The Manóbos of Mindanáo Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume XXIII, First Memoir
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The Manóbos of Mindanáo Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume XXIII, First Memoir

By John M. Garvan
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Table of Contents
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Manóbos of Mindanáo, by John M. Garvan
    • E-text prepared by Carl D. DuBois
  • MEMOIRS
    • OF THE
  • NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
    • VOLUME XXIII
      • FIRST MEMOIR
        • UNITED STATES
        • GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
        • WASHINGTON : 1931
      • UNITED STATES
      • GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
      • WASHINGTON : 1931
      • MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
    • FIRST MEMOIR
      • UNITED STATES
      • GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
      • WASHINGTON : 1931
    • UNITED STATES
    • GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
    • WASHINGTON : 1931
    • MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
    • VOLUME XXIII
      • FIRST MEMOIR
    • FIRST MEMOIR
  • THE MANÓBOS OF MINDANÁO
    • JOHN M. GARVAN
  • THE MANÓBOS OF MINDANÁO
    • JOHN M. GARVAN
      • CONTENTS
    • CONTENTS
    • PART I. DESCRIPTIVE
      • CHAPTER I
      • CLASSIFICATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MANÓBOS AND OTHER PEOPLES IN EASTERN MINDANÁO
        • EXPLANATION OF TERMS
        • GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANÓBOS IN EASTERN MINDANÁO12
        • THE MAMÁNUAS, OR NEGRITOS, AND NEGRITO-MANÓBO HALF-BREEDS
        • THE BANUÁONS
        • THE MAÑGGUÁÑGANS
        • THE MANSÁKAS
        • THE DEBABÁONS
        • THE MANDÁYAS
        • THE MOROS
        • THE BILÁNS22
        • THE TAGAKAÓLOS
        • THE LÓAKS OR LÓAGS
        • THE CONQUISTAS OR RECENTLY CHRISTIANIZED PEOPLES
        • THE BISÁYAS OR CHRISTIAN FILIPINOS
      • EXPLANATION OF TERMS
      • GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANÓBOS IN EASTERN MINDANÁO12
      • THE MAMÁNUAS, OR NEGRITOS, AND NEGRITO-MANÓBO HALF-BREEDS
      • THE BANUÁONS
      • THE MAÑGGUÁÑGANS
      • THE MANSÁKAS
      • THE DEBABÁONS
      • THE MANDÁYAS
      • THE MOROS
      • THE BILÁNS22
      • THE TAGAKAÓLOS
      • THE LÓAKS OR LÓAGS
      • THE CONQUISTAS OR RECENTLY CHRISTIANIZED PEOPLES
      • THE BISÁYAS OR CHRISTIAN FILIPINOS
      • CHAPTER II
      • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
        • PHYSICAL TYPE
        • RACIAL AND TRIBAL AFFINITIES
        • PHYSICAL TYPE OF CONTIGUOUS PEOPLES
        • PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AS MODIFIED BY DRESS AND ORNAMENTATION
      • PHYSICAL TYPE
      • RACIAL AND TRIBAL AFFINITIES
      • PHYSICAL TYPE OF CONTIGUOUS PEOPLES
      • PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AS MODIFIED BY DRESS AND ORNAMENTATION
      • CHAPTER III
      • A SURVEY OF THE MATERIAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
        • GENERAL MATERIAL CULTURE
        • GENERAL SOCIOLOGICAL CULTURE
      • GENERAL MATERIAL CULTURE
      • GENERAL SOCIOLOGICAL CULTURE
      • CHAPTER IV
      • RELIGIOUS IDEAS AND MENTAL CHARACTERISTICS IN GENERAL
        • A BRIEF SURVEY OF RELIGION
        • MENTAL AND OTHER ATTAINMENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS
      • A BRIEF SURVEY OF RELIGION
      • MENTAL AND OTHER ATTAINMENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS
    • CHAPTER I
    • CLASSIFICATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MANÓBOS AND OTHER PEOPLES IN EASTERN MINDANÁO
      • EXPLANATION OF TERMS
      • GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANÓBOS IN EASTERN MINDANÁO12
