The Making of Species
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The Making of Species

By Douglas Dewar, Frank Finn
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Table of Contents
  • THE MAKING OF SPECIES
    • PREFACE
    • CONTENTS
    • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
  • THE MAKING OF SPECIES
    • CHAPTER I RISE OF THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION AND ITS SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT
      • Strength of Darwin’s Position
        • Opponents of Darwin
        • Evolution and Natural Selection
        • Huxley
        • Growing Opposition to Darwinism
        • The Neo-Lamarckian School
        • Orr’s Views
        • Inheritance of Acquired Characters
        • The Wallaceian School
        • Complexity of the Problem
        • The Aim of the Biologist
      • Opponents of Darwin
      • Evolution and Natural Selection
      • Huxley
      • Growing Opposition to Darwinism
      • The Neo-Lamarckian School
      • Orr’s Views
      • Inheritance of Acquired Characters
      • The Wallaceian School
      • Complexity of the Problem
      • The Aim of the Biologist
    • Strength of Darwin’s Position
      • Opponents of Darwin
      • Evolution and Natural Selection
      • Huxley
      • Growing Opposition to Darwinism
      • The Neo-Lamarckian School
      • Orr’s Views
      • Inheritance of Acquired Characters
      • The Wallaceian School
      • Complexity of the Problem
      • The Aim of the Biologist
    • Opponents of Darwin
    • Evolution and Natural Selection
    • Huxley
    • Growing Opposition to Darwinism
    • The Neo-Lamarckian School
    • Orr’s Views
    • Inheritance of Acquired Characters
    • The Wallaceian School
    • Complexity of the Problem
    • The Aim of the Biologist
    • CHAPTER II SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT OBJECTIONS TO THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION
      • Theory of Natural Selection
        • Various Anti-Darwinian Views
        • Darwinism does not explain Variation
        • Theory of Change of Function
        • Correlation
        • Missing Links
        • Recurrent Mutations
        • Leaf-butterflies
        • A Dilemma
        • The Effects of Chance
        • The Origin of Mimicry
      • Various Anti-Darwinian Views
      • Darwinism does not explain Variation
      • Theory of Change of Function
      • Correlation
      • Missing Links
      • Recurrent Mutations
      • Leaf-butterflies
      • A Dilemma
      • The Effects of Chance
      • The Origin of Mimicry
    • Theory of Natural Selection
      • Various Anti-Darwinian Views
      • Darwinism does not explain Variation
      • Theory of Change of Function
      • Correlation
      • Missing Links
      • Recurrent Mutations
      • Leaf-butterflies
      • A Dilemma
      • The Effects of Chance
      • The Origin of Mimicry
    • Various Anti-Darwinian Views
    • Darwinism does not explain Variation
    • Theory of Change of Function
    • Correlation
    • Missing Links
    • Recurrent Mutations
    • Leaf-butterflies
    • A Dilemma
    • The Effects of Chance
    • The Origin of Mimicry
    • CHAPTER III VARIATION
      • Nature of Variation
        • Definite and Indefinite Variability
        • Monstrosities
        • Minute Variations
        • Lines of Variation
        • Breeders’ Boasts
        • Albinistic Variations
        • Over-development
        • Speed of Racehorses
        • Experiments of De Vries
        • Bateson on Variation
        • Work of Bateson and De Vries
        • Varieties and Elementary Species
        • Mutations
        • Law of Regression
        • De Vries’s Dictum
        • Mutating Plants
        • Mutation Theory Criticised
        • Definition of a Species
        • “Scatliff Strain” of Turbit
      • Definite and Indefinite Variability
      • Monstrosities
      • Minute Variations
      • Lines of Variation
