Secret Societies of the Middle Ages
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Secret Societies of the Middle Ages

By Thomas Keightley
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Table of Contents
  • UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.
    • THE LIBRARY OF ENTERTAINING KNOWLEDGE.
  • SECRET SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.
    • THE LIBRARY OF ENTERTAINING KNOWLEDGE.
    • [Keightley (Thomas) handwritten]
      • SECRET SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.
    • SECRET SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.
    • CONTENTS.
      • THE ASSASSINS.
      • THE TEMPLARS.
      • THE SECRET TRIBUNALS OF WESTPHALIA.
    • THE ASSASSINS.
    • THE TEMPLARS.
    • THE SECRET TRIBUNALS OF WESTPHALIA.
    • SECRET SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.
    • INTRODUCTION.
    • THE ASSASSINS[3].
    • Chapter I.
      • State of the World in the 7th Century—Western Empire—Eastern Empire—Persia—Arabia—Mohammed—His probable Motives—Character of his Religion—The Koran.
    • State of the World in the 7th Century—Western Empire—Eastern Empire—Persia—Arabia—Mohammed—His probable Motives—Character of his Religion—The Koran.
    • Chapter II.
      • Origin of the Khalifat—The first Khalifs—Extent of the Arabian Empire—Schism among the Mohammedans—Soonees and Sheähs—Sects of the latter—The Keissanee—The Zeidites—The Ghoollat—The Imamee—Sects of the Imamee—Their political Character—The Carmathites—Origin of the Fatimite Khalifs—Secret Society at Cairo—Doctrines taught in it—Its Decline.
    • Origin of the Khalifat—The first Khalifs—Extent of the Arabian Empire—Schism among the Mohammedans—Soonees and Sheähs—Sects of the latter—The Keissanee—The Zeidites—The Ghoollat—The Imamee—Sects of the Imamee—Their political Character—The Carmathites—Origin of the Fatimite Khalifs—Secret Society at Cairo—Doctrines taught in it—Its Decline.
    • Chapter III.
      • Ali of Rei—His son Hassan Sabah—Hassan sent to study at Nishaboor—Meets there Omar Khiam and Nizam-al-Moolk—Agreement made by them—Hassan introduced by Nizam to Sultan Malek Shah—Obliged to leave the Court—Anecdote of him—His own account of his Conversion—Goes to Egypt—Returns to Persia—Makes himself Master of Alamoot.
      • Hill Fort.
    • Ali of Rei—His son Hassan Sabah—Hassan sent to study at Nishaboor—Meets there Omar Khiam and Nizam-al-Moolk—Agreement made by them—Hassan introduced by Nizam to Sultan Malek Shah—Obliged to leave the Court—Anecdote of him—His own account of his Conversion—Goes to Egypt—Returns to Persia—Makes himself Master of Alamoot.
    • Hill Fort.
    • Chapter IV.
      • Description of Alamoot—Fruitless Attempts to recover it—Extension of the Ismaïlite Power—The Ismaïlites in Syria—Attempt on the Life of Aboo-Hard Issa—Treaty made with Sultan Sanjar—Death of Hassan—His Character.
    • Description of Alamoot—Fruitless Attempts to recover it—Extension of the Ismaïlite Power—The Ismaïlites in Syria—Attempt on the Life of Aboo-Hard Issa—Treaty made with Sultan Sanjar—Death of Hassan—His Character.
    • Chapter V.
      • Organization of the Society—Names given to the Ismaïlites—Origin of the name Assassin—Marco Polo's description of the Paradise of the Old Man of the Mountain—Description of it given by Arabian writers—Instances of the obedience of the Fedavee.
    • Organization of the Society—Names given to the Ismaïlites—Origin of the name Assassin—Marco Polo's description of the Paradise of the Old Man of the Mountain—Description of it given by Arabian writers—Instances of the obedience of the Fedavee.
    • Chapter VI.
      • Keäh Buzoorg Oomeid—Affairs of the Society in Persia—They acquire the Castle of Banias, in Syria—Attempt to betray Damascus to the Crusaders—Murders committed during the reign of Keäh Buzoorg.