      • THE MAMÁNUAS, OR NEGRITOS, AND NEGRITO-MANÓBO HALF-BREEDS
      • THE BANUÁONS
      • THE MAÑGGUÁÑGANS
      • THE MANSÁKAS
      • THE DEBABÁONS
      • THE MANDÁYAS
      • THE MOROS
      • THE BILÁNS22
      • THE TAGAKAÓLOS
      • THE LÓAKS OR LÓAGS
      • THE CONQUISTAS OR RECENTLY CHRISTIANIZED PEOPLES
      • THE BISÁYAS OR CHRISTIAN FILIPINOS
    • EXPLANATION OF TERMS
    • GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANÓBOS IN EASTERN MINDANÁO12
    • THE MAMÁNUAS, OR NEGRITOS, AND NEGRITO-MANÓBO HALF-BREEDS
    • THE BANUÁONS
    • THE MAÑGGUÁÑGANS
    • THE MANSÁKAS
    • THE DEBABÁONS
    • THE MANDÁYAS
    • THE MOROS
    • THE BILÁNS22
    • THE TAGAKAÓLOS
    • THE LÓAKS OR LÓAGS
    • THE CONQUISTAS OR RECENTLY CHRISTIANIZED PEOPLES
    • THE BISÁYAS OR CHRISTIAN FILIPINOS
    • CHAPTER II
    • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
      • PHYSICAL TYPE
      • RACIAL AND TRIBAL AFFINITIES
      • PHYSICAL TYPE OF CONTIGUOUS PEOPLES
      • PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AS MODIFIED BY DRESS AND ORNAMENTATION
    • PHYSICAL TYPE
    • RACIAL AND TRIBAL AFFINITIES
    • PHYSICAL TYPE OF CONTIGUOUS PEOPLES
    • PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AS MODIFIED BY DRESS AND ORNAMENTATION
    • CHAPTER III
    • A SURVEY OF THE MATERIAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
      • GENERAL MATERIAL CULTURE
      • GENERAL SOCIOLOGICAL CULTURE
    • GENERAL MATERIAL CULTURE
    • GENERAL SOCIOLOGICAL CULTURE
    • CHAPTER IV
    • RELIGIOUS IDEAS AND MENTAL CHARACTERISTICS IN GENERAL
      • A BRIEF SURVEY OF RELIGION
      • MENTAL AND OTHER ATTAINMENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS
    • A BRIEF SURVEY OF RELIGION
    • MENTAL AND OTHER ATTAINMENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS
    • PART II. GENERAL MATERIAL CULTURE
      • CHAPTER V
      • THE MANÓBO HOME
        • IN GENERAL
        • MOTIVES THAT DETERMINE THE SELECTION OF THE SITE
        • RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES CONNECTED WITH THE ERECTION OF A HOUSE
        • STRUCTURE OF THE HOUSE
        • THE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT OF THE HOUSE
        • THE UNDERPART AND THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE HOUSE
        • ORDER AND CLEANLINESS OF THE HOUSE
      • IN GENERAL
      • MOTIVES THAT DETERMINE THE SELECTION OF THE SITE
      • RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES CONNECTED WITH THE ERECTION OF A HOUSE
      • STRUCTURE OF THE HOUSE
      • THE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT OF THE HOUSE
      • THE UNDERPART AND THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE HOUSE
      • ORDER AND CLEANLINESS OF THE HOUSE
      • CHAPTER VI
      • DRESS
        • GENERAL REMARKS.
        • THE MAN'S DRESS
        • THE WOMAN'S DRESS
      • GENERAL REMARKS.
      • THE MAN'S DRESS
      • THE WOMAN'S DRESS
      • CHAPTER VII
      • PERSONAL ADORNMENT
        • GENERAL REMARKS
        • HAIR AND HEAD ADORNMENT
        • NECK AND BREAST ORNAMENTS
        • ARM AND HAND ORNAMENTATION
        • KNEE AND ANKLE ADORNMENTS
        • BODY MUTILATIONS
      • GENERAL REMARKS
      • HAIR AND HEAD ADORNMENT
      • NECK AND BREAST ORNAMENTS
      • ARM AND HAND ORNAMENTATION
      • KNEE AND ANKLE ADORNMENTS
      • BODY MUTILATIONS
      • CHAPTER VIII
      • ALIMENTATION
        • FIRE AND ITS PRODUCTION
        • LIGHTING
        • CULINARY AND TABLE EQUIPMENT
        • VARIOUS KINDS OF FOOD
        • THE PREPARATION AND COOKING OF FOOD
        • FOOD RESTRICTIONS AND TABOOS
        • MEALS
      • FIRE AND ITS PRODUCTION
      • LIGHTING
      • CULINARY AND TABLE EQUIPMENT
      • VARIOUS KINDS OF FOOD
      • THE PREPARATION AND COOKING OF FOOD
