The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Volume 4
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The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Volume 4

By R. V. (Robert Vane) Russell
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Book Description
Table of Contents
  • The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India
  • Published Under the Orders of the Central Provinces Administration In Four Volumes Vol. IV. Macmillan and Co., Limited St. Martin’s Street, London. 1916
  • Contents of Volume IV
  • Articles on Castes and Tribes of the Central Provinces in Alphabetical Order
  • Illustrations in Volume IV
  • Pronunciation
  • Part II
  • Articles on Castes and Tribes
  • Kumhār—Yemkala
  • Vol. IV
  • Kumhār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Traditions of origin
    • 2. Caste sub-divisions
    • 3. Social Customs
    • 4. The Kumhār as a village menial
    • 5. Occupation
    • 6. Breeding pigs for sacrifices
    • 7. The goddess Demeter
    • 8. Estimation of the pig in India
    • 9. The buffalo as a corn-god
    • 10. The Dasahra festival
    • 11. The goddess Devi
  • Kunbi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Distribution of the caste and origin of name
    • 2. Settlement in the Central Provinces
    • 3. Subcastes
    • 4. The cultivating status
    • 5. Exogamus septs
    • 6. Restrictions on marriage of relatives
    • 7. Betrothal and marriage
    • 8. Polygamy and divorce
    • 9. Widow-marriage
    • 10. Customs at birth
    • 11. Sixth and twelfth day ceremonies
    • 12. Devices for procuring children
    • 13. Love charms
    • 14. Disposal of the dead
    • 15. Mourning
    • 16. Religion
    • 17. The Pola festival
    • 18. Muhammadan tendencies of Berār Kunbis
    • 19. Villages and houses
    • 20. Furniture
    • 21. Food
    • 22. Clothes and ornaments
    • 23. The Kunbi as cultivator
    • 24. Social and moral characteristics
  • Kunjra
  • Kuramwār
  • Kurmi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Numbers and derivation of name
    • 2. Functional character of the caste
    • 3. Subcastes
    • 4. Exogamous groups
    • 5. Marriage rules. Betrothal
    • 6. The marriage-shed or pavilion
    • 7. The marriage-cakes
    • 8. Customs at the wedding
    • 9. Walking round the sacred post
    • 10. Other ceremonies
    • 11. Polygamy widow-marriage and divorce
    • 12. Impurity of women
    • 13. Pregnancy rites
    • 14. Earth-eating
    • 15. Customs at birth
    • 16. Treatment of mother and child
    • 17. Ceremonies after birth
    • 18. Suckling children
    • 19. Beliefs about twins
    • 20. Disposal of the dead
    • 21. Funeral rites
    • 22. Burning the dead
    • 23. Burial
    • 24. Return of the soul
    • 25. Mourning
    • 26. Shaving, and presents to Brahmans
    • 27. End of mourning
    • 28. Anniversaries of the dead
    • 29. Beliefs in the hereafter
    • 30. Religion. Village gods
    • 31. Sowing the Jawaras or Gardens of Adonis
    • 32. Rites connected with the crops. Customs of cultivation
    • 33. Agricultural superstitions
    • 34. Houses
    • 35. Superstitions about houses
    • 36. Furniture
    • 37. Clothes
    • 38. Women’s clothes
    • 39. Bathing
    • 40. Food
    • 41. Caste-feasts
    • 42. Hospitality
    • 43. Social customs. Tattooing
    • 44. Caste penalties
    • 45. The cultivating status
    • 46. Occupation
    • Appendix
    • List of Exogamous Clans
  • Lakhera
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice
    • 2. Social customs
    • 3. The lac industry
    • 4. Lac bangles
    • 5. Red, a lucky colour
    • 6. Vermilion and spangles
    • 7. Red dye on the feet
    • 8. Red threads
    • 9. Lac toys
  • Lodhi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and traditions
    • 2. Position in the central Provinces
    • 3. Sub-divisions
    • 4. Exogamous groups
    • 5. Marriage customs
    • 6. The gauna ceremoney. Fertility rites
    • 7. Widow-marriage and puberty rite
    • 8. Mourning impurity
    • 9. Social customs
    • 10. Greetings and method of address
    • 11. Sacred thread and social status
  • Lohar
    • 1. Legends of the caste
    • 2. Social position of the Lohar
    • 3. Caste subdivisions
    • 4. Marriage and other customs
    • 5. Occupation
  • Lorha
  • Mahār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General Notice.