      • Breeders’ Boasts
      • Albinistic Variations
      • Over-development
      • Speed of Racehorses
      • Experiments of De Vries
      • Bateson on Variation
      • Work of Bateson and De Vries
      • Varieties and Elementary Species
      • Mutations
      • Law of Regression
      • De Vries’s Dictum
      • Mutating Plants
      • Mutation Theory Criticised
      • Definition of a Species
      • “Scatliff Strain” of Turbit
      • Mutations among Animals
        • Mutations among Birds
        • Color Mutations
        • Mutations among Invertebrates
        • Mutating Species
        • Somatic and Germinal Variations
        • Somatic Variations
      • Mutations among Birds
      • Color Mutations
      • Mutations among Invertebrates
      • Mutating Species
      • Somatic and Germinal Variations
      • Somatic Variations
    • Nature of Variation
      • Definite and Indefinite Variability
      • Monstrosities
      • Minute Variations
      • Lines of Variation
      • Breeders’ Boasts
      • Albinistic Variations
      • Over-development
      • Speed of Racehorses
      • Experiments of De Vries
      • Bateson on Variation
      • Work of Bateson and De Vries
      • Varieties and Elementary Species
      • Mutations
      • Law of Regression
      • De Vries’s Dictum
      • Mutating Plants
      • Mutation Theory Criticised
      • Definition of a Species
      • “Scatliff Strain” of Turbit
    • Definite and Indefinite Variability
    • Monstrosities
    • Minute Variations
    • Lines of Variation
    • Breeders’ Boasts
    • Albinistic Variations
    • Over-development
    • Speed of Racehorses
    • Experiments of De Vries
    • Bateson on Variation
    • Work of Bateson and De Vries
    • Varieties and Elementary Species
    • Mutations
    • Law of Regression
    • De Vries’s Dictum
    • Mutating Plants
    • Mutation Theory Criticised
    • Definition of a Species
    • “Scatliff Strain” of Turbit
    • Mutations among Animals
      • Mutations among Birds
      • Color Mutations
      • Mutations among Invertebrates
      • Mutating Species
      • Somatic and Germinal Variations
      • Somatic Variations
    • Mutations among Birds
    • Color Mutations
    • Mutations among Invertebrates
    • Mutating Species
    • Somatic and Germinal Variations
    • Somatic Variations
    • CHAPTER IV HYBRIDISM
      • Alleged Sterility of Hybrids
        • Fertile Hybrids
        • A Biological Bogey
      • Fertile Hybrids
      • A Biological Bogey
      • Fertile Crosses between Species of Plants
      • Sterile Plant Hybrids
      • Fertile Mammalian Hybrids
      • Fertile Bird Hybrids
      • Fertile Hybrids among Amphibia
      • Insects
      • Limits to the Possibilities of Hybridisation
        • Characters of Hybrids
        • Wild Hybrids
      • Characters of Hybrids
      • Wild Hybrids
    • Alleged Sterility of Hybrids
      • Fertile Hybrids
      • A Biological Bogey
    • Fertile Hybrids
    • A Biological Bogey
    • Fertile Crosses between Species of Plants
    • Sterile Plant Hybrids
    • Fertile Mammalian Hybrids
    • Fertile Bird Hybrids
    • Fertile Hybrids among Amphibia
    • Insects
    • Limits to the Possibilities of Hybridisation
      • Characters of Hybrids
      • Wild Hybrids
    • Characters of Hybrids
    • Wild Hybrids
    • CHAPTER V INHERITANCE
      • Phenomena of Inheritance
        • Existing Theories Unsatisfactory
        • Types of Crosses
        • Mendel’s Experiments
        • Mendelism
        • Maturation of the Germ-cells
        • Experiments of Delage and Loeb
        • Experiments of Cuénot and Castle
        • Unit Characters
        • Chemical Molecules
        • Experiments of Gräfin von Linden
        • Biological Isomerism
        • Biological Molecules
        • Phenomenon of Sex
        • Struggle for Nourishment
        • Origin of Mutations
      • Existing Theories Unsatisfactory
      • Types of Crosses