      • FOOD RESTRICTIONS AND TABOOS
      • MEALS
      • CHAPTER IX
      • NARCOTIC AND STIMULATING ENJOYMENTS
        • DRINKS USED BY THE MANÓBOS
        • DRINKING
        • TOBACCO PREPARATION AND USE
        • THE BETEL-NUT MASTICATORY
      • DRINKS USED BY THE MANÓBOS
      • DRINKING
      • TOBACCO PREPARATION AND USE
      • THE BETEL-NUT MASTICATORY
      • CHAPTER X
      • MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE
        • AGRICULTURE
        • HUNTING
        • TRAPPING
        • FISHING
      • AGRICULTURE
      • HUNTING
      • TRAPPING
      • FISHING
      • CHAPTER XI
      • WEAPONS AND IMPLEMENTS
        • INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
        • OFFENSIVE WEAPONS
        • DEFENSIVE WEAPONS
        • AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS
        • FISHING IMPLEMENTS
        • HUNTING IMPLEMENTS
      • INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
      • OFFENSIVE WEAPONS
      • DEFENSIVE WEAPONS
      • AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS
      • FISHING IMPLEMENTS
      • HUNTING IMPLEMENTS
      • CHAPTER XII
      • INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES
        • DIVISION OF LABOR
        • MALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
        • FEMALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
      • DIVISION OF LABOR
      • MALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
      • FEMALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
    • CHAPTER V
    • THE MANÓBO HOME
      • IN GENERAL
      • MOTIVES THAT DETERMINE THE SELECTION OF THE SITE
      • RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES CONNECTED WITH THE ERECTION OF A HOUSE
      • STRUCTURE OF THE HOUSE
      • THE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT OF THE HOUSE
      • THE UNDERPART AND THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE HOUSE
      • ORDER AND CLEANLINESS OF THE HOUSE
    • IN GENERAL
    • MOTIVES THAT DETERMINE THE SELECTION OF THE SITE
    • RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES CONNECTED WITH THE ERECTION OF A HOUSE
    • STRUCTURE OF THE HOUSE
    • THE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT OF THE HOUSE
    • THE UNDERPART AND THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE HOUSE
    • ORDER AND CLEANLINESS OF THE HOUSE
    • CHAPTER VI
    • DRESS
      • GENERAL REMARKS.
      • THE MAN'S DRESS
      • THE WOMAN'S DRESS
    • GENERAL REMARKS.
    • THE MAN'S DRESS
    • THE WOMAN'S DRESS
    • CHAPTER VII
    • PERSONAL ADORNMENT
      • GENERAL REMARKS
      • HAIR AND HEAD ADORNMENT
      • NECK AND BREAST ORNAMENTS
      • ARM AND HAND ORNAMENTATION
      • KNEE AND ANKLE ADORNMENTS
      • BODY MUTILATIONS
    • GENERAL REMARKS
    • HAIR AND HEAD ADORNMENT
    • NECK AND BREAST ORNAMENTS
    • ARM AND HAND ORNAMENTATION
    • KNEE AND ANKLE ADORNMENTS
    • BODY MUTILATIONS
    • CHAPTER VIII
    • ALIMENTATION
      • FIRE AND ITS PRODUCTION
      • LIGHTING
      • CULINARY AND TABLE EQUIPMENT
      • VARIOUS KINDS OF FOOD
      • THE PREPARATION AND COOKING OF FOOD
      • FOOD RESTRICTIONS AND TABOOS
      • MEALS
    • FIRE AND ITS PRODUCTION
    • LIGHTING
    • CULINARY AND TABLE EQUIPMENT
    • VARIOUS KINDS OF FOOD
    • THE PREPARATION AND COOKING OF FOOD
    • FOOD RESTRICTIONS AND TABOOS
    • MEALS
    • CHAPTER IX
    • NARCOTIC AND STIMULATING ENJOYMENTS
      • DRINKS USED BY THE MANÓBOS
      • DRINKING
      • TOBACCO PREPARATION AND USE
      • THE BETEL-NUT MASTICATORY
    • DRINKS USED BY THE MANÓBOS
    • DRINKING
    • TOBACCO PREPARATION AND USE
    • THE BETEL-NUT MASTICATORY
    • CHAPTER X
    • MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE
      • AGRICULTURE
      • HUNTING
