Distributive Justice The Right and Wrong of Our Present Distribution of Wealth
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Distributive Justice The Right and Wrong of Our Present Distribution of Wealth

By John Augustine Ryan
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Table of Contents
  • E-text prepared by D Alexander, JoAnn Greenwood, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net) using page images generously made available by Internet Archive (http://archive.org)
  • DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
    • PREFACE
    • INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER
      • THE ELEMENTS AND SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
    • THE ELEMENTS AND SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
    • CHAPTER I THE LANDOWNER'S SHARE OF THE NATIONAL PRODUCT
      • Economic Rent Always Goes to the Landowner
      • Economic Rent and Commercial Rent
      • The Cause of Economic Rent
    • Economic Rent Always Goes to the Landowner
    • Economic Rent and Commercial Rent
    • The Cause of Economic Rent
    • CHAPTER II LANDOWNERSHIP IN HISTORY
      • No Private Ownership in Pre-Agricultural Conditions
      • How the Change Probably Took Place
      • Limited Character of Primitive Common Ownership
      • Private Ownership General in Historical Times
      • Conclusions from History
    • No Private Ownership in Pre-Agricultural Conditions
    • How the Change Probably Took Place
    • Limited Character of Primitive Common Ownership
    • Private Ownership General in Historical Times
    • Conclusions from History
    • CHAPTER III THE ARGUMENTS AGAINST PRIVATE LANDOWNERSHIP
      • Arguments by Socialists
      • Henry George's Attack on the Title of First Occupancy
      • His Defence of the Title of Labour
      • The Right of All Men to the Bounty of the Earth
      • The Alleged Right of the Community to Land Values
    • Arguments by Socialists
    • Henry George's Attack on the Title of First Occupancy
    • His Defence of the Title of Labour
    • The Right of All Men to the Bounty of the Earth
    • The Alleged Right of the Community to Land Values
    • CHAPTER IV PRIVATE OWNERSHIP THE BEST SYSTEM OF LAND TENURE
      • The Socialist Proposals Impracticable
      • Inferiority of the Single Tax System
    • The Socialist Proposals Impracticable
    • Inferiority of the Single Tax System
    • CHAPTER V PRIVATE LANDOWNERSHIP A NATURAL RIGHT
      • Three Principal Kinds of Natural Rights
      • Private Landownership Indirectly Necessary for Individual Welfare
      • Excessive Interpretations of the Right of Private Landownership
      • The Doctrine of the Fathers and Theologians
      • The Teaching of Pope Leo XIII
    • Three Principal Kinds of Natural Rights
    • Private Landownership Indirectly Necessary for Individual Welfare
    • Excessive Interpretations of the Right of Private Landownership
    • The Doctrine of the Fathers and Theologians
    • The Teaching of Pope Leo XIII
    • CHAPTER VI LIMITATIONS ON THE LANDOWNER'S RIGHT TO RENT
      • The Tenant's Right to a Decent Livelihood
      • The Labourer's Claim Upon the Rent
    • The Tenant's Right to a Decent Livelihood
    • The Labourer's Claim Upon the Rent
    • CHAPTER VII DEFECTS OF THE EXISTING LAND SYSTEM
      • Landownership and Monopoly
      • Excessive Gains from Private Landownership
      • Exclusion from the Land
    • Landownership and Monopoly
    • Excessive Gains from Private Landownership
    • Exclusion from the Land
    • CHAPTER VIII METHODS OF REFORMING OUR LAND SYSTEM
      • The Leasing System
      • Public Agricultural Lands
      • Public Ownership of Urban Land
      • Appropriating Future Increases of Land Value
      • Some Objections to the Increment Tax
      • The Morality of the Proposal
      • The German and British Increment Taxes
      • Transferring Other Taxes to Land
      • The Morality of the Plan
      • Amount of Taxes Practically Transferable
      • The Social Benefits of the Plan
      • A Supertax on Large Holdings
    • The Leasing System
    • Public Agricultural Lands
    • Public Ownership of Urban Land
    • Appropriating Future Increases of Land Value
    • Some Objections to the Increment Tax
    • The Morality of the Proposal
    • The German and British Increment Taxes
    • Transferring Other Taxes to Land
    • The Morality of the Plan
    • Amount of Taxes Practically Transferable
    • The Social Benefits of the Plan
    • A Supertax on Large Holdings
    • CHAPTER IX THE NATURE AND THE RATE OF INTEREST
      • Meaning of Capital and Capitalist
      • Meaning of Interest
      • The Rate of Interest
    • Meaning of Capital and Capitalist
    • Meaning of Interest
    • The Rate of Interest
    • CHAPTER X THE ALLEGED RIGHT OF LABOUR TO THE ENTIRE PRODUCT OF INDUSTRY
      • The Labour Theory of Value