    • Keäh Buzoorg Oomeid—Affairs of the Society in Persia—They acquire the Castle of Banias, in Syria—Attempt to betray Damascus to the Crusaders—Murders committed during the reign of Keäh Buzoorg.
    • Chapter VII.
      • Keäh Mohammed—Murder of the Khalif—Castles gained in Syria—Ismaïlite Confession of Faith—Mohammed's Son Hassan gives himself out for the promised Imam—His Followers punished—Succession of Hassan—He abolishes the Law—Pretends to be descended from the Prophet—Is murdered
    • Keäh Mohammed—Murder of the Khalif—Castles gained in Syria—Ismaïlite Confession of Faith—Mohammed's Son Hassan gives himself out for the promised Imam—His Followers punished—Succession of Hassan—He abolishes the Law—Pretends to be descended from the Prophet—Is murdered
    • Chapter VIII.
      • Mohammed II.—Anecdote of the Imam Fakhr-ed-deen—Noor-ed-deen—Conquest of Egypt—Attempt on the Life of Saladin.
    • Mohammed II.—Anecdote of the Imam Fakhr-ed-deen—Noor-ed-deen—Conquest of Egypt—Attempt on the Life of Saladin.
    • Chapter IX.
      • Sinan the Dai-al-Kebir of Syria—Offers to become a Christian—His Ambassador murdered by the Templars—Cardinal de Vitry's Account of the Assassins—Murder of the Marquis of Montferrat—Defence of King Richard.
    • Sinan the Dai-al-Kebir of Syria—Offers to become a Christian—His Ambassador murdered by the Templars—Cardinal de Vitry's Account of the Assassins—Murder of the Marquis of Montferrat—Defence of King Richard.
    • Chapter X.
      • Jellal-ed-deen—Restoration of Religion—His Harem makes the Pilgrimage to Mecca—Marries the Princess of Ghilan—Geography of the Country between Roodbar and the Caspian—Persian Romance—Zohak and Feridoon—Kei Kaoos and Roostem—Ferdoosee's Description of Mazanderan—History of the Shah Nameh—Proof of the Antiquity of the Tales contained in it.
      • From the Shah Nameh, illuminated Persian MS.
      • From the Same.
    • Jellal-ed-deen—Restoration of Religion—His Harem makes the Pilgrimage to Mecca—Marries the Princess of Ghilan—Geography of the Country between Roodbar and the Caspian—Persian Romance—Zohak and Feridoon—Kei Kaoos and Roostem—Ferdoosee's Description of Mazanderan—History of the Shah Nameh—Proof of the Antiquity of the Tales contained in it.
    • From the Shah Nameh, illuminated Persian MS.
    • From the Same.
    • Chapter XI.
      • Death of Jellal-ed-deen—Character of Ala-ed-deen, his successor—The Sheikh Jemal-ed-deen—The Astronomer Nasir-ed-deen—The Vizir Sheref-al-Moolk—Death of Ala-ed-deen—Succession of Rukn-ed-deen, the last Sheikh-al-Jebal.
    • Death of Jellal-ed-deen—Character of Ala-ed-deen, his successor—The Sheikh Jemal-ed-deen—The Astronomer Nasir-ed-deen—The Vizir Sheref-al-Moolk—Death of Ala-ed-deen—Succession of Rukn-ed-deen, the last Sheikh-al-Jebal.
    • Chapter XII.
      • The Mongols—Hoolagoo sent against the Ismaïlites—Rukn-ed-deen submits—Capture of Alamoot—Destruction of the Library—Fate of Rukn-ed-deen—Massacre of the Ismaïlites—St. Louis and the Assassins—Mission for the Conversion of the People of Kuhistan—Conclusion.
    • The Mongols—Hoolagoo sent against the Ismaïlites—Rukn-ed-deen submits—Capture of Alamoot—Destruction of the Library—Fate of Rukn-ed-deen—Massacre of the Ismaïlites—St. Louis and the Assassins—Mission for the Conversion of the People of Kuhistan—Conclusion.