      • TRAPPING
      • FISHING
    • AGRICULTURE
    • HUNTING
    • TRAPPING
    • FISHING
    • CHAPTER XI
    • WEAPONS AND IMPLEMENTS
      • INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
      • OFFENSIVE WEAPONS
      • DEFENSIVE WEAPONS
      • AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS
      • FISHING IMPLEMENTS
      • HUNTING IMPLEMENTS
    • INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
    • OFFENSIVE WEAPONS
    • DEFENSIVE WEAPONS
    • AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS
    • FISHING IMPLEMENTS
    • HUNTING IMPLEMENTS
    • CHAPTER XII
    • INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES
      • DIVISION OF LABOR
      • MALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
      • FEMALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
    • DIVISION OF LABOR
    • MALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
    • FEMALE INDUSTRIES IN DETAIL
    • PART III. GENERAL SOCIOLOGICAL CULTURE
      • CHAPTER XIII
      • DOMESTIC LIFE AND MARITAL RELATIONS
        • ARRANGING THE MARRIAGE
        • MARRIAGE AND MARRIAGE CONTRACTS
        • MARRIED LIFE AND THE POSITION OF THE WIFE
        • RESIDENCE OF THE SON-IN-LAW AND THE BROTHER-IN-LAW SYSTEM
      • ARRANGING THE MARRIAGE
      • MARRIAGE AND MARRIAGE CONTRACTS
      • MARRIED LIFE AND THE POSITION OF THE WIFE
      • RESIDENCE OF THE SON-IN-LAW AND THE BROTHER-IN-LAW SYSTEM
      • CHAPTER XIV
      • DOMESTIC LIFE: PREGNANCY, BIRTH, AND CHILDHOOD
        • DESIRE FOR PROGENY
        • BIRTH AND PREGNANCY TABOOS
        • ABORTION
        • THE APPROACH OF PARTURITION
        • ACCOUCHEMENT AND ENSUING EVENTS
        • POSTNATAL CUSTOMS
        • BIRTH ANOMALIES
      • DESIRE FOR PROGENY
      • BIRTH AND PREGNANCY TABOOS
      • ABORTION
      • THE APPROACH OF PARTURITION
      • ACCOUCHEMENT AND ENSUING EVENTS
      • POSTNATAL CUSTOMS
      • BIRTH ANOMALIES
      • CHAPTER XV
      • DOMESTIC LIFE--MEDICINE, SICKNESS, AND DEATH
        • MEDICINE AND DISEASE
        • SICKNESS AND DEATH
      • MEDICINE AND DISEASE
      • SICKNESS AND DEATH
      • CHAPTER XVI
      • SOCIAL ENJOYMENTS
        • INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
        • VOCAL MUSIC
        • DANCING
      • INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
      • VOCAL MUSIC
      • DANCING
      • CHAPTER XVII
      • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL CONTROL
        • CLANS
        • THE CHIEF AND HIS POWER
        • THE WARRIOR CHIEF3
        • THE WARRIOR CHIEF IN HIS CAPACITY AS CHIEF
        • THE WARRIOR CHIEF AS PRIEST AND MEDICINE MAN
      • CLANS
      • THE CHIEF AND HIS POWER
      • THE WARRIOR CHIEF3
      • THE WARRIOR CHIEF IN HIS CAPACITY AS CHIEF
      • THE WARRIOR CHIEF AS PRIEST AND MEDICINE MAN
      • CHAPTER XVIII
      • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: WAR, ITS ORIGIN, INCEPTION, COURSE, AND TERMINATION
        • MILITARY AFFAIRS IN GENERAL
        • THE ORIGIN OF WAR
        • INCEPTION OF WAR
        • THE ATTACK
        • EVENTS FOLLOWING THE BATTLE
        • THE RETURN OF THE WARRIORS
        • AMBUSHES AND OTHER METHODS OF WARFARE
        • PEACE26
      • MILITARY AFFAIRS IN GENERAL
      • THE ORIGIN OF WAR
      • INCEPTION OF WAR
      • THE ATTACK
      • EVENTS FOLLOWING THE BATTLE
      • THE RETURN OF THE WARRIORS
      • AMBUSHES AND OTHER METHODS OF WARFARE
      • PEACE26
      • CHAPTER XIX
      • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE; CUSTOMARY, PROPRIETARY, AND LIABILITY LAWS
        • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
        • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
        • CUSTOMARY LAW
        • PROPRIETARY LAWS AND OBLIGATIONS
        • LAWS OF CONTRACT
        • THE LAW OF DEBT
