Exploring the Unknown - Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume IV: Accessing Space
John M. Logsdon, Ray A. Williamson
Science & Math
Exploring the Unknown - Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume IV: Accessing Space
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One of the most important developments of the twentieth century has been the movement of humanity into space with machines and people. The underpinnings of that movement-why it took the shape it did; which individuals and organizations were involved; what factors drove a particular choice of scientific objectives and technologies to be used; and the political, economic, managerial, and international contexts in which the events of the space age unfolded-are all important ingredients of this epoch transition from an Earthbound to a spacefaring people. This desire to understand the development of spaceflight in the United States sparked this documentary history series. The extension of human activity into outer space has been accompanied by a high degree of self-awareness of its historical significance. Few large-scale activities have been as extensively chronicled so closely to the time they actually occurred. Many of those who were directly involved were quite conscious that they were making history, and they kept full records of their activities. Because most of the activity in outer space was carried out under government sponsorship, it was accompanied by the documentary record required of public institutions, and there has been a spate of official and privately written histories of most major aspects of space achievement to date. When top leaders considered what course of action to pursue in space, their deliberations and decisions often were carefully put on the record. There is, accordingly, no lack of material for those who aspire to understand the origins and evolution of U.S. space policies and programs.

Exploring the Unknown, Volume IV
Biographies of Volume IV Contributors
Chapter One
Essay: “Access to Space: Steps to the Saturn V,” by Ray A. Williamson
I-1 and I-2—Hugh J. Knerr, Major General, USA, Deputy Commanding General, U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe, Memorandum for Commanding General, U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe, June 1, 1945
I-3—H. Julian Allen and A.J. Eggers, Jr., NACA Research Memorandum, “A Study of the Motion and Aerodynamic Heating of Missiles Entering the Earth’s Atmosphere at High Supersonic Speeds,” RM A53D28, August 25, 1953
I-4—Homer J. Stewart, Chairman, Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Special Capabilities, Report to Donald A. Quarles, Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Development), August 4, 1955
I-5—Reuben B. Robertson, Jr., Deputy Secretary of Defense, Memorandum for the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, September 9, 1955
I-6—Joseph C. Myers, Deputy Secretary, Advisory Group on Special Capabilities, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, December 1, 1955
I-7 and I-8—Colonel A.J. Goodpaster, “Memorandum for Record,” June 7, 1956
I-9 and I-10—Brigadier General A.J. Goodpaster, “Memorandum of Conference With the President,” October 8, 1957
I-11—Donald Quarles, Memorandum for the President, “The Vanguard- Jupiter C Program,” January 7, 1958
I-12—James C. Hagerty, “Memorandum on Telephone Calls Between Brigadier General Andrew J. Goodpaster in Washington and James C. Hagerty in Atlanta, Georgia, Friday Afternoon and Evening,” January 31, 1958
I-13—Brigadier General Bernard A. Schriever, USAF Commander, Western Development Division, February 24, 1955
I-14—Brigadier General A.J. Goodpaster, “Memorandum of Conference With the President, March 10, 1958—10:20 AM,” March 11, 1958
I-15—Hugh L. Dryden, Deputy Administrator, NASA, Memorandum for the President, “Use of Solid Propellants in the U.S. Space Program,” April 7, 1961
I-16—NASA, News Release, “Mercury Redstone Booster Development Test,” Release No. 61-57, March 22, 1961
I-17—Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff, Development, U.S. Air Force, to AFCCS, “Convair Analysis of Atlas Booster Space Launches,” with attached: J.V. Naish to Dr. T. Keith Glennan, Administrator, NASA, December 21, 1960
I-18—George E. Mueller, “NASA Learning From Use of Atlas and Titan for Manned Flight,” with attached: “Summary Learning From the Use of Atlas and Titan for Manned Flight,” December 21, 1965
I-19—Staff of Aerophysics Laboratory, North American Aviation, “Feasibility of Nuclear Powered Rockets & Ram Jets,” Report No. NA-47-15, February 11, 1947
I-20—AEC-NASA Press Kit, “Nuclear Rocket Program Fact Sheet,” March 1969
