Hodder Education
My Revision Notes: WJEC/Eduqas A-Level Year 2 Chemistry
Richard Longden Boole, Alyn G. McFarland
My Revision Notes: WJEC/Eduqas A-Level Year 2 Chemistry
US$ 23.99
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My Revision Notes: WJEC/Eduqas A-level Chemistry will help you:
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Exam breakdown
Unit 3 Physical and inorganic chemistry
1 Redox and standard electrode potential
Redox reactions in terms of electron transfer
Standard electrode potential and standard hydrogen electrode
Two half-cells or electrodes form electrochemical cells
The electromotive force (EMF) of a cell
Hydrogen fuel cells: advantages and disadvantages
2 Redox reactions
Constructing ion/electron half-equations
Combining half-equations to create a full stoichiometric redox equation
Performing redox titrations and completing titration calculations
The redox reaction between Cu2+ and I− is measured indirectly using thiosulfate
3 Chemistry of the p-block
General p-block chemistry
Group 4 chemicals and changes in their chemistry
Comparing the nature and properties of CO2 and PbO
Some reactions of Pb2+ with hydroxide, chloride and iodide ions
Some group 5, 6 and 7 elements can form hypervalent compounds
Chlorine undergoes various useful disproportionation reactions
Concentrated sulfuric acid behaving as an acid or an oxidising agent
4 Chemistry of the d-block transition metals
Not all d-block elements are transition elements
Transition metals form compounds with various oxidation states
Transition metal cations bond with molecules or ions to form complexes
The colours of transition metal complexes and aqueous solutions of compounds containing d-block metals
Using ligand exchange equations
Catalytic properties of transition metals and their compounds
5 Chemical kinetics
Rate equation, reaction rate, reactant concentrations
Determining orders of reaction from experimental data
Link between mechanism for a reaction and order for the reactants
The Arrhenius equation
6 Enthalpy changes for solids and solutions
Standard enthalpy changes are quoted per mole of a specific substance
Enthalpy of solution can be calculated from enthalpy changes
Born–Haber cycle for enthalpy changes related to ionic compounds
The value ΔfH is an indicator of the stability of a compound
7 Entropy and feasibility of reactions
Entropy is a measure of disorder
Entropy change
Gibbs free energy and the feasibility of a reaction
8 Equilibrium constants
Calculating equilibrium constants
The magnitude of the equilibrium constant is an indicator of the extent to which a reaction has occurred
9 Acid–base equilibria
Acids and bases: Brønsted–Lowry, classification
The ionic product of water: Kw
pH is calculated from hydrogen ion concentration
Titration curves
Buffer solutions
Solutions of salts have different pH values
Unit 4 Organic chemistry and analysis
10 Stereoisomerism
Stereoisomerism includes E–Z and optical isomerism
Optical isomerism in terms of an asymmetric carbon atom
11 Aromaticity
The structure of benzene
Properties of benzene compounds
Electrophilic substitution
The strength of the bond between the C atom of a benzene ring and the substituent group varies
12 Alcohols and phenols
Primary and secondary alcohols: preparation, reactions
Properties of phenol
Testing for phenols with iron(III) chloride (FeCl3)
13 Aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes and ketones: formation, properties, reduction using NaBH4
Nucleophilic addition
Iodoform (CHI3)
14 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives
Carboxylic acids: formation, reduction
Aromatic carboxylic acids: formation, decarboxylation
Synthesis of esters and acid chlorides
Conversion of carboxylic acids to amides and nitriles
Hydrolysis of amides and nitriles
Reduction of nitriles
15 Amines
Formation of primary aliphatic amines
Formation of aromatic amines from nitrobenzenes
Basicity of amines
Ethanoylation of primary amines using ethanoyl chloride
Reaction of primary amines with cold nitric(III) acid forming alcohols
Coupling of benzene diazonium salts with phenols and aromatic amines to form azo dyes
Role of the N=N chromophore in dyes and indicators
16 Amino acids, peptides and proteins
Amino acids contain an NH2 group and a COOH group
Amino acids are amphoteric because they act as acids and bases
Formation of peptides from α-amino acids
The essential role of proteins in living organisms
17 Organic synthesis and analysis
Organic reactions can be used as synthetic pathways
Separation and purification techniques
The two types of polymerisation: condensation and addition
Condensation polymers: polyesters and polyamides
Determining the structure of organic molecules with high resolution 1H NMR spectra
Chromatography can be used to separate components of a mixture
Tests to determine the presence of specific functional groups
Unit 5 Practical
18 General guidance for the practical examination
Using appropriate apparatus; heating a liquid; measuring pH
Using laboratory apparatus for a variety of experimental techniques
Making up a standard solution
Using acid–base indicators
Purifying a solid or liquid product; using melting point apparatus
Using thin-layer or paper chromatography
Setting up electrochemical cells and measuring voltages
Handling chemicals safely
Measuring reaction rates
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