        • INTEREST, LOANS, AND PLEDGES
        • LAWS OF LIABILITY
      • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
      • CUSTOMARY LAW
      • PROPRIETARY LAWS AND OBLIGATIONS
      • LAWS OF CONTRACT
      • THE LAW OF DEBT
      • INTEREST, LOANS, AND PLEDGES
      • LAWS OF LIABILITY
      • CHAPTER XX
      • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: CUSTOMS REGULATING DOMESTIC RELATIONS AND FAMILY PROPERTY; PROCEDURE FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF JUSTICE
        • FAMILY PROPERTY
        • RULES OF INHERITANCE
        • RULES GOVERNING THE RELATIONS OF THE SEXES
        • CRIMES AND THEIR PENALTIES
        • CUSTOMARY PROCEDURE
        • DETERMINATION OF GUILT
        • ENFORCEMENT OF THE SENTENCE
      • FAMILY PROPERTY
      • RULES OF INHERITANCE
      • RULES GOVERNING THE RELATIONS OF THE SEXES
      • CRIMES AND THEIR PENALTIES
      • CUSTOMARY PROCEDURE
      • DETERMINATION OF GUILT
      • ENFORCEMENT OF THE SENTENCE
      • CHAPTER XXI
      • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: INTERTRIBAL AND OTHER RELATIONS
        • INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS
        • INTERCLAN RELATIONS
        • EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
        • INTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
        • SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVES
      • INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS
      • INTERCLAN RELATIONS
      • EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
      • INTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
      • SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVES
    • CHAPTER XIII
    • DOMESTIC LIFE AND MARITAL RELATIONS
      • ARRANGING THE MARRIAGE
      • MARRIAGE AND MARRIAGE CONTRACTS
      • MARRIED LIFE AND THE POSITION OF THE WIFE
      • RESIDENCE OF THE SON-IN-LAW AND THE BROTHER-IN-LAW SYSTEM
    • ARRANGING THE MARRIAGE
    • MARRIAGE AND MARRIAGE CONTRACTS
    • MARRIED LIFE AND THE POSITION OF THE WIFE
    • RESIDENCE OF THE SON-IN-LAW AND THE BROTHER-IN-LAW SYSTEM
    • CHAPTER XIV
    • DOMESTIC LIFE: PREGNANCY, BIRTH, AND CHILDHOOD
      • DESIRE FOR PROGENY
      • BIRTH AND PREGNANCY TABOOS
      • ABORTION
      • THE APPROACH OF PARTURITION
      • ACCOUCHEMENT AND ENSUING EVENTS
      • POSTNATAL CUSTOMS
      • BIRTH ANOMALIES
    • DESIRE FOR PROGENY
    • BIRTH AND PREGNANCY TABOOS
    • ABORTION
    • THE APPROACH OF PARTURITION
    • ACCOUCHEMENT AND ENSUING EVENTS
    • POSTNATAL CUSTOMS
    • BIRTH ANOMALIES
    • CHAPTER XV
    • DOMESTIC LIFE--MEDICINE, SICKNESS, AND DEATH
      • MEDICINE AND DISEASE
      • SICKNESS AND DEATH
    • MEDICINE AND DISEASE
    • SICKNESS AND DEATH
    • CHAPTER XVI
    • SOCIAL ENJOYMENTS
      • INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
      • VOCAL MUSIC
      • DANCING
    • INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
    • VOCAL MUSIC
    • DANCING
    • CHAPTER XVII
    • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL CONTROL
      • CLANS
      • THE CHIEF AND HIS POWER
      • THE WARRIOR CHIEF3
      • THE WARRIOR CHIEF IN HIS CAPACITY AS CHIEF
      • THE WARRIOR CHIEF AS PRIEST AND MEDICINE MAN
    • CLANS
    • THE CHIEF AND HIS POWER
    • THE WARRIOR CHIEF3
    • THE WARRIOR CHIEF IN HIS CAPACITY AS CHIEF
    • THE WARRIOR CHIEF AS PRIEST AND MEDICINE MAN
    • CHAPTER XVIII
    • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: WAR, ITS ORIGIN, INCEPTION, COURSE, AND TERMINATION
      • MILITARY AFFAIRS IN GENERAL
      • THE ORIGIN OF WAR
      • INCEPTION OF WAR
      • THE ATTACK
      • EVENTS FOLLOWING THE BATTLE
      • THE RETURN OF THE WARRIORS
      • AMBUSHES AND OTHER METHODS OF WARFARE
      • PEACE26
    • MILITARY AFFAIRS IN GENERAL
