Logic, Inductive and Deductive
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Logic, Inductive and Deductive

By William Minto
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Table of Contents
  • UNIVERSITY MANUALS
    • EDITED BY PROFESSOR KNIGHT
    • LOGIC
      • INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE
    • INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE
  • LOGIC
    • INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE
      • LONDON JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 1915
    • LONDON JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 1915
    • PREFACE.
    • GENERAL PLAN OF THE SERIES.
    • CONTENTS.
      • INTRODUCTION.
      • I.
      • II.
      • III.
    • INTRODUCTION.
    • I.
    • II.
    • III.
    • BOOK I.
      • THE LOGIC OF CONSISTENCY—SYLLOGISM AND DEFINITION.
      • PART I.
      • THE ELEMENTS OF PROPOSITIONS.
      • Chapter I.
      • Chapter II.
    • THE LOGIC OF CONSISTENCY—SYLLOGISM AND DEFINITION.
    • PART I.
    • THE ELEMENTS OF PROPOSITIONS.
    • Chapter I.
    • Chapter II.
    • PART II.
      • DEFINITION.
      • Chapter I.
      • Chapter II.
      • Chapter III.
      • Chapter IV.
      • PART III.
      • THE INTERPRETATION OF PROPOSITIONS.
      • Chapter I.
      • Chapter II.
      • Chapter III.
      • Chapter IV.
      • PART IV.
      • THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF PROPOSITIONS.
      • Chapter I.
      • Chapter II.
      • Chapter III.
      • Chapter IV.
      • Chapter V.
      • Chapter VI.
      • Chapter VII.
      • Chapter VIII.
      • Chapter IX.
    • DEFINITION.
    • Chapter I.
    • Chapter II.
    • Chapter III.
    • Chapter IV.
    • PART III.
    • THE INTERPRETATION OF PROPOSITIONS.
    • Chapter I.
    • Chapter II.
    • Chapter III.
    • Chapter IV.
    • PART IV.
    • THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF PROPOSITIONS.
    • Chapter I.
    • Chapter II.
    • Chapter III.
    • Chapter IV.
    • Chapter V.
    • Chapter VI.
    • Chapter VII.
    • Chapter VIII.
    • Chapter IX.
    • BOOK II.
      • INDUCTIVE LOGIC, OR THE LOGIC OF SCIENCE.
      • Chapter I.
      • Chapter II.
      • Chapter III.
      • Chapter IV.
      • Chapter V.
      • Chapter VI.
      • Chapter VII.
      • Chapter VIII.
      • Chapter IX.
      • Chapter X.
    • INDUCTIVE LOGIC, OR THE LOGIC OF SCIENCE.
    • Chapter I.
    • Chapter II.
    • Chapter III.
    • Chapter IV.
    • Chapter V.
    • Chapter VI.
    • Chapter VII.
    • Chapter VIII.
    • Chapter IX.
    • Chapter X.
    • INTRODUCTION.
      • I.—THE ORIGIN AND SCOPE OF LOGIC.
      • II.—LOGIC AS A PREVENTIVE OF ERROR OR FALLACY.—THE INNER SOPHIST.
      • The Bias of Impatient Impulse.
      • The Bias of Happy Exercise.
      • The Bias of the Feelings.
      • The Bias of Custom.
      • III.—THE AXIOMS OF DIALECTIC AND OF SYLLOGISM.
    • I.—THE ORIGIN AND SCOPE OF LOGIC.
    • II.—LOGIC AS A PREVENTIVE OF ERROR OR FALLACY.—THE INNER SOPHIST.
    • The Bias of Impatient Impulse.
    • The Bias of Happy Exercise.
    • The Bias of the Feelings.
    • The Bias of Custom.
    • III.—THE AXIOMS OF DIALECTIC AND OF SYLLOGISM.
  • BOOK I.
    • THE LOGIC OF CONSISTENCY. SYLLOGISM AND DEFINITION.
    • PART I.
      • THE ELEMENTS OF PROPOSITIONS.
      • Chapter I.
      • GENERAL NAMES AND ALLIED DISTINCTIONS.
      • Chapter II.
      • THE SYLLOGISTIC ANALYSIS OF PROPOSITIONS INTO TERMS.
      • I.—The Bare Analytic Forms.
      • II.—The Practice of Syllogistic Analysis.
      • III.—Some Technical Difficulties.
    • THE ELEMENTS OF PROPOSITIONS.
    • Chapter I.
    • GENERAL NAMES AND ALLIED DISTINCTIONS.
    • Chapter II.
    • THE SYLLOGISTIC ANALYSIS OF PROPOSITIONS INTO TERMS.
    • I.—The Bare Analytic Forms.
    • II.—The Practice of Syllogistic Analysis.
    • III.—Some Technical Difficulties.
    • PART II.
      • DEFINITION.
      • Chapter I.
      • IMPERFECT UNDERSTANDING OF WORDS AND THE REMEDIES THEREFOR.—DIALECTIC.—DEFINITION.
      • I.—Verification of the Meaning—Dialectic.
      • II.—Principles of Division or Classification and Definition.
      • Chapter II.
