Exploring the Unknown - Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume III: Using Space
John M. Logsdon, Roger D. Launius, David H. Onkst, Stephen J. Garber
Science & Math
Exploring the Unknown - Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume III: Using Space
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The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in three major chapters, each covering a particular aspect of the utilization of space capabilities and the unique characteristics of the space environment. These chapters address: (1) communicating via satellite; (2) observing the Earth from space for practical purposes (Earth science will be covered in a later volume); and (3) the various ways in which space activities have had economic impacts. Volume I in this series covered the antecedents to the U.S. space program, as well as the origins and evolution of U.S. space policy and of NASA as an organizational institution. Volume II addressed the relationship between the civilian space program of the United States and the space activities of other countries, the relationship between the U.S. civilian and national security space and military efforts, and NASA’s relationship with industry and academic institutions. As mentioned above, future volumes will cover space transportation, space science, and human spaceflight.

Each section in this volume is introduced by an overview essay, prepared by individuals particularly well-qualified to write on the topic. In the main, these essays are intended to introduce and complement the documents in the section and to place them in a chronological and/or substantive context. Each essay contains references to the documents in the section it introduces, and many also contain references to documents in other sections of the collection. These introductory essays were the responsibility of their individual authors, and the views and conclusions contained therein do not necessarily represent the opinions of either George Washington University or NASA.

Exploring the Unknown, Volume III
Biographies of Volume III Essay Authors and Editors
Chapter One
Essay: “The History of Satellite Communications,” by Joseph N. Pelton
I-1 and I-2—Arthur C. Clarke, “The Space-Station: Its Radio Applications,” May 25, 1945
I-3—John R. Pierce, “Exotic Radio Communications,” Bell Laboratories Records, September 1959
I-4—Memorandum from S. G. Lutz to A.V. Haeff, “Commercial Satellite Communication Project; Preliminary Report of Study Task Force,” October 22, 1959
I-5—H.A. Rosen and D.D. Williams, Commercial Communications Satellite, Report RDL/B-1, Engineering Division, Hughes Aircraft Company, January 1960
I-6—“Memorandum for Conference on Communications Satellite Development,” December 7, 1960
I-7—White House Press Secretary, “Statement by the President,” December 30, 1960
I-8—Federal Communications Commission, “FCC Relation to Space Communication,” Public Notice-G, 1627, March 14, 1961
I-9 and I-10—F.R. Kappel, President, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, to the Honorable James E. Webb, Administrator, NASA, April 5, 1961
I-11—John F. Kennedy to Honorable Newton Minow, Chairman, Federal Communications Commission, May 15, 1961
I-12—Ben F. Waple, Acting Secretary, Federal Communications Commission, May 24, 1961
I-13—National Aeronautics and Space Council, “Communication Satellites,” July 14, 1961
I-14—Emanuel Celler, Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, et al., to the President, August 24, 1961
I-15—Frederick G. Dutton, Assistant to the President, Memorandum for the President, November 13, 1961
I-16–I-18—Senator Robert S. Kerr, “Amendment to the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, Space Communications,” November 28, 1961
I-19—Edward A. Bolster, Department of State, to Mr. Johnson, Memorandum, “Space Communication,” May 3, 1962
I-20—Project Telstar, “Preliminary Report, Telstar I, July–September 1962,” Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1962
I-21—Memorandum from J.D. O’Connell, Special Assistant to the President for Telecommunications and Director of the Office of Telecommunications Management, September 17, 1965
I-22—National Security Action Memorandum No. 342, “U.S. Assistance in the Early Establishment of Communications Satellite Service for Less-Developed Nations,” March 4, 1966
I-23—David Bruce, U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, to the Secretary of State, “Transfer of U.S. Communications Satellite Technology,” Telegraphic Message, November 9, 1966
I-24—Memorandum from J.D. O’Connell for the President, February 8, 1967
I-25—Leonard H. Marks, Ambassador, Chairman, February 24– March 21, 1969
I-26—“Second Report and Order in the Matter of Establishment of Domestic Communications-Satellite Facilities by Non-Governmental Entities,” June 16, 1972
I-27—George M. Low, Deputy Administrator, NASA, “Personal Notes,” December 23, 1972
I-28—Committee on Satellite Communications, Space Applications Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, 1977