    • THE ORIGIN OF WAR
    • INCEPTION OF WAR
    • THE ATTACK
    • EVENTS FOLLOWING THE BATTLE
    • THE RETURN OF THE WARRIORS
    • AMBUSHES AND OTHER METHODS OF WARFARE
    • PEACE26
    • CHAPTER XIX
    • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE; CUSTOMARY, PROPRIETARY, AND LIABILITY LAWS
      • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
      • CUSTOMARY LAW
      • PROPRIETARY LAWS AND OBLIGATIONS
      • LAWS OF CONTRACT
      • THE LAW OF DEBT
      • INTEREST, LOANS, AND PLEDGES
      • LAWS OF LIABILITY
    • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • CUSTOMARY LAW
    • PROPRIETARY LAWS AND OBLIGATIONS
    • LAWS OF CONTRACT
    • THE LAW OF DEBT
    • INTEREST, LOANS, AND PLEDGES
    • LAWS OF LIABILITY
    • CHAPTER XX
    • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: CUSTOMS REGULATING DOMESTIC RELATIONS AND FAMILY PROPERTY; PROCEDURE FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF JUSTICE
      • FAMILY PROPERTY
      • RULES OF INHERITANCE
      • RULES GOVERNING THE RELATIONS OF THE SEXES
      • CRIMES AND THEIR PENALTIES
      • CUSTOMARY PROCEDURE
      • DETERMINATION OF GUILT
      • ENFORCEMENT OF THE SENTENCE
    • FAMILY PROPERTY
    • RULES OF INHERITANCE
    • RULES GOVERNING THE RELATIONS OF THE SEXES
    • CRIMES AND THEIR PENALTIES
    • CUSTOMARY PROCEDURE
    • DETERMINATION OF GUILT
    • ENFORCEMENT OF THE SENTENCE
    • CHAPTER XXI
    • POLITICAL ORGANIZATION: INTERTRIBAL AND OTHER RELATIONS
      • INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS
      • INTERCLAN RELATIONS
      • EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
      • INTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
      • SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVES
    • INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS
    • INTERCLAN RELATIONS
    • EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
    • INTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS
    • SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVES
    • PART IV. RELIGION
      • CHAPTER XXII
      • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MANÓBO RELIGION AND NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF MANÓBO DEITIES
        • INTRODUCTORY
        • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF RELIGION
        • GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE DEITIES
        • CLASSIFICATION OF DEITIES AND SPIRITS The following is a general classification of Manóbo deities and spirits.
        • NATURE OF THE VARIOUS DIVINITIES IN DETAIL
      • INTRODUCTORY
      • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF RELIGION
      • GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE DEITIES
      • CLASSIFICATION OF DEITIES AND SPIRITS The following is a general classification of Manóbo deities and spirits.
      • NATURE OF THE VARIOUS DIVINITIES IN DETAIL
      • CHAPTER XXIII
      • MALEFICENT SPIRITS
        • THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF MALIGNANT DEMONS
        • METHODS OF FRUSTRATING THEIR EVIL DESIGNS
        • THE "TAGBÁNUA" OR LOCAL FOREST SPIRITS
        • WORSHIP OF THE FOREST SPIRITS
      • THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF MALIGNANT DEMONS
      • METHODS OF FRUSTRATING THEIR EVIL DESIGNS
      • THE "TAGBÁNUA" OR LOCAL FOREST SPIRITS
      • WORSHIP OF THE FOREST SPIRITS
      • CHAPTER XXIV
      • PRIESTS, THEIR PREROGATIVES AND FUNCTIONS
        • THE BAILÁN OR ORDINARY MANÓBO PRIESTS
        • THE BAGÁNI OR PRIESTS OF WAR AND BLOOD
      • THE BAILÁN OR ORDINARY MANÓBO PRIESTS
      • THE BAGÁNI OR PRIESTS OF WAR AND BLOOD
      • CHAPTER XXV
      • CEREMONIAL ACCESSORIES AND RELIGIOUS RITES
        • GENERAL REMARKS
        • THE PARAPHERNALIA OF THE PRIEST