      • THE FIVE PREDICABLES.—VERBAL AND REAL PREDICATION.
      • Chapter III.
      • ARISTOTLE'S CATEGORIES.
      • Chapter IV.
      • THE CONTROVERSY ABOUT UNIVERSALS. —DIFFICULTIES CONCERNING THE RELATION OF GENERAL NAMES TO THOUGHT AND TO REALITY.
    • DEFINITION.
    • Chapter I.
    • IMPERFECT UNDERSTANDING OF WORDS AND THE REMEDIES THEREFOR.—DIALECTIC.—DEFINITION.
    • I.—Verification of the Meaning—Dialectic.
    • II.—Principles of Division or Classification and Definition.
    • Chapter II.
    • THE FIVE PREDICABLES.—VERBAL AND REAL PREDICATION.
    • Chapter III.
    • ARISTOTLE'S CATEGORIES.
    • Chapter IV.
    • THE CONTROVERSY ABOUT UNIVERSALS. —DIFFICULTIES CONCERNING THE RELATION OF GENERAL NAMES TO THOUGHT AND TO REALITY.
    • PART III.
      • THE INTERPRETATION OF PROPOSITIONS. —OPPOSITION AND IMMEDIATE INFERENCE.
      • Chapter I.
      • THEORIES OF PREDICATION.—THEORIES OF JUDGMENT.
      • Chapter II.
      • THE "OPPOSITION" OF PROPOSITIONS.—THE INTERPRETATION OF "NO".
      • Chapter III.
      • THE IMPLICATION OF PROPOSITIONS. —IMMEDIATE FORMAL INFERENCE.—EDUCATION.
      • Æquipollent or Equivalent Forms—Obversion.
      • Conversion.
      • Table of Contrapositive Converses.
      • Other Forms of Immediate Inference.
      • Chapter IV.
      • THE COUNTER-IMPLICATION OF PROPOSITIONS.
      • The Law of Homogeneous Counter-relativity.
    • THE INTERPRETATION OF PROPOSITIONS. —OPPOSITION AND IMMEDIATE INFERENCE.
    • Chapter I.
    • THEORIES OF PREDICATION.—THEORIES OF JUDGMENT.
    • Chapter II.
    • THE "OPPOSITION" OF PROPOSITIONS.—THE INTERPRETATION OF "NO".
    • Chapter III.
    • THE IMPLICATION OF PROPOSITIONS. —IMMEDIATE FORMAL INFERENCE.—EDUCATION.
    • Æquipollent or Equivalent Forms—Obversion.
    • Conversion.
    • Table of Contrapositive Converses.
    • Other Forms of Immediate Inference.
    • Chapter IV.
    • THE COUNTER-IMPLICATION OF PROPOSITIONS.
    • The Law of Homogeneous Counter-relativity.
    • PART IV.
      • THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF PROPOSITIONS.—MEDIATE INFERENCE.—SYLLOGISM.
      • Chapter I.
      • THE SYLLOGISM.
      • Chapter II.
      • FIGURES AND MOODS OF THE SYLLOGISM.
      • I.—The First Figure.
      • II.—The Minor Figures Of the Syllogism, And Their Reduction To the First.
      • III.—The Sorites.
      • Chapter III.
      • THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE SYLLOGISTIC MOODS. —THE CANONS OF THE SYLLOGISM.
      • Chapter IV.
      • THE ANALYSIS OF ARGUMENTS INTO SYLLOGISTIC FORMS.
      • I.—First Figure.
      • II.—Second Figure.
      • Third Figure.
      • Examples for Analysis.
      • Chapter V.
      • ENTHYMEMES.
      • Chapter VI.
      • THE UTILITY OF THE SYLLOGISM.
      • Chapter VII.
      • CONDITIONAL ARGUMENTS.—HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISM, DISJUNCTIVE SYLLOGISM, AND DILEMMA.
      • I.—Hypothetical Syllogisms.
      • Questions Connected with Hypothetical Syllogisms.
      • II.—Disjunctive Syllogisms.
      • III.—The Dilemma.
      • Chapter VIII.
      • FALLACIES IN DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT.—PETITIO PRINCIPII AND IGNORATIO ELENCHI.
      • Chapter IX.
      • FORMAL OR ARISTOTELIAN INDUCTION.—INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT.
    • THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF PROPOSITIONS.—MEDIATE INFERENCE.—SYLLOGISM.
    • Chapter I.
    • THE SYLLOGISM.
    • Chapter II.
    • FIGURES AND MOODS OF THE SYLLOGISM.
    • I.—The First Figure.
    • II.—The Minor Figures Of the Syllogism, And Their Reduction To the First.
    • III.—The Sorites.
    • Chapter III.
    • THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE SYLLOGISTIC MOODS. —THE CANONS OF THE SYLLOGISM.
    • Chapter IV.
    • THE ANALYSIS OF ARGUMENTS INTO SYLLOGISTIC FORMS.
    • I.—First Figure.
    • II.—Second Figure.
    • Third Figure.
    • Examples for Analysis.
    • Chapter V.
    • ENTHYMEMES.
    • Chapter VI.