      • Mendel’s Experiments
      • Mendelism
      • Maturation of the Germ-cells
      • Experiments of Delage and Loeb
      • Experiments of Cuénot and Castle
      • Unit Characters
      • Chemical Molecules
      • Experiments of Gräfin von Linden
      • Biological Isomerism
      • Biological Molecules
      • Phenomenon of Sex
      • Struggle for Nourishment
      • Origin of Mutations
    • Phenomena of Inheritance
      • Existing Theories Unsatisfactory
      • Types of Crosses
      • Mendel’s Experiments
      • Mendelism
      • Maturation of the Germ-cells
      • Experiments of Delage and Loeb
      • Experiments of Cuénot and Castle
      • Unit Characters
      • Chemical Molecules
      • Experiments of Gräfin von Linden
      • Biological Isomerism
      • Biological Molecules
      • Phenomenon of Sex
      • Struggle for Nourishment
      • Origin of Mutations
    • Existing Theories Unsatisfactory
    • Types of Crosses
    • Mendel’s Experiments
    • Mendelism
    • Maturation of the Germ-cells
    • Experiments of Delage and Loeb
    • Experiments of Cuénot and Castle
    • Unit Characters
    • Chemical Molecules
    • Experiments of Gräfin von Linden
    • Biological Isomerism
    • Biological Molecules
    • Phenomenon of Sex
    • Struggle for Nourishment
    • Origin of Mutations
    • CHAPTER VI THE COLOURATION OF ORGANISMS
      • Robinson on Protective Colouring
        • Cryptic Colouring
        • Warning Colouration
        • Batesian Mimicry
        • Examples of Mimicry
        • Müllerian Mimicry
        • Danger Signals
        • Obliterative Colouring
      • Cryptic Colouring
      • Warning Colouration
      • Batesian Mimicry
      • Examples of Mimicry
      • Müllerian Mimicry
      • Danger Signals
      • Obliterative Colouring
      • Objections to the Theory of Cryptic Colouring
        • Fauna of Polar Regions
        • Pelagic Organisms
        • Unimportance of Colour
        • Gadow on Coral Snakes
        • F. C. Selous Quoted
        • Sexual Dimorphism
        • Precis Artexia
        • Striped Caterpillars
        • Colours of Eggs
        • Eyesight of Birds
      • Fauna of Polar Regions
      • Pelagic Organisms
      • Unimportance of Colour
      • Gadow on Coral Snakes
      • F. C. Selous Quoted
      • Sexual Dimorphism
      • Precis Artexia
      • Striped Caterpillars
      • Colours of Eggs
      • Eyesight of Birds
      • The Theory of Warning Colouration
        • Examples of Warning Colouration
        • Warning Colouring a Drawback
        • Conspicuous Animals Attacked
        • Aposematic Sounds
        • Intimidating Attitudes
      • Examples of Warning Colouration
      • Warning Colouring a Drawback
      • Conspicuous Animals Attacked
      • Aposematic Sounds
      • Intimidating Attitudes
      • Mimicry
        • Theory of Protective Mimicry
        • Evidence for the Theory
        • Alternative Theories
      • Theory of Protective Mimicry
      • Evidence for the Theory
      • Alternative Theories
      • Objections to the Theory that the so-called Cases of Mimicry owe their Origin to Natural Selection
        • The Brain-fever Bird
        • Hypertely
        • Birds capturing Butterflies
        • Observing-powers of Birds
      • The Brain-fever Bird
      • Hypertely
      • Birds capturing Butterflies
      • Observing-powers of Birds
      • “False” Mimicry among Mammals
      • False Batesian Mimicry among Birds
        • Theory of Mimicry Criticised
      • Theory of Mimicry Criticised
      • “Recognition” Colours
        • Interbreeding of Allied Species
        • Symmetry in Nature
      • Interbreeding of Allied Species
      • Symmetry in Nature
      • The Colouring of Flowers and Fruits
        • Cross- versus Self-fertilisation
        • Insects and Flowers
        • Honey
        • Scents of Flowers
        • Kay Robinson’s Theory
        • Accepted Theories Unsatisfactory
        • White Down of Nestlings