I-21 and I-22—Senator Howard Cannon to the President, October 19, 1971; and James Fletcher to Senator Howard Cannon, January 24, 1972
I-23—NASA, in consultation with the Advanced Research Projects Agency, “The National Space Vehicle Program,” January 27, 1959
I-24—Development Operations Division, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, “Proposal: A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program,” Report No. D-R-37, December 10, 1957
I-25—Abe Silverstein, Chairman, Source Selection Board, Memorandum for the Administrator, December 12, 1958
I-26—Roy W. Johnson, Director, Advanced Research Projects Agency, August 15, 1958
I-27—F.C. Schwenk, Memo for Record, “Visit to ABMA on June 16–17, 1959,” June 24, 1959
I-28—Abraham Hyatt, Deputy Director, Launch Vehicle Programs, to Wernher von Braun, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, January 22, 1960
I-29—Saturn Vehicle Team, “Report to the Administrator, NASA, on Saturn Development Plan,” December 15, 1959
I-30—Robert R. Gilruth, Director, Space Task Group, to Dr. N.E. Golovin, Director, DOD-NASA Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group, September 12, 1961
I-31 and I-32—Milton Rosen, Director, Launch Vehicles and Propulsion, Office of Manned Space Flight, Memorandum to Brainerd Holmes, Director of Manned Space Flight, “Large Launch Vehicle Program,” November 6, 1961
I-33—Future Projects Design Branch, Structures and Mechanics Division, George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, Huntsville, Alabama, “NOVA Preliminary Planning Document,” August 25, 1961
I-34—A.O. Tischler, Chief, Liquid Fuel Rocket Engines, NASA, to David Aldrich, Program Engineer, Rocketdyne, July 29, 1959
I-35 thru I-37—D. Brainerd Holmes, Director of Manned Space Flight, to Wernher von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center, “Combustion Instability of F-1 Engine,” January, 26, 1963
I-38—George E. Mueller, Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA, October 31, 1963
I-39—Wernher von Braun, “The Detective Story Behind Our First Manned Saturn V Shoot,” Popular Science, November 1968
I-40 and I-41—Kurt H. Debus, Director, Launch Operations Center, NASA, to Captain John K. Holcomb, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA, “Reference draft DOD/NASA Agreement dated 20 December 1962”
I-42—“Minutes of the Management Council,” Office of Manned Space Flight, May 29, 1962
I-43 thru I-46—James E. Webb, Administrator, NASA, Memorandum to Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA, August 1, 1968
Chapter Two
Essay: “Developing the Space Shuttle,” by Ray A. Williamson
II-1 and I-2—Ad Hoc Subpanel on Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology, “Report for presentation to the Supporting Space Research and Technology Panel,” September 14, 1966
II-3—Dr. George Mueller, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA, August 10, 1968
II-4—NASA, Space Shuttle Task Group Report, Volume II, “Desired System Characteristics,” revised, June 12, 1969
II-5—Charles J. Donlan, Acting Director, Space Shuttle Program, NASA, to Distribution, “Transmittal of NASA paper ‘Space Shuttle Systems Definition Evolution,’” July 11, 1972
II-6—Maxime A. Faget and Milton A. Silveira, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, “Fundamental Design Considerations for an Earth-Surface-to-Orbit Shuttle,” October 4–10, 1970
II-7—Office of Management and Budget, “Documentation of the Space Shuttle Decision Process,” February 4, 1972
II-8—George M. Low, Deputy Administrator, NASA, to Donald B. Rice, Assistant Director, Office of Management and Budget, November 22, 1971
II-9—Charles J. Donlan, Acting Director, Space Shuttle Program, to Deputy Administrator, “Additional Space Shuttle Information,” December 5, 1971
II-10—Mathematica, “Economic Analysis of the Space Shuttle System,” Executive Summary, prepared for NASA, January 31, 1972
II-11—James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, to Caspar W. Weinberger, Deputy Director, Office of Management and Budget, December 29, 1971
II-12—Arnold R. Weber, Associate Director, Office of Management and Budget, Memorandum for Peter Flanigan, “Space Shuttle Program,” June 10, 1971
II-13—James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, to Caspar W. Weinberger, Deputy Director, Office of Management and Budget, January 4, 1972
II-14—James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, to Caspar W. Weinberger, Deputy Director, Office of Management and Budget, March 6, 1972
II-15—James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, to Senator Walter F. Mondale, April 25, 1972