I-29—John J. Madison, Legislative Affairs Specialist, NASA, Memorandum for the Record, October 13, 1983
I-30—William Schneider, Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology, February 1985
Chapter Two
Essay: “Observing the Earth From Space,” by Pamela E. Mack and Ray A. Williamson
II-1—Dr. Harry Wexler, “Observing the Weather from a Satellite Vehicle,” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 7 (September 1954)
II-2—S.M. Greenfield and W.W. Kellog, “Inquiry into the Feasibility of Weather Reconnaissance from a Satellite Vehicle,” The RAND Corporation, R-365, August 1960
II-3—Hugh L. Dryden, for T. Keith Glennan, NASA, and Roy W. Johnson, Department of Defense, April 13, 1959
II-4—U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, “National Plan for a Common System of Meteorological Satellites,” October 1960
II-5—Hugh L. Dryden, Deputy Administrator, for James E. Webb, Administrator, NASA, and Luther H. Hodges, Secretary of Commerce, January 30, 1964
II-6—Robert M. White, Administrator, Environmental Science Services Administration, National Environmental Satellite Center, U.S. Department of Commerce, August 15, 1966
II-7 and II-8—George E. Brown, Jr., Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, February 22, 1993
II-9—National Performance Review, Department of Commerce, “Establish a Single Civilian Operational Environmental Polar Satellite Program,” September 30, 1993
II-10—Presidential Decision Directive/NSTC-2, The White House, “Convergence of U.S. Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Systems,” May 5, 1994
II-11 and II-12—D. James Baker, Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, to John Morgan, Director, EUMETSAT, May 6, 1994
II-13—Peter C. Badgley, Program Chief, Natural Resources, NASA, “Current Status of NASA’s Natural Resources Program,” 1966
II-14—“Prepared by Jaffe and Badgley at Seamans’ Request: NASA Natural Resources Program,” May 13, 1966
II-15—Leonard Jaffe, Director, Space Applications Programs, OSSA, August 25, 1966
II-16—Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, “Earth’s Resources to be Studied from Space,” News Release, September 21, 1966
II-17—Charles F. Luce, Under Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, to Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Deputy Administrator, NASA, October 21, 1966
II-18—Irwin P. Halpern, Director, Policy Staff, NASA, Memorandum for General Smart, “Earth Resources Survey Program,” September 5, 1967
II-19—Jacob E. Smart, Assistant Administrator for Policy, NASA, Memorandum for Dr. Mueller, et al., “Earth Resources Survey Program,” October 3, 1967
II-20—Edgar M. Cortright for George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, November 17, 1967
II-21—Interior Department, “Appeal of 1971 Budget Allowance: EROS,” November 25, 1969
II-22—Robert P. Mayo, Director, Bureau of the Budget, to Honorable Walter J. Hickel, Secretary of the Interior, April 14, 1970
II-23—Arnold W. Frutkin, Memorandum to Dr. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, et al., “Some Recent International Reactions to ERTS-1,” December 22, 1972
II-24—James V. Zimmerman for Arnold W. Frutkin, Assistant Administrator for International Affairs, to Dr. John V.N. Granger, Acting Director, September 12, 1974
II-25—Clinton P. Anderson, Chairman, Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, U.S. Senate, October 14, 1972
II-26—Walter C. Shupe, Chief, GAO Liaison Activities, NASA, Memorandum to Distribution, April 21, 1978
II-27—Charles J. Robinove, Director, EROS Program Office, Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, December 10, 1975
II-28—James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, to Mr. John C. Sawhill, Associate Director, Office of Management and Budget, October 19, 1973
II-29—Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Director, Johnson Space Center, to Associate Administrator for Applications, NASA Headquarters, March 12, 1976
II-30—Bruno Augenstein, Willis H. Shapley, and Eugene B. Skolnikoff, “Earth Information From Space by Remote Sensing,” June 2, 1978
II-31—Zbigniew Brzezinski, The White House, Presidential Directive/ NSC-54, “Civil Operational Remote Sensing,” November 16, 1979
II-32—David S. Johnson, Chairman, Satellite Task Force, June 20, 1980
II-33—Ed Harper, Office of Management and Budget, Memorandum to Craig Fuller/Martin Anderson, July 13, 1981
II-34—Government Technical Review Panel, November 10, 1982
II-35—“Transfer of Civil Meteorological Satellites,” House Concurrent Resolution 168, November 14, 1983
II-36—“Land Remote-Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984,” Public Law 98–365, 98 Stat. 451, July 17, 1984
II-37—Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, “Statement by the Press Secretary,” June 1, 1989
II-38—Office of the Press Secretary, The Vice President’s Office, “Vice President Announces Landsat Policy,” February 13, 1992
II-39—Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Management Plan for the Landsat Program,” March 10, 1992