        • Cranes
        • Magpie Colouring
        • Albinos
        • Biological Molecules and Colour
        • Mr Tylor Quoted
        • Pœcilomeres
        • Biological Molecules
      • Cross- versus Self-fertilisation
      • Insects and Flowers
      • Honey
      • Scents of Flowers
      • Kay Robinson’s Theory
      • Accepted Theories Unsatisfactory
      • White Down of Nestlings
      • Cranes
      • Magpie Colouring
      • Albinos
      • Biological Molecules and Colour
      • Mr Tylor Quoted
      • Pœcilomeres
      • Biological Molecules
    • Robinson on Protective Colouring
      • Cryptic Colouring
      • Warning Colouration
      • Batesian Mimicry
      • Examples of Mimicry
      • Müllerian Mimicry
      • Danger Signals
      • Obliterative Colouring
    • Cryptic Colouring
    • Warning Colouration
    • Batesian Mimicry
    • Examples of Mimicry
    • Müllerian Mimicry
    • Danger Signals
    • Obliterative Colouring
    • Objections to the Theory of Cryptic Colouring
      • Fauna of Polar Regions
      • Pelagic Organisms
      • Unimportance of Colour
      • Gadow on Coral Snakes
      • F. C. Selous Quoted
      • Sexual Dimorphism
      • Precis Artexia
      • Striped Caterpillars
      • Colours of Eggs
      • Eyesight of Birds
    • Fauna of Polar Regions
    • Pelagic Organisms
    • Unimportance of Colour
    • Gadow on Coral Snakes
    • F. C. Selous Quoted
    • Sexual Dimorphism
    • Precis Artexia
    • Striped Caterpillars
    • Colours of Eggs
    • Eyesight of Birds
    • The Theory of Warning Colouration
      • Examples of Warning Colouration
      • Warning Colouring a Drawback
      • Conspicuous Animals Attacked
      • Aposematic Sounds
      • Intimidating Attitudes
    • Examples of Warning Colouration
    • Warning Colouring a Drawback
    • Conspicuous Animals Attacked
    • Aposematic Sounds
    • Intimidating Attitudes
    • Mimicry
      • Theory of Protective Mimicry
      • Evidence for the Theory
      • Alternative Theories
    • Theory of Protective Mimicry
    • Evidence for the Theory
    • Alternative Theories
    • Objections to the Theory that the so-called Cases of Mimicry owe their Origin to Natural Selection
      • The Brain-fever Bird
      • Hypertely
      • Birds capturing Butterflies
      • Observing-powers of Birds
    • The Brain-fever Bird
    • Hypertely
    • Birds capturing Butterflies
    • Observing-powers of Birds
    • “False” Mimicry among Mammals
    • False Batesian Mimicry among Birds
      • Theory of Mimicry Criticised
    • Theory of Mimicry Criticised
    • “Recognition” Colours
      • Interbreeding of Allied Species
      • Symmetry in Nature
    • Interbreeding of Allied Species
    • Symmetry in Nature
    • The Colouring of Flowers and Fruits
      • Cross- versus Self-fertilisation
      • Insects and Flowers
      • Honey
      • Scents of Flowers
      • Kay Robinson’s Theory
      • Accepted Theories Unsatisfactory
      • White Down of Nestlings
      • Cranes
      • Magpie Colouring
      • Albinos
      • Biological Molecules and Colour
      • Mr Tylor Quoted
      • Pœcilomeres
      • Biological Molecules
    • Cross- versus Self-fertilisation
    • Insects and Flowers
    • Honey
    • Scents of Flowers
    • Kay Robinson’s Theory
    • Accepted Theories Unsatisfactory
    • White Down of Nestlings
    • Cranes
    • Magpie Colouring
    • Albinos
    • Biological Molecules and Colour
    • Mr Tylor Quoted
    • Pœcilomeres
    • Biological Molecules
    • CHAPTER VII SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
      • Theory of Sexual Selection
        • The Law of Battle
        • Selection by Females
        • Male Attractiveness
        • Pearson’s Investigations
        • Finn’s Experiments
        • Display of Undecorated Cocks
        • Plumage of Herons
        • Sexual Dissimilarity
      • The Law of Battle
      • Selection by Females
      • Male Attractiveness
      • Pearson’s Investigations