    • 2. Length of residence in the Central Provinces
    • 3. Legend of origin
    • 4. Sub-castes
    • 5. Exogamous groups and marriage customs
    • 6. Funeral rites
    • 7. Childbirth
    • 8. Names
    • 9. Religion
    • 10. Adoption of foreign religions
    • 11. Superstitions
    • 12. Social rules
    • 13. Social subjection
    • 14. Their position improving
    • 15. Occupation
  • Mahli
    • 1. Origin of the caste
    • 2. Social customs
  • Majhwār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the tribe
    • 2. The Mīrzāpur Majhwārs derived from the Gonds
    • 3. Connection with the Kawars
    • 4. Exogamy and totemism
    • 5. Marriage customs.
    • 6. Birth and funeral rites
    • 7. Religious dance
  • Māl
  • Mala
  • Māli
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the caste, and its social position
    • 2. Caste legend
    • 3. Flowers offered to the gods
    • 4. Custom of wearing garlands
    • 5. Sub-castes
    • 6. Marriage
    • 7. Widow-marriage, divorce and polygamy
    • 8. Disposal of the dead
    • 9. Religion
    • 10. Occupation
    • 11. Traits and character
    • 12. Other functions of the Māli
    • 13. Physical appearance
  • Mallāh
  • Māna
  • Mānbhao
    • 1. History and nature of the sect
    • 2. Divisions of the order
    • 3. Religious observances and customs
    • 4. Hostility between Mānbhaos and Brāhmans
  • Māng
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and traditions
    • 2. Subdivisions
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Widow marriage
    • 5. Burial
    • 6. Occupation
    • 7. Religion and social status
  • Māng-Garori
  • Manihār
  • Mannewār
  • Marātha
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Numerical statistics
    • 2. Double meaning of the term Marātha
    • 3. Origin and position of the caste
    • 4. Exogamous clans
    • 5. Other subdivisions
    • 6. Social customs
    • 7. Religion
    • 8. Present position of the caste
    • 9. Nature of the Marātha insurrection
    • 10. Marātha women in past times
    • 11. The Marātha horseman
    • 12. Cavalry in the field
    • 13. Military administration
    • 14. Sitting Dharna
    • 15. The infantry
    • 16. Character of the Marātha armies
  • Mehtar
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Introductory notice
    • 2. Caste subdivisions
    • 3. Social organisation
    • 4. Caste punishments
    • 5. Admission of outsiders
    • 6. Marriage customs
    • 7. Disposal of the dead
    • 8. Devices for procuring children
    • 9. Divination of sex
    • 10. Childbirth
    • 11. Treatment of the mother
    • 12. Protecting the lives of children
    • 13. Infantile diseases
    • 14. Religion. Vālmīki
    • 15. Lālbeg
    • 16. Adoption of foreign religions
    • 17. Social status
    • 18. Occupation
    • 19. Occupation (continued)
  • Meo
  • Mīna
    • 1. The Mīnas locally termed Deswā
    • 2. Historical notice of the Mīna tribe
    • 3. Their robberies
    • 4. The Deswālis of the Central Provinces
  • Mirāsi
  • Mochi1
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice
    • 2. Legends of origin
    • 3. Art among the Hindus
    • 4. Antagonism of Mochis and Chamārs
    • 5. Exogamous groups
    • 6. Social customs
    • 7. Shoes
  • Mowār
  • Murha
    • 1. Origin of the caste
    • 2. Marriage customs
    • 3. Funeral rites
    • 4. Occupation
    • 5. Women’s song
  • Nagasia
  • Nāhal
    • 1. The tribe and its subdivisions
    • 2. Marriage
    • 3. Religion
    • 4. Occupation
    • 5. Social status
  • Nai
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Structure of the caste
    • 2. Marriage and other customs
    • 3. Occupation
    • 4. Other services
    • 5. Duties at weddings
    • 6. The barber-surgeon
    • 7. A barber at the court of Oudh
    • 8. Character and position of the barber
    • 9. Beliefs about hair
    • 10. Hair of kings and priests
    • 11. The beard
    • 12. Significance of removal of the hair and shaving the head
    • 13. Shaving the head by mourners
    • 14. Hair offerings
    • 15. Keeping hair unshorn during a vow
    • 16. Disposal of cut hair and nails
    • 17. Superstitions about shaving the hair
    • 18. Reasons why the hair was considered the source of strength
  • Naoda
  • Nat
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The Nats not a proper caste
    • 2. Muhammadan Nats
    • 3. Social customs of the Nats. Their low status