      • The Right of Productivity
    • The Labour Theory of Value
    • The Right of Productivity
    • CHAPTER XI THE SOCIALIST SCHEME OF INDUSTRY
      • Socialist Inconsistency
      • Expropriating the Capitalists
      • Inefficient Industrial Leadership
      • Inefficient Labour
      • Attempted Replies to Objections
      • Restricting Individual Liberty
    • Socialist Inconsistency
    • Expropriating the Capitalists
    • Inefficient Industrial Leadership
    • Inefficient Labour
    • Attempted Replies to Objections
    • Restricting Individual Liberty
    • CHAPTER XII ALLEGED INTRINSIC JUSTIFICATIONS OF INTEREST
      • Attitude of the Church Toward Interest on Loans
      • Interest on Productive Capital
      • The Claims of Productivity
      • The Claims of Service
      • The Claims of Abstinence
    • Attitude of the Church Toward Interest on Loans
    • Interest on Productive Capital
    • The Claims of Productivity
    • The Claims of Service
    • The Claims of Abstinence
    • CHAPTER XIII SOCIAL AND PRESUMPTIVE JUSTIFICATIONS OF INTEREST
      • Limitations of the Sacrifice Principle
      • The Value of Capital in a No-Interest Régime
      • Whether the Present Rate of Interest Is Necessary
      • Whether at Least Two Per Cent. Is Necessary
      • Whether Any Interest Is Necessary
      • The State Is Justified in Permitting Interest
      • Civil Authorisation not Sufficient for Individual Justification
      • How the Interest-Taker Is Justified
    • Limitations of the Sacrifice Principle
    • The Value of Capital in a No-Interest Régime
    • Whether the Present Rate of Interest Is Necessary
    • Whether at Least Two Per Cent. Is Necessary
    • Whether Any Interest Is Necessary
    • The State Is Justified in Permitting Interest
    • Civil Authorisation not Sufficient for Individual Justification
    • How the Interest-Taker Is Justified
    • CHAPTER XIV CO-OPERATION AS A PARTIAL SOLVENT OF CAPITALISM
      • Reducing the Rate of Interest
      • Need for a Wider Distribution of Capital
      • The Essence of Co-operative Enterprise
      • Co-operative Credit Societies
      • Co-operative Agricultural Societies
      • Co-operative Mercantile Societies
      • Co-operation in Production
      • Advantages and Prospects of Co-operation
    • Reducing the Rate of Interest
    • Need for a Wider Distribution of Capital
    • The Essence of Co-operative Enterprise
    • Co-operative Credit Societies
    • Co-operative Agricultural Societies
    • Co-operative Mercantile Societies
    • Co-operation in Production
    • Advantages and Prospects of Co-operation
    • CHAPTER XV THE NATURE OF PROFITS
      • The Functions and Rewards of the Business Man
      • The Amount of Profits
      • Profits in the Joint-Stock Company
    • The Functions and Rewards of the Business Man
    • The Amount of Profits
    • Profits in the Joint-Stock Company
    • CHAPTER XVI THE PRINCIPAL CANONS OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
      • The Canon of Equality
      • The Canon of Needs
      • The Canon of Efforts and Sacrifice
      • The Canon of Productivity
      • The Canon of Scarcity
      • The Canon of Human Welfare
    • The Canon of Equality
    • The Canon of Needs
    • The Canon of Efforts and Sacrifice
    • The Canon of Productivity
    • The Canon of Scarcity
    • The Canon of Human Welfare
    • CHAPTER XVII JUST PROFITS IN CONDITIONS OF COMPETITION
      • The Question of Indefinitely Large Profits
      • The Question of Minimum Profits
      • The Question of Superfluous Business Men
    • The Question of Indefinitely Large Profits
    • The Question of Minimum Profits
    • The Question of Superfluous Business Men
    • CHAPTER XVIII THE MORAL ASPECT OF MONOPOLY
      • Surplus and Excessive Profits
      • The Question of Monopolistic Efficiency
      • Discriminative Underselling
      • Exclusive-Sales Contracts
      • Discriminative Transportation Arrangements
      • Natural Monopolies
      • Methods of Preventing Monopolistic Injustice
      • Legalised Price Agreements
    • Surplus and Excessive Profits
    • The Question of Monopolistic Efficiency
    • Discriminative Underselling
    • Exclusive-Sales Contracts
    • Discriminative Transportation Arrangements
    • Natural Monopolies
    • Methods of Preventing Monopolistic Injustice
    • Legalised Price Agreements
    • CHAPTER XIX THE MORAL ASPECT OF STOCK WATERING
      • Injurious Effects of Stockwatering
      • The Moral Wrong
      • The "Innocent" Investor
      • Magnitude of Overcapitalisation
    • Injurious Effects of Stockwatering
    • The Moral Wrong
    • The "Innocent" Investor
    • Magnitude of Overcapitalisation
    • CHAPTER XX THE LEGAL LIMITATION OF FORTUNES
      • The Method of Direct Limitation
      • Limitation Through Progressive Taxation
      • The Proper Rate of Income and Inheritance Taxes
