5. Herod as King.
        • 6. The End of Herod’s Reign.
        • 7. Hillel: a Contrast.
      • CHAPTER IX. JUDEA BEFORE THE WAR.
        • 1. Herod’s Will.
        • 2. Judea sinks into a Roman Province.
        • 3. Jesus of Nazareth.
        • 4. Jews in Egypt and Syria.
        • 5. Birth of Christianity.
        • 6. Reign of Herod Agrippa.
        • 7. Caligula and the Jews.
      • CHAPTER X. THE WAR WITH ROME.
        • 1. Agrippa II. Roman Governors.
        • 2. Vespasian sent to Judea.
        • 3. Preparations for Defence.
        • 4. Josephus.
      • CHAPTER XI. THE END OF THE WAR.
        • 1. The Defence of the Provinces.
        • 2. Affairs in Jerusalem.
        • 3. The War Party and the Peace Party: their Leaders.
        • 4. The Siege of Jerusalem.
        • 5. A Mediator sent: Terms proposed.
        • 6. The Destruction of the Temple.
    • BOOK II. 70 TO 1600. DARKNESS.
      • CHAPTER XII. AFTER THE WAR.
        • 1. Titus completes his Conquest.
        • 2. Masada.
        • 3. What became of the Chief Actors.
        • 4. What became of the Country and the People.
        • 5. Salvage.
        • 6. Jochanan ben Saccai: the Schools.
        • 7. An Unforeseen Result of the War: Jewish Christians.
      • CHAPTER XIII. THE REVOLT UNDER HADRIAN.
        • 1. Conquered Jews in the West.
        • 2. Contemporary Jews in the East.
        • 3. Under Trajan.
        • 4. The Policy of Hadrian.
        • 5. The Jews in Revolt: their Leader.
        • 6. Akiba: the Romance of his Youth.
        • 7. Akiba: the Romance of his Age.
        • 8. Hadrian’s Resolve accomplished.
      • CHAPTER XIV. THE REVIVAL OF THE SCHOOLS: THEIR WORK.
        • 1. One of History’s Miracles.
        • 2. The Schools: their Work.
        • 3. The Masters of the Schools.
        • 4. The Moral Influence of the Schools.
        • 5. The Political Influence of the Schools.
        • 6. The Literary Influence of the Schools.
      • CHAPTER XV. CHRISTIANITY A STATE RELIGION.
        • 1. How the new faith spread among the Heathen.
        • 2. The First Christian Emperor.
        • 3. Constantine legislates on the Subject: the Effects.
        • 4. Jews in the East under Persian Rule.
        • 5. Julian the Apostate.
      • CHAPTER XVI. THE BREAK-UP OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE: SOME OF ITS CONSEQUENCES.
        • 1. Political Changes.
        • 2. Social Changes.
        • 3. Monks and Saints.
        • 4. How Jews became Traders.
        • 5. The Slave Trade.
        • 6. Jews as Slave-owners.
        • 7. Church Councils.
        • 8. Eastern Jews.
        • 9. War between the Persian and the Byzantine Empires.
      • CHAPTER XVII. THE RISE OF MAHOMEDANISM. (600‒650.)
        • 1. ‘The Koran or the Sword.’
        • 2. What Mahomed learned from the Jews.
        • 3. Islam.
        • 4. Likenesses between Islam and Judaism.
        • 5. Differences between Islam and Judaism.
      • CHAPTER XVIII. THE CONQUESTS OF THE KALIPHS: EFFECT, RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL, ON THE JEWS. (600‒800.)
        • 1. Progress of Mahomedanism.
        • 2. Gaonim.
        • 3. Spain in the hands of the Mahomedans.
        • 4. The Karaite Movement.
        • 5. Mahomedan Causes for Karaism.
        • 6. The Leader of the Karaite Movement.
        • 7. What became of the Sect.
        • 8. Good out of Evil.
      • CHAPTER XIX. LIFE UNDER THE KALIPHS. (700‒1000.)
        • 1. Jews in the East.
        • 2. Close of the Schools: some Scholars.
        • 3. Jews in the West.
        • 4. The Policy of the Early Kaliphs.
        • 5. Some Effects of this Policy.
      • CHAPTER XX. JEWS IN SPAIN. (711‒1150.)
        • 1. ‘Like a dream in the night.’
        • 2. The Schools.