    • THE TEMPLARS.
    • Chapter I.
      • Introduction—The Crusades—Wrong Ideas respecting their Origin—True Causes of them—Pilgrimage—Pilgrimage of Frotmond—Of the Count of Anjou—Striking Difference between the Christianity of the East and that of the West—Causes of their different Characters—Feudalism—The Extent and Force of this Principle.
    • Introduction—The Crusades—Wrong Ideas respecting their Origin—True Causes of them—Pilgrimage—Pilgrimage of Frotmond—Of the Count of Anjou—Striking Difference between the Christianity of the East and that of the West—Causes of their different Characters—Feudalism—The Extent and Force of this Principle.
    • Chapter II.
      • First Hospital at Jerusalem—Church of Santa Maria de Latina—Hospital of St. John—The Hospitallers—Origin of the Templars—Their original Poverty—They acquire Consideration—St. Bernard—His Character of the Templars—The Order approved of and confirmed by the Council of Troyes—Proofs of the Esteem in which they were held.
      • Seal of the Templars.
    • First Hospital at Jerusalem—Church of Santa Maria de Latina—Hospital of St. John—The Hospitallers—Origin of the Templars—Their original Poverty—They acquire Consideration—St. Bernard—His Character of the Templars—The Order approved of and confirmed by the Council of Troyes—Proofs of the Esteem in which they were held.
    • Seal of the Templars.
    • Chapter III.
      • Return of the Templars to the East—Exoneration and Refutation of the Charge of a Connection with the Ismaïlites—Actions of the Templars—Crusade of Louis VII.—Siege of Ascalon—Sale of Nassir-ed-deen—Corruption of the Hospitallers—The bull, Omne Datum Optimum—Refusal of the Templars to march against Egypt—Murder of the Ismaïlite Envoy.
    • Return of the Templars to the East—Exoneration and Refutation of the Charge of a Connection with the Ismaïlites—Actions of the Templars—Crusade of Louis VII.—Siege of Ascalon—Sale of Nassir-ed-deen—Corruption of the Hospitallers—The bull, Omne Datum Optimum—Refusal of the Templars to march against Egypt—Murder of the Ismaïlite Envoy.
    • Chapter IV.
      • Heroism of the Templars and Hospitallers—Battle of Hittin—Crusade of Richard of England and Philip of France—Corruption of the Order—Pope Innocent III. writes a Letter of Censure—Frederic II.—Great Slaughter of the Templars—Henry III. of England and the Templars—Power of the Templars in Moravia—Slaughter of them by the Hospitallers—Fall of Acre.
    • Heroism of the Templars and Hospitallers—Battle of Hittin—Crusade of Richard of England and Philip of France—Corruption of the Order—Pope Innocent III. writes a Letter of Censure—Frederic II.—Great Slaughter of the Templars—Henry III. of England and the Templars—Power of the Templars in Moravia—Slaughter of them by the Hospitallers—Fall of Acre.
    • Chapter V.
      • Classes of the Templars—The Knights—Their Qualifications—Mode of Reception—Dress and Arms of the Knight—Mode of Burial—The Chaplains—Mode of Reception—Dress—Duties and Privileges—The Serving-Brethren—Mode of Reception—Their Duties—The Affiliated—Causes and Advantages of Affiliation—The Donates and Oblates.
      • Costume of Knight Templar.
      • Knights in Temple Church, London.
      • Effigies of Knights in Temple Church.
    • Classes of the Templars—The Knights—Their Qualifications—Mode of Reception—Dress and Arms of the Knight—Mode of Burial—The Chaplains—Mode of Reception—Dress—Duties and Privileges—The Serving-Brethren—Mode of Reception—Their Duties—The Affiliated—Causes and Advantages of Affiliation—The Donates and Oblates.
    • Costume of Knight Templar.
    • Knights in Temple Church, London.
    • Effigies of Knights in Temple Church.