II-16—James C. Fletcher, Administrator, George M. Low, Deputy Administrator, and Richard McCurdy, Associate Administrator for Organization and Management, NASA, September 18, 1972
II-17—The Comptroller General of the United States, Decision in the Matter of Protest by Lockheed Propulsion Company, File B-173677, June 24, 1974
II-18—Gerald J. Mossinghoff, Assistant General Counsel for General Law, Memorandum for the Record, September 25, 1975
II-19—John F. Yardley, Associate Administrator for Space Transportation Systems, NASA, to Director, Public Affairs, NASA, May 26, 1978
II-20—Eugene E. Covert, Chairman, Ad Hoc Committee for Review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Development Program, National Research Council, February 22, 1979
II-21—John F. Yardley, Associate Administrator for Space Transportation Systems, NASA, to Director, Space Shuttle Program, NASA, June 14, 1979
II-22—William A. Anders, Consultant, to Dr. Robert Frosch, Administrator, NASA, September 19, 1979
II-23—James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, to James T. Lynn, Director, Office of Management and Budget, October 22, 1976
II-24—James T. McIntyre, Jr., Acting Director, Office of Management and Budget, to Robert A. Frosch, Administrator, NASA, December 23, 1977
II-25—Robert A. Frosch, Administrator, NASA, to President Jimmy Carter, November 9, 1979
II-26—Brigadier General Robert Rosenberg, National Security Council, “Why Shuttle Is Needed,” undated but November 1979
II-27—Office of Management and Budget, Background Paper, “Meeting on the Space Shuttle,” November 14, 1979
II-28—Robert A. Frosch, Administrator, NASA, Special Announcement, “Examination of the Shuttle Program,” August 18, 1980
II-29—NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, “Major Safety Concerns: Space Shuttle Program,” JSC 09990C, November 8, 1976
II-30—Associate Administrator for Space Transportation Systems, NASA, to Administrator, NASA, “STS-1 Mission Assessment,” May 12, 1981
II-31—Allen J. Lenz, Staff Director, National Security Council, Memorandum for Martin Anderson, July 17, 1981
II-32—The White House, National Security Decision Directive 8, "Space Transportation System,” November 13, 1981
II-33—President Ronald Reagan, “Remarks on the Completion of the Fourth Mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia,” July 4, 1982
II-34—NASA, “National Space Transportation System: Analysis of Policy Issues,” August 1982
II-35—Chester Lee, Director, STS Operations, to Manager, Space Shuttle Payload Integration and Development Program Office, November 20, 1978
II-36—National Security Council, Senior Interagency Group (Space), “Issue Paper on the Space Transportation System’s (STS) Fifth Orbiter,” late 1982
II-37—James C. Fletcher, Consultant, Memorandum to Al Lovelace, “Personal Concern about the Launch Phase of Space Shuttle,” July 7, 1977
II-38—President Ronald Reagan, Executive Order 12546, “Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident,” February 3, 1986
II-39—Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, “Report at a Glance,” June 6, 1986
II-40—Richard H. Truly, Associate Administrator for Space Flight, NASA, to Distribution, “Strategy for Safely Returning the Space Shuttle to Flight Status,” March 24, 1986
II-41—John W. Young, Chief, Astronaut Office, to Director, Flight Crew Operations, “One Part of the 51-L Accident—Space Shuttle Program Flight Safety,” March 4, 1986
II-42 and II-43—President Ronald Reagan, “Statement by the President,” August 15, 1986
II-44—H. Guyford Stever, Panel on Redesign of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Committee on NASA Scientific and Technological Program Reviews, September 9, 1986
II-45—Office of Technology Assessment, “Shuttle Fleet Attrition if Orbiter Recovery Reliability is 98 Percent,” August 1989
II-46—Dale D. Myers, Deputy Administrator, NASA, to Robert K. Dawson, Associate Director for Natural Resources, January 20, 1988
II-47—“Report of the Space Shuttle Management Independent Review Team,” February 1995
Chapter Three
Essay: “Commercializing Space Transportation,” by John M. Logsdon and Craig Reed
III-1—NASA, We Deliver, brochure, 1983
III-2—Space Launch Policy Working Group, “Report on Commercialization of U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicles,” April 13, 1983
III-3—National Security Decision Directive 94, “Commercialization of Expendable Launch Vehicles,” May 16, 1983
III-4—Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984, Public Law 98–575, 98 Stat. 3055, October 30, 1984
III-5—Craig L. Fuller, Memorandum for the President, “Determining the Lead Agency for Commercializing Expendable Launch Vehicles,” November 16, 1983