        • 3. The First Nagid of Spain.
        • 4. Another Nagid: Troubles in Granada.
        • 5. Revival of Catholicism in Spain.
        • 6. Effect on the Jews.
        • 7. The Almohade Dynasty of Kaliphs.
      • CHAPTER XXI. JEWS IN SPAIN (continued). (1150‒1492.)
        • 1. Under Catholic Kings in Spain.
        • 2. The Toledo Synagogue.
        • 3. The Downward Slope to Death.
        • 4. The Marannos, or New Christians.
        • 5. An Effort at Argument.
        • 6. The Inquisition.
        • 7. Objects and Functions of the Inquisition.
        • 8. Some Statistics of the Inquisition.
        • 9. Edict of Expulsion.
        • 10. Abarbanel’s Intercession.
      • CHAPTER XXII. JEWS IN CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
        • 1. General Position of European Jews.
        • 2. Jews become Money-lenders.
        • 3. Charge of Usury.
      • CHAPTER XXIII. JEWS IN CENTRAL EUROPE (continued).
        • 1. The Crusades.
        • 2. Glimpses of Better Things.
        • 3. Life in France till the Expulsion thence.
        • 4. Expelled from France.
        • 5. Treatment of Jews in the German States.
      • CHAPTER XXIV. JEWS IN ENGLAND. (1066‒1210.)
        • 1. The First Seventy Years.
        • 2. ‘Saints’ and Supplies.
        • 3. Accession of Richard.
        • 4. Treatment by Richard.
        • 5. Under John.
      • CHAPTER XXV. JEWS IN ENGLAND (continued). (1216‒1290.)
        • 1. The Next Fifty Years.
        • 2. The Caorsini.
        • 3. The First Jewish M.P.s.
        • 4. Another Device for raising Money.
        • 5. Under Edward I.
        • 6. Some Ironical Legislation.
        • 7. Dishonest Jews.
        • 8. Efforts at Conversion.
        • 9. Expulsion of Jews from England.
    • BOOK III. 100‒1500. STARLIGHT.
      • CHAPTER XXVI. CONCERNING JEWISH LITERATURE AND LITERARY MEN.
        • 1. Starlight.
        • 2. How the Stars shone.
        • 3. Piyutim.
        • 4. A Specimen Planet.
      • CHAPTER XXVII. SOME FIXED STARS.
        • 1. Solomon ibn Gabirol (1021‒1070).
        • 2. ‘Rashi’ (1040‒1105).
        • 3. Abraham Ibn Ezra (1092‒1167).
        • 4. A Great Traveller.
        • 5. Jehudah Halevi (1085‒1140).
      • CHAPTER XXVIII. THE GREATEST OF THE FIXED STARS. MAIMONIDES. (1135‒1204.)
        • 1. Early Days in Spain.
        • 2. Life in Exile.
        • 3. Becomes a Court Physician.
        • 4. Court and other Employment.
        • 5. His Writings.
        • 6. His Character.
        • 7. The End of his Life.
      • CHAPTER XXIX. DARKNESS BEFORE THE DAWN.
        • 1. The Stars die out.
        • 2. Whither the Exiles went.
        • 3. Life in Germany.
        • 4. A New Crusade.
        • 5. What became of the Spanish and Portuguese Exiles.
      • CHAPTER XXX. THE DARKNESS VISIBLE.
        • 1. Deterioration of Character.
        • 2. Atmospheric Conditions.
        • 3. A Shooting Star: Sabbatai Zevi (1626‒1676).
        • 4. How the News was received.
        • 5. The Sultan interferes.
        • 6. Sabbatai resigns his Pretensions.
        • 7. Becomes a Convert to Mahomedanism.
    • BOOK IV. 1591‒1885. DAWN.
      • CHAPTER XXXI. DAWN.
        • 1. Beginning of Better Days in Holland.
        • 2. The New Jerusalem.
        • 3. Sephardim and Ashkenazim.
        • 4. Spanish Jews in Holland.
        • 5. Their Acquired Intolerance.
        • 6. An Instance in Point: Uriel da Costa.
      • CHAPTER XXXII. MANASSEH BEN ISRAEL.
        • 1. His Early Life.
        • 2. His Writings and his Friends.
        • 3. Manasseh finds his Vocation.
        • 4. Negotiations begun for the Return of the Jews to England.
