Tweets from the Campaign Trail
Alex Frame (editor)
Tweets from the Campaign Trail

Hailed by many as a game-changer in political communication, Twitter has made its way into election campaigns all around the world. The European Parliamentary elections, taking place simultaneously in 28 countries, give us a unique comparative vision of the way the tool is used by candidates in different national contexts. This volume is the fruit of a research project bringing together scholars from 6 countries, specialised in communication science, media studies, linguistics and computer science. It seeks to characterise the way Twitter was used during the 2014 European election campaign, providing insights into communication styles and strategies observed in different languages and outlining methodological solutions for collecting and analysing political tweets in an electoral context.
This book is made open access as part of the Knowledge Unlatched KU Select 2017: Backlist Collection

General Introduction (Alex Frame/Arnaud Mercier/Gilles Brachotte/Caja Thimm)
This volume: Twitter as a political practice
Online Sources:
Part 1: Studying Tweet campaigns: methodological issues
1. SNFreezer: a Platform for Harvesting and Storing Tweets in a Big Data Context (Éric Leclercq/Marinette Savonnet/Thierry Grison/Sergey Kirgizov/Ian Basaille)
1.1 Introduction and Objectives
1.2 New Paradigms for Data Management Systems
1.3 SNFreezer Architecture
1.3.1 The Storage System
1.3.2 Storing Tweets
Tweet Relational Database Schema
1.3.3 Tweet Graph Database
1.3.4 Cluster Mode and Fail Over
1.4 Connection with Analysis Tools and Web Applications
1.5 Conclusion
2. Families of practices. A bottom-up approach to differentiate how French candidates made use of Twitter during the 2014 European Campaign (Dario Compagno)
2.1 Introduction and rationale
2.2 Corpus and methodology
2.3 Exploration and clustering
2.4 Interpretation of the clusters
2.5 Structuring the Tweeting practices of French candidates
2.6 Associations between clusters and tweeting interfaces
2.7 Associations between clusters and political parties
2.8 Classification of tweets based on textual analysis
2.9 Conclusion
3. Exploring the dialogical dimension of political tweets: A qualitative analysis of ‘Twitter styles’ of UK candidates during the 2014 EU Parliamentary Elections (Tatiana Kondrashova/Alex Frame)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Twitter styles revisited
3.3 Methodology & results
3.4 Results and Analysis
3.4.1 The operator @
3.4.2 The operator RT
3.4.3 The operator #
3.4.4 Use of media
3.4.5 The use of links (http)
3.5 Discussion and conclusions
4. Twitter et la politique : stratégies de communication de candidats et espace public (Nanta Novello Paglianti)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Le cadre de la recherche
4.3 Twitter: structure, matérialité et fonctionnalités
4.4 Twitter en action : focus sur les fonctions communicationnelles
4.5 Le tweet politique
4.6 Un rappel des bonnes pratiques
4.7 Analyses des pratiques des candidats : le cas E. Forenza
4.7.1 Le- re-tweet de E. Forenza
4.8 Le cas d’I. Adinolfi
4.9 Vers des pratiques « transmédiatiques » ?
Références bibliographiques
Part 2: Tweet campaign argumentation
5. Les figures de l’ennemi dans les tweets-polémiques des forces protestataires françaises durant la campagne de mai 2014 (Arnaud Mercier)
5.1 Twitter, un excellent outil de polémique électorale
5.2 Analyse statistique croisée des tweet-campagnes protestataires françaises
5.3 Les figures de l’ennemi dans la rhétorique protestataire anti-européenne
5.4 Des tweets-polémiques adossées à l’ironie et aux sarcasmes
5.5 Conclusion
Références bibliographiques
6. Les discours sur l’Europe dans la tweet-campagne en Italie (Marina Villa)
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Les tweets des candidats
6.3 Les contenus de la tweet-campagne
6.3.1 Le récit de la campagne sur le terrain et sur les plateaux télévisés
6.3.2 L’émergence du thème de l’immigration
6.3.3 L’ennemi allemand
6.3.4 Les ennemis internes
6.4 Les tweets sur l’Europe : un discours conflictuel
6.4.1 Contre l’euro
6.4.2 Contre l’Europe
6.4.3 Contre les europtimistes et les “terroristes pro-euro”
6.4.4 Pour l’Europe
6.5 Quelques représentations négatives et positives de l’Europe
6.6 Discours polémiques et traces d’un débat sur l’Europe
Références bibliographiques
7. Love Britain? Vote UKIP! The Pragmatics of Electoral Tweets during the European Elections 2014 (Elena Albu)
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Political Discourse on Twitter
7.2.1 Twitter as a Communication Tool
7.2.2 The Use of Micro-blogging in Political Communication
7.2.3 Literature Overview
2014 European Elections on Twitter
7.3 The Linguistics of the Call for Action Tweets
7.3.1 General Description
7.3.2 Corpus and Method of Analysis
7.3.3 Vote UKIP
7.3.4 Content analysis
Part 3: Integration of Twitter in political strategies in different national contexts
8. Élections européennes de mai 2014 : étude des données du corpus français de TEE 2014 afin d’appréhender les usages des candidats et la circulation de l’information sur Twitter (Frédéric Junger/Gilles Brachotte)
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Quelques données sur la tweet-campagne
1.1.1 Résultats sur les partis politiques
(i) Partis les plus actifs
(ii) Partis ayant fait le plus de retweets
(iii) Hashtags les plus utilisés par les partis
8.3 Les résultats concernant les candidats
(i) Candidats les plus actifs sur Twitter
(ii) Candidats ayant fait le plus de retweets
8.4 Appréhender la circulation de l’information sur Twitter, exemple et perspectives
8.5 Conclusion
Références bibliographiques
9. Twitter during the 2014 European Elections in Germany – Analyzing politicians’ campaigning strategies (Caja Thimm/Jessica Einspänner-Pflock/Mario Anastasiadis)
9.1 Mediatized politics and the European elections
9.2. Twitter and political campaigning
9.3 Analyzing campaign strategies of German EU-candidates on Twitter
9.3.1 German EU Politicians’ Twitter activity
9.3.2 Patterns of politicians’ Twitter usage during the European Election campaign 2014
(1) Passive Twitter presence
(2) Informing & Broadcasting
(3) On-the-scene and live-reportage
(4) Self-promotion
(5) Negative Campaigning
(6) Creating Mini Publics
(7) Interacting on the public Twitter stage
(8) Emphasizing and establishing supranational political alliances
9.4 Conclusion and Outlook
10. Twitter and double screen in Italy during the 2014 European elections (Vittorio Cobianchi/Maria Francesca Murru/Marina Villa)
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Social Television
10.3 Television in the tweets of EU candidates
10.3.1 The presence of the topic “television”
10.3.2 The content of the tweets about TV
10.4 Case analysis: interview with Beppe Grillo, leader of the M5S
10.4.1 The argumentative plan
10.4.2 The flow of tweets
10.4.3 Thematic trend
10.5 Conclusions
11. Pablo Iglesias’ Tweeting Style: Unsuccessfully Aspiring to Renew Spanish Political Discourse (Fernando Bonete Vizcaino/Elena Cebrián Guinovart/Tamara Vázquez Barrio)
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Tweeting style: the account’s activity
11.3 Account content: themes and intentions
11.4 Interaction: from citizens to Pablo Iglesias
11.5 Conclusions
List of Contributors
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