II-40—“Land Remote-Sensing Policy Act of 1992,” Public Law 102–555, 106 Stat. 4163, October 28, 1992
II-41–II-44 George E. Brown, Jr., Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, August 9, 1993
II-45—The White House, Presidential Decision Directive/NSTC-3, “Landsat Remote Sensing Strategy,” May 5, 1994
II-46–II-48—Gregory W. Withee, Acting Assistant Administrator for Satellite and Information Services, NOAA, January 4, 1993
II-49—Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, “U.S. Policy on Licensing and Operation of Private Remote Sensing Systems,” March 10, 1994
II-50—Robert S. Winokur, Assistant Administrator for Satellite and Information Services, NOAA, April 22, 1994
Chapter Three
Essay: “Space as an Investment in Economic Growth,” by Henry R. Hertzfeld
III-1—Jack G. Faucett, President, Jack Faucett Associates, Inc., to Willis H. Shapley, Associate Deputy Administrator, NASA, November 22, 1965
III-2—Roger W. Hough, “Some Major Impacts of the National Space Program,” Stanford Research Institute, Contract NASW-1722, June 1968
III-3—“Economic Impact of Stimulated Technological Activity,” Final Report, Midwest Research Institute, Contract NASW-2030, October 15, 1971
III-4—Michael K. Evans, “The Economic Impact of NASA R&D Spending,” April 1976
III-5—Robert D. Shriner, Director of Washington Operations, Chase Econometrics, to Henry Hertzfeld, NASA, April 15, 1980
III-6—“Economic Impact and Technological Progress of NASA Research and Development Expenditures,” September 20, 1988
III-7—“NASA Report May Overstate the Economic Benefits of Research and Development Spending,” October 18, 1977
III-8—Martin D. Robbins, John A. Kelley, and Linda Elliott, “Mission- Oriented R&D and the Advancement of Technology: The Impact of NASA Contributions,” May 1972
III-9—“Quantifying the Benefits to the National Economy from Secondary Applications of NASA Technology—Executive Summary,” NASA CR-2674, Mathematica, Inc., March 1976
III-10—“Economic Effects of a Space Station: Preliminary Results,” NASA, June 16, 1983
III-11—“The Economic Impact of the Space Program: A Macro and Industrial Perspective,” May 1994
III-12—Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, “The President’s Space Policy and Commercial Space Initiative to Begin the Next Century,” Fact Sheet, February 11, 1988
III-13—National Space Policy Directive 3, “U.S. Commercial Space Policy Guidelines,” The White House, February 12, 1991
III-14—“Fact Sheet, National Space Policy,” The White House, National Science and Technology Council, September 19, 1996
III-15—“Commercial Space Industry in the Year 2000: A Market Forecast,” The Center for Space Policy (CSP), Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1985
III-16—William M. Brown and Herman Kahn, “Long-Term Prospects for Developments in Space (A Scenario Approach),” October 30, 1977
III-17—Robert Dunn, “NASA Policy to Enhance Commercial Investment in Space,” internal NASA document, September 13, 1983
III-18—“Space Commercialization Meeting,” memo with agenda, participants, and outline of policy issues, The White House, August 3, 1983
III-19—Craig L. Fuller, The White House, Memorandum for the Cabinet Council on Commerce and Trade, “Commercial Space Initiatives,” April 10, 1984
III-20—“Feasibility Study of Commercial Space Manufacturing, Phase II Final Report,” January 15, 1977
III-21—“Space Industrialization: Final Report,” Volume 1. Executive Summary, April 14, 1978
III-22—“Space Industrialization: An Overview,” Final Report, Volume 1, SAI-79-662-HU, Science Applications, Inc., April 15, 1978
III-23—“Feasibility of Commercial Space Manufacturing: Production of Pharmaceuticals,” Final Report, Volume I, Executive Summary, November 9, 1978
III-24—James Beggs, Administrator, NASA, to William Clark, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, August 26, 1983
III-25—L. Smith, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, “Electrophoresis Operations in Space,” briefing charts, September 1983
III-26—U.S. General Accounting Office, “Commercial Use of Space: Many Grantees Making Progress, but NASA Oversight Could be Improved,” May 1991
III-27—Leo S. Packer, Special Assistant to Associate Administrator, Office of Advanced Research and Technology, NASA, September 26, 1969
III-28—F. Douglas Johnson, Panayes Gastseos, and Emily Miller, with assistance from Charles F. Mourning, Thomas Basinger, Nancy Gundersen, and Martin Kokus, May 1977
III-29—Robert J. Anderson, Jr., William N. Lanen, and Carson E. Agnew, with Faye Duchin and E. Patrick Marfisi, November 7, 1977
III-30—Richard L. Chapman, Loretta C. Lohman, and Marilyn J. Chapman, “An Exploration of Benefits from NASA ‘Spinoff,’” June 1989
III-31—H.R. Hertzfeld, “Technology Transfer White Paper,” internal NASA document, June 23, 1978
III-32—“NASA Technology Transfer: Report of the Technology Transfer Team,” December 21, 1992
Biographical Appendix
The NASA History Series
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