      • CHAPTER XXXIII.48 THE RETURN OF THE JEWS TO ENGLAND.
        • 1. Manasseh presents his Petition.
        • 2. A Christian Advocate.
        • 3. What People said.
        • 4. How the Petition was received.
        • 5. End of Manasseh’s Story.
      • CHAPTER XXXIV. SPINOZA.
        • 1. Clouds obscure the Dawn.
        • 2. The Amsterdam Jews at the Time of Spinoza.
        • 3. Spinoza’s Student Days.
        • 4. Things come to a Climax.
        • 5. How Spinoza took his Sentence: his Mode of Life.
        • 6. Unto this Last.
        • 7. His Writings.
        • 8. Results.
      • CHAPTER XXXV. IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE, BEFORE THE DAWN.
        • 1. A Long Night.
        • 2. Reuchlin and the Talmud.
        • 3. Another Jewish Influence, Elias Levitas.
        • 4. Some Jewish Results from the Invention of Printing.
        • 5. Influence of Printing on Kabbalistic Literature.
      • CHAPTER XXXVI. IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE, BEFORE THE DAWN (continued).
        • 1. A Group of Stars.
        • 2. Polish Jews.
        • 3. French Jews.
        • 4. Social Life in Germany.
        • 5. Moral and Material Effects upon the Jews.
      • CHAPTER XXXVII. MOSES MENDELSSOHN.
        • 1. Early Days in Dessau.
        • 2. Goes to Berlin.
        • 3. How he fares there.
        • 4. Seed-time.
        • 5. Harvest.
        • 6. Nathan der Weise.
        • 7. Literary Successes.
        • 8. His Home Life.
        • 9. Last Years.
      • CHAPTER XXXVIII. THE NEXT HUNDRED YEARS. (1780‒1880.)
        • 1. Light and Shadows.
        • 2. Leopold Zunz.
        • 3. Progress of Events and of Legislation in Germany.
        • 4. Progress of Events and Legislation in France (1780-1880).
        • 5. In Italy.
        • 6. In Spain and Portugal.
        • 7. In Austrian Dominions.
        • 8. In other European States.
        • 9. In Russia and Poland.
        • 10. In Danubian Provinces.
        • 11. A Glance at the Rest of the Map.
      • CHAPTER XXXIX. TWO CENTURIES AND A QUARTER IN ENGLAND. (1660‒1885.)
        • 1. First Fifty Years.
        • 2. Influx of Germans and Poles: how received.
        • 3. Converts.
        • 4. Progress of Anglo-Jewish Legislation.
        • 5. Communal Progress.
        • 6. The Nineteenth Century.
        • 7. A Slander revived and slain.
        • 8. The Man of the Nineteenth Century.
        • 9. Conclusion.
    • INDEX.
    • GENERAL LISTS OF WORKS
      • HISTORY, POLITICS, HISTORICAL MEMOIRS, &c.
      • BIOGRAPHICAL WORKS.
      • MENTAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, FINANCE, &c.
      • MISCELLANEOUS WORKS.
      • ASTRONOMY.
      • THE ‘KNOWLEDGE’ LIBRARY.
      • CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE.
      • NATURAL HISTORY, BOTANY, & GARDENING.
      • THE FINE ARTS AND ILLUSTRATED EDITIONS.
      • CHEMISTRY, ENGINEERING, & GENERAL SCIENCE.
      • THEOLOGICAL AND RELIGIOUS WORKS.
      • TRAVELS, ADVENTURES, &c.
      • WORKS OF FICTION.
      • POETRY AND THE DRAMA.
      • AGRICULTURE, HORSES, DOGS, AND CATTLE.
      • SPORTS AND PASTIMES.
      • ENCYCLOPÆDIAS, DICTIONARIES, AND BOOKS OF REFERENCE.
    • A SELECTION OF EDUCATIONAL WORKS.
      • TEXT-BOOKS OF SCIENCE
      • THE GREEK LANGUAGE.
      • THE LATIN LANGUAGE.
      • WHITE’S GRAMMAR-SCHOOL GREEK TEXTS.
      • WHITE’S GRAMMAR-SCHOOL LATIN TEXTS.
      • THE FRENCH LANGUAGE.
      • THE GERMAN LANGUAGE.
    • Footnotes.
    • Transcriber’s Note.
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