        • RELIGIOUS RITES
        • METHOD OF PERFORMANCE
      • GENERAL REMARKS
      • THE PARAPHERNALIA OF THE PRIEST
      • RELIGIOUS RITES
      • METHOD OF PERFORMANCE
      • CHAPTER XXVI
      • SACRIFICES AND WAR RITES
        • THE SACRIFICE OF A PIG
        • RITES PECULIAR TO THE WAR PRIESTS
        • INVOCATION OF THE OMEN BIRD10
        • THE TAGBÚSAU'S FEAST
        • HUMAN SACRIFICE13
      • THE SACRIFICE OF A PIG
      • RITES PECULIAR TO THE WAR PRIESTS
      • INVOCATION OF THE OMEN BIRD10
      • THE TAGBÚSAU'S FEAST
      • HUMAN SACRIFICE13
      • CHAPTER XXVII
      • DIVINATION AND OMENS
        • IN GENERAL
        • MISCELLANEOUS CASUAL OMENS
        • DIVINATION BY DREAMS
        • DIVINATION BY GEOMETRICAL FIGURES
        • DIVINATION BY SUSPENSION AND OTHER METHODS
        • DIVINATION BY SACRIFICIAL APPEARANCES
        • ORNITHOSCOPY
      • IN GENERAL
      • MISCELLANEOUS CASUAL OMENS
      • DIVINATION BY DREAMS
      • DIVINATION BY GEOMETRICAL FIGURES
      • DIVINATION BY SUSPENSION AND OTHER METHODS
      • DIVINATION BY SACRIFICIAL APPEARANCES
      • ORNITHOSCOPY
      • CHAPTER XXVIII
      • MYTHOLOGICAL AND KINDRED BELIEFS
        • THE CREATION OF THE WORLD
        • CELESTIAL PHENOMENA
        • THE STORY OF THE IKÚGAN,5 OR TAILED MEN, AND OF THE RESETTLEMENT OF THE AGÚSAN VALLEY
        • GIANTS
        • PECULIAR ANIMAL BELIEFS
      • THE CREATION OF THE WORLD
      • CELESTIAL PHENOMENA
      • THE STORY OF THE IKÚGAN,5 OR TAILED MEN, AND OF THE RESETTLEMENT OF THE AGÚSAN VALLEY
      • GIANTS
      • PECULIAR ANIMAL BELIEFS
      • CHAPTER XXIX
      • THE GREAT RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT OF 1908-1910
        • THE EXTENT OF THE MOVEMENT
        • REPORTED ORIGIN AND CHARACTER OF THE REVIVAL
        • SPREAD OF THE MOVEMENT
        • ITS EXTERIOR CHARACTER AND GENERAL FEATURES
        • THE PRINCIPAL TENETS OF THE MOVEMENT
        • RELIGIOUS RITES
        • THE REAL NATURE OF THE MOVEMENT AND MEANS USED TO CARRY ON THE FRAUD
        • THE END OF THE MOVEMENT
        • SIMILAR MOVEMENTS IN FORMER YEARS
      • THE EXTENT OF THE MOVEMENT
      • REPORTED ORIGIN AND CHARACTER OF THE REVIVAL
      • SPREAD OF THE MOVEMENT
      • ITS EXTERIOR CHARACTER AND GENERAL FEATURES
      • THE PRINCIPAL TENETS OF THE MOVEMENT
      • RELIGIOUS RITES
      • THE REAL NATURE OF THE MOVEMENT AND MEANS USED TO CARRY ON THE FRAUD
      • THE END OF THE MOVEMENT
      • SIMILAR MOVEMENTS IN FORMER YEARS
      • APPENDIX
        • HISTORICAL REFERENCES TO THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
        • FROM 1875 TO 1910
        • METHODS ADOPTED BY THE MISSIONARIES IN THE CHRISTIANIZATION OF THE MANÓBOS
        • THE SECRET OF MISSIONARY SUCCESS
        • EXPLANATION OF PLATES
      • HISTORICAL REFERENCES TO THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
      • FROM 1875 TO 1910
      • METHODS ADOPTED BY THE MISSIONARIES IN THE CHRISTIANIZATION OF THE MANÓBOS
      • THE SECRET OF MISSIONARY SUCCESS
      • EXPLANATION OF PLATES
    • CHAPTER XXII
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MANÓBO RELIGION AND NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF MANÓBO DEITIES
      • INTRODUCTORY
      • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF RELIGION
      • GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE DEITIES
      • CLASSIFICATION OF DEITIES AND SPIRITS The following is a general classification of Manóbo deities and spirits.
      • NATURE OF THE VARIOUS DIVINITIES IN DETAIL
    • INTRODUCTORY
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF RELIGION
    • GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE DEITIES
    • CLASSIFICATION OF DEITIES AND SPIRITS The following is a general classification of Manóbo deities and spirits.