      • Effectiveness of Such Taxation
    • The Method of Direct Limitation
    • Limitation Through Progressive Taxation
    • The Proper Rate of Income and Inheritance Taxes
    • Effectiveness of Such Taxation
    • CHAPTER XXI THE DUTY OF DISTRIBUTING SUPERFLUOUS WEALTH
      • The Question of Distributing Some
      • The Question of Distributing All
      • Some Objections
      • A False Conception of Welfare and Superfluous Goods
      • The True Conception of Welfare
    • The Question of Distributing Some
    • The Question of Distributing All
    • Some Objections
    • A False Conception of Welfare and Superfluous Goods
    • The True Conception of Welfare
    • CHAPTER XXII SOME UNACCEPTABLE THEORIES OF WAGE-JUSTICE
      • I. The Prevailing-Rate Theory
        • Not in Harmony with Justice
      • Not in Harmony with Justice
      • II. Exchange-Equivalence Theories
        • The Rule of Equal Gains
        • The Rule of Free Contract
        • The Rule of Market Value
        • The Mediæval Theory
        • A Modern Variation of the Mediæval Theory
      • The Rule of Equal Gains
      • The Rule of Free Contract
      • The Rule of Market Value
      • The Mediæval Theory
      • A Modern Variation of the Mediæval Theory
      • III. Productivity Theories
        • Labour's Right to the Whole Product
        • Clark's Theory of Specific Productivity
        • Carver's Modified Version of Productivity
      • Labour's Right to the Whole Product
      • Clark's Theory of Specific Productivity
      • Carver's Modified Version of Productivity
    • I. The Prevailing-Rate Theory
      • Not in Harmony with Justice
    • Not in Harmony with Justice
    • II. Exchange-Equivalence Theories
      • The Rule of Equal Gains
      • The Rule of Free Contract
      • The Rule of Market Value
      • The Mediæval Theory
      • A Modern Variation of the Mediæval Theory
    • The Rule of Equal Gains
    • The Rule of Free Contract
    • The Rule of Market Value
    • The Mediæval Theory
    • A Modern Variation of the Mediæval Theory
    • III. Productivity Theories
      • Labour's Right to the Whole Product
      • Clark's Theory of Specific Productivity
      • Carver's Modified Version of Productivity
    • Labour's Right to the Whole Product
    • Clark's Theory of Specific Productivity
    • Carver's Modified Version of Productivity
    • CHAPTER XXIII THE MINIMUM OF JUSTICE: A LIVING WAGE
      • The Principle of Needs
      • Three Fundamental Principles
      • The Right to a Decent Livelihood
      • The Claim to a Decent Livelihood from a Present Occupation
      • The Labourer's Right to a Living Wage
      • When the Employer Is Unable to Pay a Living Wage
      • An Objection and Some Difficulties
      • The Family Living Wage
      • Other Arguments in Favour of a Living Wage
      • The Money Measure of a Living Wage
    • The Principle of Needs
    • Three Fundamental Principles
    • The Right to a Decent Livelihood
    • The Claim to a Decent Livelihood from a Present Occupation
    • The Labourer's Right to a Living Wage
    • When the Employer Is Unable to Pay a Living Wage
    • An Objection and Some Difficulties
    • The Family Living Wage
    • Other Arguments in Favour of a Living Wage
    • The Money Measure of a Living Wage
    • CHAPTER XXIV THE PROBLEM OF COMPLETE WAGE JUSTICE
      • Comparative Claims of Different Labour Groups
      • Wages Versus Profits
      • Wages Versus Interest
      • Wages Versus Prices
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Comparative Claims of Different Labour Groups
    • Wages Versus Profits
    • Wages Versus Interest
    • Wages Versus Prices
    • Concluding Remarks
    • CHAPTER XXV METHODS OF INCREASING WAGES
      • The Minimum Wage in Operation
      • The Question of Constitutionality
      • The Ethical and Political Aspects
      • The Economic Aspect
      • Opinions of Economists
      • Other Legislative Proposals
      • Labour Unions
      • Organisation Versus Legislation
      • Participation in Capital Ownership
    • The Minimum Wage in Operation
    • The Question of Constitutionality
    • The Ethical and Political Aspects
    • The Economic Aspect
    • Opinions of Economists
    • Other Legislative Proposals
    • Labour Unions
    • Organisation Versus Legislation
    • Participation in Capital Ownership
    • CHAPTER XXVI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      • The Landowner and Rent
      • The Capitalist and Interest
      • The Business Man and Profits
      • The Labourer and Wages
      • Concluding Observations
    • The Landowner and Rent
    • The Capitalist and Interest
    • The Business Man and Profits
    • The Labourer and Wages
    • Concluding Observations
    • INDEX
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • FOOTNOTES:
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