    • 4. Acrobatic performances
    • 5. Sliding or walking on ropes as a charm for the crops
    • 6. Snake-charmers
  • Nunia
  • Ojha
  • Oraon
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice
    • 2. Settlement in Chota Nāgpur
    • 3. Subdivisions
    • 4. Pre-nuptial licence
    • 5. Betrothal
    • 6. Marriage ceremony
    • 7. Special Customs
    • 8. Widow-remarriage and divorce
    • 9. Customs at birth
    • 10. Naming a child
    • 11. Branding and tattooing
    • 12. Dormitory discipline
    • 13. Disposal of the dead
    • 14. Worship of ancestors
    • 15. Religion. The supreme deity
    • 16. Minor godlings
    • 17. Human sacrifice
    • 18. Christianity
    • 19. Festivals. The Karma or May-day
    • 20. The sāl flower festival
    • 21. The harvest festival
    • 22. Fast for the crops
    • 23. Physical appearance and costume of the Oraons
    • 24. Dress of women
    • 25. Dances
    • 26. Social customs
    • 27. Social rules
    • 28. Character
    • 29. Language
  • Pāik
  • Panka
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the caste
    • 2. Caste subdivisions
    • 3. Endogamous divisions
    • 4. Marriage
    • 5. Religion
    • 6. Other customs
    • 7. Occupation
  • Panwār Rājpūt
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Historical notice. The Agnikula clans and the slaughter of the Kshatriyas by Parasurāma
    • 2. The legend of Parasurāma
    • 3. The Panwār dynasty of Dhār and Ujjain
    • 4. Diffusion of the Panwārs over India
    • 5. The Nāgpur Panwārs
    • 6. Subdivisions
    • 7. Marriage customs
    • 8. Widow-marriage
    • 9. Religion
    • 10. Worship of the spirits of those dying a violent death
    • 11. Funeral rites
    • 12. Caste discipline
    • 13. Social customs
  • Pardhān
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice
    • 2. Tribal Subdivisions
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Religion
    • 5. Social Customs
    • 6. Methods of cheating among Pathāris
    • 7. Musicians and priests
  • Pārdhi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the caste
    • 2. Subdivisions
    • 3. Marriage and funeral customs
    • 4. Religion
    • 5. Dress, food and social customs
    • 6. Ordeals
    • 7. Methods of catching birds
    • 8. Hunting with leopards
    • 9. Decoy stags
    • 10. Hawks
    • 11. Crocodile fishing
    • 12. Other occupations and criminal practices
  • Parja
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the tribe
    • 2. Exogamous septs
    • 3. Kinship and marriage
    • 4. Marriage dance
    • 5. Nuptial ceremony
    • 6. Widow-marriage and divorce
    • 7. Religion and festivals
    • 8. Disposal of the dead
    • 9. Occupation and social customs
  • Pāsi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The nature and origin of the caste
    • 2. Brāhmanical legends
    • 3. Its mixed composition
    • 4. Marriage and other customs
    • 5. Religion, superstitions and social customs
    • 6. Occupation
    • 7. Criminal tendencies
  • Patwa
  • Pindāri
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the name
    • 2. Rise of the Pindāris
    • 3. Their strength and sphere of operations
    • 4. Pindāri expeditions and methods
    • 5. Return from an expedition
    • 6. Suppression of the Pindāris. Death of Chitu
    • 7. Character of the Pindāris
    • 8. The existing Pindāris
    • 9. Attractions of a Pindāri’s life
  • Prabhu
    • 1. Historical notice
    • 2. General Customs
  • Rāghuvansi
    • 1. Historical notice
    • 2. Social customs
  • Rājjhar
    • 1. General notice
    • 2. Origin and subdivisions
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Social Customs
  • Rājpūt
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Introductory notice
    • 2. The thirty-six royal races
    • 3. The origin of the Rājpūts
    • 4. Subdivisions of the clans
    • 5. Marriage customs
    • 6. Funeral rites
    • 7. Religion
    • 8. Food
    • 9. Opium
    • 10. Improved training of Rājpūt chiefs
    • 11. Dress
    • 12. Social customs
    • 13. Seclusion of women
    • 14. Traditional character of the Rājpūts
    • 15. Occupation
  • Rājpūt, Baghel
  • Rājpūt, Bāgri
  • Rājpūt, Bais
  • Rājpūt, Baksaria
  • Rājpūt, Banāphar
  • Rājpūt, Bhadauria
  • Rājpūt, Bisen
  • Rājpūt, Bundela
  • Rājpūt, Chandel
  • Rājpūt, Chauhān
  • Rājpūt, Dhākar
  • Rājpūt, Gaharwār
  • Rājpūt, Gaur
  • Rājpūt, Haihaya
  • Rājpūt, Hūna