    • NATURE OF THE VARIOUS DIVINITIES IN DETAIL
    • CHAPTER XXIII
    • MALEFICENT SPIRITS
      • THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF MALIGNANT DEMONS
      • METHODS OF FRUSTRATING THEIR EVIL DESIGNS
      • THE "TAGBÁNUA" OR LOCAL FOREST SPIRITS
      • WORSHIP OF THE FOREST SPIRITS
    • THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF MALIGNANT DEMONS
    • METHODS OF FRUSTRATING THEIR EVIL DESIGNS
    • THE "TAGBÁNUA" OR LOCAL FOREST SPIRITS
    • WORSHIP OF THE FOREST SPIRITS
    • CHAPTER XXIV
    • PRIESTS, THEIR PREROGATIVES AND FUNCTIONS
      • THE BAILÁN OR ORDINARY MANÓBO PRIESTS
      • THE BAGÁNI OR PRIESTS OF WAR AND BLOOD
    • THE BAILÁN OR ORDINARY MANÓBO PRIESTS
    • THE BAGÁNI OR PRIESTS OF WAR AND BLOOD
    • CHAPTER XXV
    • CEREMONIAL ACCESSORIES AND RELIGIOUS RITES
      • GENERAL REMARKS
      • THE PARAPHERNALIA OF THE PRIEST
      • RELIGIOUS RITES
      • METHOD OF PERFORMANCE
    • GENERAL REMARKS
    • THE PARAPHERNALIA OF THE PRIEST
    • RELIGIOUS RITES
    • METHOD OF PERFORMANCE
    • CHAPTER XXVI
    • SACRIFICES AND WAR RITES
      • THE SACRIFICE OF A PIG
      • RITES PECULIAR TO THE WAR PRIESTS
      • INVOCATION OF THE OMEN BIRD10
      • THE TAGBÚSAU'S FEAST
      • HUMAN SACRIFICE13
    • THE SACRIFICE OF A PIG
    • RITES PECULIAR TO THE WAR PRIESTS
    • INVOCATION OF THE OMEN BIRD10
    • THE TAGBÚSAU'S FEAST
    • HUMAN SACRIFICE13
    • CHAPTER XXVII
    • DIVINATION AND OMENS
      • IN GENERAL
      • MISCELLANEOUS CASUAL OMENS
      • DIVINATION BY DREAMS
      • DIVINATION BY GEOMETRICAL FIGURES
      • DIVINATION BY SUSPENSION AND OTHER METHODS
      • DIVINATION BY SACRIFICIAL APPEARANCES
      • ORNITHOSCOPY
    • IN GENERAL
    • MISCELLANEOUS CASUAL OMENS
    • DIVINATION BY DREAMS
    • DIVINATION BY GEOMETRICAL FIGURES
    • DIVINATION BY SUSPENSION AND OTHER METHODS
    • DIVINATION BY SACRIFICIAL APPEARANCES
    • ORNITHOSCOPY
    • CHAPTER XXVIII
    • MYTHOLOGICAL AND KINDRED BELIEFS
      • THE CREATION OF THE WORLD
      • CELESTIAL PHENOMENA
      • THE STORY OF THE IKÚGAN,5 OR TAILED MEN, AND OF THE RESETTLEMENT OF THE AGÚSAN VALLEY
      • GIANTS
      • PECULIAR ANIMAL BELIEFS
    • THE CREATION OF THE WORLD
    • CELESTIAL PHENOMENA
    • THE STORY OF THE IKÚGAN,5 OR TAILED MEN, AND OF THE RESETTLEMENT OF THE AGÚSAN VALLEY
    • GIANTS
    • PECULIAR ANIMAL BELIEFS
    • CHAPTER XXIX
    • THE GREAT RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT OF 1908-1910
      • THE EXTENT OF THE MOVEMENT
      • REPORTED ORIGIN AND CHARACTER OF THE REVIVAL
      • SPREAD OF THE MOVEMENT
      • ITS EXTERIOR CHARACTER AND GENERAL FEATURES
      • THE PRINCIPAL TENETS OF THE MOVEMENT
      • RELIGIOUS RITES
      • THE REAL NATURE OF THE MOVEMENT AND MEANS USED TO CARRY ON THE FRAUD
      • THE END OF THE MOVEMENT
      • SIMILAR MOVEMENTS IN FORMER YEARS
    • THE EXTENT OF THE MOVEMENT
    • REPORTED ORIGIN AND CHARACTER OF THE REVIVAL
    • SPREAD OF THE MOVEMENT
    • ITS EXTERIOR CHARACTER AND GENERAL FEATURES
    • THE PRINCIPAL TENETS OF THE MOVEMENT
    • RELIGIOUS RITES
    • THE REAL NATURE OF THE MOVEMENT AND MEANS USED TO CARRY ON THE FRAUD
    • THE END OF THE MOVEMENT
    • SIMILAR MOVEMENTS IN FORMER YEARS
    • APPENDIX
      • HISTORICAL REFERENCES TO THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
      • FROM 1875 TO 1910
      • METHODS ADOPTED BY THE MISSIONARIES IN THE CHRISTIANIZATION OF THE MANÓBOS
      • THE SECRET OF MISSIONARY SUCCESS
      • EXPLANATION OF PLATES
    • HISTORICAL REFERENCES TO THE MANÓBOS OF EASTERN MINDANÁO
    • FROM 1875 TO 1910
    • METHODS ADOPTED BY THE MISSIONARIES IN THE CHRISTIANIZATION OF THE MANÓBOS
    • THE SECRET OF MISSIONARY SUCCESS
    • EXPLANATION OF PLATES
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