      • Finn’s Experiments
      • Display of Undecorated Cocks
      • Plumage of Herons
      • Sexual Dissimilarity
      • Wallace’s Explanation of Sexual Dissimilarity
        • Wallace’s Theory Criticised
      • Wallace’s Theory Criticised
      • The Theory of Thomson and Geddes
      • Stolzmann’s Theory
      • Neo-Lamarckian Explanation
        • Cunningham’s Theory
        • Existing Theories not Satisfactory
        • Hormones
        • Eye-colour, Comb, and Spurs
        • The Four Kinds of Mutations
        • Unilateral Transmission
        • Greater Value of Females
      • Cunningham’s Theory
      • Existing Theories not Satisfactory
      • Hormones
      • Eye-colour, Comb, and Spurs
      • The Four Kinds of Mutations
      • Unilateral Transmission
      • Greater Value of Females
    • Theory of Sexual Selection
      • The Law of Battle
      • Selection by Females
      • Male Attractiveness
      • Pearson’s Investigations
      • Finn’s Experiments
      • Display of Undecorated Cocks
      • Plumage of Herons
      • Sexual Dissimilarity
    • The Law of Battle
    • Selection by Females
    • Male Attractiveness
    • Pearson’s Investigations
    • Finn’s Experiments
    • Display of Undecorated Cocks
    • Plumage of Herons
    • Sexual Dissimilarity
    • Wallace’s Explanation of Sexual Dissimilarity
      • Wallace’s Theory Criticised
    • Wallace’s Theory Criticised
    • The Theory of Thomson and Geddes
    • Stolzmann’s Theory
    • Neo-Lamarckian Explanation
      • Cunningham’s Theory
      • Existing Theories not Satisfactory
      • Hormones
      • Eye-colour, Comb, and Spurs
      • The Four Kinds of Mutations
      • Unilateral Transmission
      • Greater Value of Females
    • Cunningham’s Theory
    • Existing Theories not Satisfactory
    • Hormones
    • Eye-colour, Comb, and Spurs
    • The Four Kinds of Mutations
    • Unilateral Transmission
    • Greater Value of Females
    • CHAPTER VIII THE FACTORS OF EVOLUTION
      • The Struggle for Existence
        • Checks on Increase
        • Attributes of Successful Species
      • Checks on Increase
      • Attributes of Successful Species
      • Correlation
      • Isolation
        • Divergence of Character
        • Isolation
        • Discriminate Isolation
        • Indiscriminate Isolation
        • Mollusca of Sandwich Isles
        • Local Species
        • Cormorants
        • Natural Selection
        • Origin of the Fittest
      • Divergence of Character
      • Isolation
      • Discriminate Isolation
      • Indiscriminate Isolation
      • Mollusca of Sandwich Isles
      • Local Species
      • Cormorants
      • Natural Selection
      • Origin of the Fittest
    • The Struggle for Existence
      • Checks on Increase
      • Attributes of Successful Species
    • Checks on Increase
    • Attributes of Successful Species
    • Correlation
    • Isolation
      • Divergence of Character
      • Isolation
      • Discriminate Isolation
      • Indiscriminate Isolation
      • Mollusca of Sandwich Isles
      • Local Species
      • Cormorants
      • Natural Selection
      • Origin of the Fittest
    • Divergence of Character
    • Isolation
    • Discriminate Isolation
    • Indiscriminate Isolation
    • Mollusca of Sandwich Isles
    • Local Species
    • Cormorants
    • Natural Selection
    • Origin of the Fittest
    • FOOTNOTES
    • INDEX
      • ORNITHOLOGICAL AND OTHER ODDITIES
      • BOMBAY DUCKS
      • BIRDS OF THE PLAINS
      • NOTICE
      • LIVING MASTERS OF MUSIC
      • STARS OF THE STAGE
      • A CATALOGUE OF MEMOIRS, BIOGRAPHIES, ETC.
      • WORKS UPON NAPOLEON
    • ORNITHOLOGICAL AND OTHER ODDITIES
    • BOMBAY DUCKS
    • BIRDS OF THE PLAINS
    • NOTICE
    • LIVING MASTERS OF MUSIC
    • STARS OF THE STAGE
    • A CATALOGUE OF MEMOIRS, BIOGRAPHIES, ETC.
    • WORKS UPON NAPOLEON
    • Transcriber’s Notes
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