III-6—Gerald J. Mossinghoff, Assistant Secretary and Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, to Elizabeth Hanford Dole, Secretary of Transportation, October 31, 1984
III-7—Robert C. McFarlane, Memorandum for The Honorable Elizabeth H. Dole, Secretary of Transportation, “STS Pricing Issue,” June 21, 1984
III-8—James M. Beggs, Administrator, NASA, to President Ronald Reagan, September 17, 1984
III-9—Lawrence F. Herbolsheimer, Memorandum for Craig L. Fuller, “OMB’s study on U.S. ELV competitiveness,” November 13, 1984
III-10—Gilbert D. Rye, National Security Council, Memorandum for Robert C. McFarlane, “Corporate Letters on the Shuttle Pricing Issue,” July 1, 1985
III-11—Robert C. McFarlane, Memorandum for the President, “Shuttle Pricing for Foreign and Commercial Users,” July 27, 1985
III-12—The White House, National Security Decision Directive Number 181, “Shuttle Pricing for Foreign and Commercial Users,” July 30, 1985
III-13—U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Commercial Space Transportation, July 1985
III-14—President Ronald Reagan, Memorandum for the United States Trade Representative, “Determination Under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974,” July 17, 1985
III-15—Alfred H. Kingon, Assistant to the President, Cabinet Secretary, to James C. Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, Memorandum, “Space Commercialization,” September 25, 1986
III-16—Commercial Space Launch Act Amendments of 1988, Public Law 100–657, H.R. 4399, November 15, 1988
III-17—Shellyn G. McCaffrey, The White House, Through Eugene G. McAllister, Memorandum for Nancy J. Risque, “Space Launch Insurance,” July 1, 1987
III-18—The White House, National Space Policy Directive 2, “Commercial Space Launch Policy,” September 5, 1990
III-19—The White House, National Space Policy Directive 4, “National Space Launch Strategy,” July 10, 1991
III-20—Elizabeth Dole, Secretary of Transportation, Letter to the President, September 30, 1987
III-21—Richard E. Brackeen, Chairman, COMSTAC, and President, Martin Marietta Commercial Titan, Inc., to James H. Burnley, Secretary of Transportation, January 29, 1988
III-22—Office of Commercial Space Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation, “Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Licensing Regulations,” April 4, 1988
III-23—Samuel Skinner, Secretary of Transportation, June 1, 1989
III-24—“Memorandum of Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People’s Republic of China Regarding International Trade in Commercial Launch Services,” January 26, 1989
Chapter Four
Essay: “Exploring Future Space Transportation Possibilities,” by Ivan Bekey
IV-1—The White House, Fact Sheet, “National Space Strategy,” National Security Decision Directive 144, August 15, 1984
IV-2—NASA and the Department of Defense, “National Space Strategy—Launch Vehicle Technology Study,” December 1984
IV-3—NASA/DOD Joint Steering Group, “National Space Transportation and Support Study, 1995–2010,” May 1986
IV-4—Department of Defense, NSDD-261 Report, “Recommendations for Increasing United States Heavy-Lift Space Launch Capability,” April 29, 1987
IV-5—James Fletcher, Administrator, NASA, and Frank Carlucci, Secretary of Defense, and approved by Ronald Reagan, President, January 14, 1988
IV-6—Vice President’s Space Policy Advisory Board, “The Future of the U.S. Space Launch Capability,” November 1992
IV-7—Darrell R. Branscome, Director, Advanced Program Development Division, Office of Space Flight, NASA, November 17, 1988
IV-8—Secretary of Defense and NASA Administrator, August 31, 1988
IV-9—Department of Defense, “Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on the National Aerospace Plane (NASP),” September 1988
IV-10—The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Statement by the Press Secretary,” July 25, 1989
IV-11—Maxwell W. Hunter, “The Opportunity,” April 26, 1987
IV-12—Gary Hudson, Pacific American, Memo to Thomas L. Kessler, General Dynamics/Space Systems Division, December 17, 1990
IV-13—Department of Defense, Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, “Solicitation for the SSTO Phase II Technology Demonstration,” June 5, 1991
IV-14—Office of Space Systems Development, NASA Headquarters, “Access to Space Study—Summary Report,” January 1994
IV-15—Department of Defense, “Space Launch Modernization Plan— Executive Summary,” May 1994
IV-16—The White House, Office of Science and Technology Policy, “Fact Sheet—National Space Transportation Policy,” August 5, 1994
IV-17—NASA, “A Draft Cooperative Agreement Notice—X-33 Phase II: Design and Demonstration,” December 14, 1995
Biographical Appendix
The NASA History Series
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