  • Rājpūt, Kachhwāha
  • Rājpūt, Nāgvansi
  • Rājpūt, Nikumbh
  • Rājpūt, Pāik
  • Rājpūt, Parihār
  • Rājpūt, Rāthor
  • Rājpūt, Sesodia
  • Rājpūt, Solankhi
  • Rājpūt, Somvansi
  • Rājpūt, Sūrajvansi
  • Rājpūt, Tomara
  • Rājpūt; Yādu
  • Rajwār
  • Rāmosi
    • 1. General notice
    • 2. Methods of robbery
    • 3. Rāmosis employed as village watchmen
    • 4. Social customs
  • Rangrez
  • Rautia
    • 1. Origin of the tribe
    • 2. Subdivisions
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Funeral rites
    • 5. Inheritance
  • Sanaurhia
    • 1. A band of criminals
    • 2. Traditions of origin
    • 3. Methods of stealing
  • Sānsia
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Historical notice of the caste
    • 2. Social customs
    • 3. Taboos of relationship
    • 4. Organisation for dacoity
    • 5. Description of a dacoity
    • 6. Omens
    • 7. Ordeals
    • 8. Sānsias at the present time
  • Sānsia, Uria
    • 1. The caste and its subdivisions
    • 2. Marriage customs
    • 3. Religion and worship of ancestors
    • 4. Occupation
  • Savar
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Distribution and historical notices
    • 2. Tribal legends
    • 3. Tribal subdivisions
    • 4. Marriage
    • 5. Death ceremonies
    • 6. Religion
    • 7. Occupation
  • Sonjhara
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and constitution of the caste
    • 2. Totemism
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Customs at birth
    • 5. Funeral rites
    • 6. Religion
    • 7. Social customs
    • 8. Occupation
  • Sudh
  • Sunār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the caste
    • 2. Internal structure
    • 3. Marriage and other customs
    • 4. Religion
    • 5. Social position
    • 6. Manufacture of ornaments
    • 7. The sanctity of gold
    • 8. Ornaments. The marriage ornaments
    • 9. Beads and other ornaments
    • 10. Ear-piercing
    • 11. Origin of ear-piercing
    • 12. Ornaments worn as amulets
    • 13. Audhia Sunārs
    • 14. The Sunār as money-changer
    • 15. Malpractices of lower-class Sumārs
  • Tamera
    • 1. The Tamera and Kasār
    • 2. Social traditions and customs
    • 3. Disposal of the dead
    • 4. Religion
  • Taonla
  • Teli
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Strength and distribution of the caste
    • 2. Origin and traditions
    • 3. Endogamous subcastes
    • 4. Exogamous divisions
    • 5. Marriage customs
    • 6. Widow-remarriage
    • 7. Religion: Caste deities
    • 8. Driving out evil
    • 9. Customs at birth and death
    • 10. Social status
    • 11. Social customs and caste penalties
    • 12. The Rāthor Telis
    • 13. Gujarāti Telis of Nimār
    • 14. The Teli an unlucky caste
    • 15. Occupation. Oil-pressing
    • 16. Trade and agriculture
    • 17. Teli beneficence
  • Thug
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Historical notice
    • 2. Thuggees depicted in the caves of Ellora
    • 3. Origin of the Thugs
    • 4. Methods of assassination
    • 5. Account of certain murders
    • 6. Special incidents (continued)
    • 7. Disguises of the Thugs
    • 8. Secrecy of their operations
    • 9. Support of landholders and villagers
    • 10. Murder of sepoys
    • 11. Callous nature of the Thugs
    • 12. Belief in divine support
    • 13. Theory of Thuggee as a religious sect
    • 14. Worship of Kāli
    • 15. The sacred pickaxe
    • 16. The sacred gur (sugar)
    • 17. Worship of ancestors
    • 18. Fasting
    • 19. Initiation of a novice
    • 20. Prohibition of murder of women
    • 21. Other classes of persons not killed
    • 22. Belief in omens
    • 23. Omens and taboos
    • 24. Nature of the belief in omens
    • 25. Suppression of Thuggee
  • Turi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the caste
    • 2. Subdivisions
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Funeral rites
    • 5. Occupation
    • 6. Social status
  • Velama
    • 1. Origin and social status
    • 2. Marriage and social customs
  • Vidur
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and traditions
    • 2. The Purads, Golaks and Borals
    • 3. Illegitimacy among Hindustāni castes
    • 4. Legend of origin
    • 5. Marriage
    • 6. Social rules and occupation
  • Wāghya
  • Yerūkala
  • Colophon
    • Availability
    • Encoding
    • Revision History
    • Corrections
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