    • Chapter VI.
      • Provinces of the Order—Eastern Provinces—Jerusalem—Houses of this Province—Tripolis—Antioch—Cyprus—Western Provinces—Portugal—Castile and Leon—Aragon—France and Auvergne—Normandy—Aquitaine—Provence—England—Germany—Upper and Central Italy—Apulia and Sicily.
      • Interior of Round Tower, in Temple Church, London.
      • Saxon Doorway, Temple Church, London.
      • Details of Saxon Capitals.
      • Round Temple Church, Cambridge.
    • Provinces of the Order—Eastern Provinces—Jerusalem—Houses of this Province—Tripolis—Antioch—Cyprus—Western Provinces—Portugal—Castile and Leon—Aragon—France and Auvergne—Normandy—Aquitaine—Provence—England—Germany—Upper and Central Italy—Apulia and Sicily.
    • Interior of Round Tower, in Temple Church, London.
    • Saxon Doorway, Temple Church, London.
    • Details of Saxon Capitals.
    • Round Temple Church, Cambridge.
    • Chapter VII.
      • Officers of the Order—The Master—Mode of Election—His Rights and Privileges—Restraints on him—The Seneschal—The Marshal—The Treasurer—The Draper—The Turcopilar—Great-Priors—Commanders—Visitors—Sub-Marshal—Standard-bearer.
      • Preceptory, Swingfield, Dover
    • Officers of the Order—The Master—Mode of Election—His Rights and Privileges—Restraints on him—The Seneschal—The Marshal—The Treasurer—The Draper—The Turcopilar—Great-Priors—Commanders—Visitors—Sub-Marshal—Standard-bearer.
    • Preceptory, Swingfield, Dover
    • Chapter VIII.
      • Chapters—Mode of holding them—Templars' Mode of Living—Amusements—Conduct in War.
    • Chapters—Mode of holding them—Templars' Mode of Living—Amusements—Conduct in War.
    • Chapter IX.
      • Molay elected Master—Last attempt of the Christians in Syria—Conduct of the Three Military Orders—Philip the Fair and Pope Boniface VIII.—Seizure of the Pope—Election of Clement V.—The Papal See removed to France—Causes of Philip's enmity to the Templars—Arrival of Molay in France—His interviews with the Pope—Charges made against the Templars—Seizure of the Knights—Proceedings in England—Nature of the Charges against the Order.
      • Philip le Bel.
    • Molay elected Master—Last attempt of the Christians in Syria—Conduct of the Three Military Orders—Philip the Fair and Pope Boniface VIII.—Seizure of the Pope—Election of Clement V.—The Papal See removed to France—Causes of Philip's enmity to the Templars—Arrival of Molay in France—His interviews with the Pope—Charges made against the Templars—Seizure of the Knights—Proceedings in England—Nature of the Charges against the Order.
    • Philip le Bel.
    • Chapter X.
      • Examination of the captive Knights—Different kinds of Torture—Causes of Confession—What Confessions were made—Templars brought before the Pope—Their Declarations—Papal Commission—Molay brought before it—Ponsard de Gisi—Defenders of the Order—Act of Accusation—Heads of Defence—Witnesses against the Order—Fifty-four Templars committed to the flames at Paris—Remarkable words of Aymeric de Villars-le-Duc—Templars burnt in other Places—Further Examinations—The Head worshipped by the Templars—John de Pollincourt—Peter de la Palu.
    • Examination of the captive Knights—Different kinds of Torture—Causes of Confession—What Confessions were made—Templars brought before the Pope—Their Declarations—Papal Commission—Molay brought before it—Ponsard de Gisi—Defenders of the Order—Act of Accusation—Heads of Defence—Witnesses against the Order—Fifty-four Templars committed to the flames at Paris—Remarkable words of Aymeric de Villars-le-Duc—Templars burnt in other Places—Further Examinations—The Head worshipped by the Templars—John de Pollincourt—Peter de la Palu.
    • Chapter XI.