    • THE UTILITY OF THE SYLLOGISM.
    • Chapter VII.
    • CONDITIONAL ARGUMENTS.—HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISM, DISJUNCTIVE SYLLOGISM, AND DILEMMA.
    • I.—Hypothetical Syllogisms.
    • Questions Connected with Hypothetical Syllogisms.
    • II.—Disjunctive Syllogisms.
    • III.—The Dilemma.
    • Chapter VIII.
    • FALLACIES IN DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT.—PETITIO PRINCIPII AND IGNORATIO ELENCHI.
    • Chapter IX.
    • FORMAL OR ARISTOTELIAN INDUCTION.—INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT.
  • BOOK II.
    • INDUCTIVE LOGIC, OR THE LOGIC OF SCIENCE.
      • INTRODUCTION.
      • Chapter I.
      • THE DATA OF EXPERIENCE AS GROUNDS OF INFERENCE OR RATIONAL BELIEF.
      • Chapter II.
      • ASCERTAINMENT OF SIMPLE FACTS IN THEIR ORDER.—PERSONAL OBSERVATION.—HEARSAY EVIDENCE—METHOD OF TESTING TRADITIONAL EVIDENCE.
      • I.—Personal Observation.
      • II.—Tradition.—Hearsay Evidence.
      • III.—Method of Testing Traditional Evidence.
      • Chapter III.
      • ASCERTAINMENT OF FACTS OF CAUSATION.
      • I.—Post Hoc ergo Propter Hoc.
      • II.—Meaning of "Cause".—Methods of Observation—Mill's Experimental Methods.
      • Chapter IV.
      • METHODS OF OBSERVATION.—SINGLE DIFFERENCE.
      • I.—The Principle of Single Difference.— Mill's "Canon".
      • II.—Application of the Principle.
      • Chapter V.
      • METHODS OF OBSERVATION.—ELIMINATION.—SINGLE AGREEMENT.
      • I.—The Principle of Elimination.
      • II.—The Principle of Single Agreement.
      • III.—Mill's "Joint Method of Agreement and Difference".
      • Chapter VI.
      • METHODS OF OBSERVATION.—MINOR METHODS.
      • I.—Concomitant Variations.
      • II.—Single Residue.
      • Chapter VII.
      • THE METHOD OF EXPLANATION.
      • II.—Obstacles to Explanation.—Plurality of Causes and Intermixture of Effects.
      • III.—The Proof of a Hypothesis.
      • Chapter VIII.
      • SUPPLEMENTARY METHODS OF INVESTIGATION.
      • I.—The Maintenance of Averages.—Supplement to the Method of Difference.
      • II.—The Presumption from Extra-Casual Coincidence.
      • Chapter IX.
      • PROBABLE INFERENCE TO PARTICULARS—THE MEASUREMENT OF PROBABILITY.
      • Chapter X.
      • INFERENCE FROM ANALOGY.
        • Transcriber's Note
      • Transcriber's Note
    • INTRODUCTION.
    • Chapter I.
    • THE DATA OF EXPERIENCE AS GROUNDS OF INFERENCE OR RATIONAL BELIEF.
    • Chapter II.
    • ASCERTAINMENT OF SIMPLE FACTS IN THEIR ORDER.—PERSONAL OBSERVATION.—HEARSAY EVIDENCE—METHOD OF TESTING TRADITIONAL EVIDENCE.
    • I.—Personal Observation.
    • II.—Tradition.—Hearsay Evidence.
    • III.—Method of Testing Traditional Evidence.
    • Chapter III.
    • ASCERTAINMENT OF FACTS OF CAUSATION.
    • I.—Post Hoc ergo Propter Hoc.
    • II.—Meaning of "Cause".—Methods of Observation—Mill's Experimental Methods.
    • Chapter IV.
    • METHODS OF OBSERVATION.—SINGLE DIFFERENCE.
    • I.—The Principle of Single Difference.— Mill's "Canon".
    • II.—Application of the Principle.
    • Chapter V.
    • METHODS OF OBSERVATION.—ELIMINATION.—SINGLE AGREEMENT.
    • I.—The Principle of Elimination.
    • II.—The Principle of Single Agreement.
    • III.—Mill's "Joint Method of Agreement and Difference".
    • Chapter VI.
    • METHODS OF OBSERVATION.—MINOR METHODS.
    • I.—Concomitant Variations.
    • II.—Single Residue.
    • Chapter VII.
    • THE METHOD OF EXPLANATION.
    • II.—Obstacles to Explanation.—Plurality of Causes and Intermixture of Effects.
    • III.—The Proof of a Hypothesis.
    • Chapter VIII.
    • SUPPLEMENTARY METHODS OF INVESTIGATION.
    • I.—The Maintenance of Averages.—Supplement to the Method of Difference.
    • II.—The Presumption from Extra-Casual Coincidence.
    • Chapter IX.
    • PROBABLE INFERENCE TO PARTICULARS—THE MEASUREMENT OF PROBABILITY.
    • Chapter X.
    • INFERENCE FROM ANALOGY.
      • Transcriber's Note
    • Transcriber's Note
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