      • Examinations in England—Germany—Spain—Italy—Naples and Provence—Sicily—Cyprus—Meeting of the Council of Vienne—Suppression of the order—Fate of its Members—Death of Molay.
      • Portrait of last Grand Master.
    • Examinations in England—Germany—Spain—Italy—Naples and Provence—Sicily—Cyprus—Meeting of the Council of Vienne—Suppression of the order—Fate of its Members—Death of Molay.
    • Portrait of last Grand Master.
    • THE SECRET TRIBUNALS OF WESTPHALIA[110].
    • Chapter I.
      • Introduction—The Original Westphalia—Conquest of the Saxons by Charlemagne—His Regulations—Dukes of Saxony—State of Germany—Henry the Lion—His Outlawry—Consequences of it—Origin of German Towns—Origin of the Fehm-gerichte, or Secret Tribunals—Theories of their Origin—Origin of their Name—Synonymous Terms.
    • Introduction—The Original Westphalia—Conquest of the Saxons by Charlemagne—His Regulations—Dukes of Saxony—State of Germany—Henry the Lion—His Outlawry—Consequences of it—Origin of German Towns—Origin of the Fehm-gerichte, or Secret Tribunals—Theories of their Origin—Origin of their Name—Synonymous Terms.
    • Chapter II.
      • The Tribunal-Lord—The Count—The Schöppen—The Messengers—The Public Court—The Secret Tribunal—Extent of its Jurisdiction—Places of holding the Courts—Time of holding them—Proceedings in them—Process where the criminal was caught in the fact—Inquisitorial Process.
    • The Tribunal-Lord—The Count—The Schöppen—The Messengers—The Public Court—The Secret Tribunal—Extent of its Jurisdiction—Places of holding the Courts—Time of holding them—Proceedings in them—Process where the criminal was caught in the fact—Inquisitorial Process.
    • Chapter III.
      • Accusatorial process—Persons liable to it—Mode of citation—Mode of procedure—Right of appeal.
    • Accusatorial process—Persons liable to it—Mode of citation—Mode of procedure—Right of appeal.
    • Chapter IV.
      • The General Chapter—Rights of the Emperor—Of his Lieutenant—Of the Stuhlherrn, or Tribunal-Lords.
    • The General Chapter—Rights of the Emperor—Of his Lieutenant—Of the Stuhlherrn, or Tribunal-Lords.
    • Chapter V.
      • Fehm-courts at Celle—At Brunswick—Tribunal of the Knowing in the Tyrol—The Castle of Baden—African Purrahs.
    • Fehm-courts at Celle—At Brunswick—Tribunal of the Knowing in the Tyrol—The Castle of Baden—African Purrahs.
    • Chapter VI.
      • The Emperor Lewis the Bavarian—Charles IV.—Wenceslaus—Rupertian Reformation—Encroachments of the Fehm-courts—Case of Nickel Weller and the town of Görlitz—Of the City of Dantzig—Of Hans David and the Teutonic Knights—Other instances of the presumption of the Free-counts—Citation of the Emperor Frederic III.—Case of the Count of Teckenburg.
    • The Emperor Lewis the Bavarian—Charles IV.—Wenceslaus—Rupertian Reformation—Encroachments of the Fehm-courts—Case of Nickel Weller and the town of Görlitz—Of the City of Dantzig—Of Hans David and the Teutonic Knights—Other instances of the presumption of the Free-counts—Citation of the Emperor Frederic III.—Case of the Count of Teckenburg.
    • Chapter VII.
      • Cause of the degeneracy of the Fehm-courts—Attempts at reformation—Causes of their high reputation—Case of the Duke of Würtemberg—Of Kerstian Kerkerink—Causes of the decline of the Fehm-jurisdiction.
      • Seal of the Secret Tribunals.
    • Cause of the degeneracy of the Fehm-courts—Attempts at reformation—Causes of their high reputation—Case of the Duke of Würtemberg—Of Kerstian Kerkerink—Causes of the decline of the Fehm-jurisdiction.
    • Seal of the Secret Tribunals.
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