The Elements of Qualitative Chemical Analysis, vol. 1, parts 1 and 2. With Special Consideration of the Application of the Laws of Equilibrium and of the Modern Theories of Solution.
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The Elements of Qualitative Chemical Analysis, vol. 1, parts 1 and 2. With Special Consideration of the Application of the Laws of Equilibrium and of the Modern Theories of Solution.

By Julius Stieglitz
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Table of Contents
  • The Elements of Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Volume I, Parts I and II. Fundamental Principles and Their Application. By Julius Stieglitz.
  • Preface
  • Contents
  • List of References and Their Abbreviations
  • Part I. Fundamental Principles
    • Chapter I. Introduction
      • Chapter I Footnotes
    • Chapter I Footnotes
    • Chapter II. Osmotic Pressure and the Theory of Solution I
      • Definition of Osmotic Pressure.
      • Measurement of Osmotic Pressure.
      • Osmotic Pressure and the Laws of Gases.
      • Boyle's Law.
      • Gay-Lussac's Law.
      • The Avogadro-van 't Hoff Hypothesis.
      • Indirect Determinations of Osmotic Pressure.
      • Apparent Exceptions.
      • Summary.
      • Chapter II Footnotes
    • Definition of Osmotic Pressure.
    • Measurement of Osmotic Pressure.
    • Osmotic Pressure and the Laws of Gases.
    • Boyle's Law.
    • Gay-Lussac's Law.
    • The Avogadro-van 't Hoff Hypothesis.
    • Indirect Determinations of Osmotic Pressure.
    • Apparent Exceptions.
    • Summary.
    • Chapter II Footnotes
    • Chapter III. Osmotic Pressure and the Theory of Solution II
      • Semipermeability.
      • Osmosis.
      • Osmosis and Gas Pressure.
      • The Kinetic Theory and Osmotic Pressure.
      • Chapter III Footnotes
    • Semipermeability.
    • Osmosis.
    • Osmosis and Gas Pressure.
    • The Kinetic Theory and Osmotic Pressure.
    • Chapter III Footnotes
    • Chapter IV. The Theory of Ionization; Ionization and Electrical Conductivity
      • Gaseous Dissociation.
      • Molecular Weight Determinations in Solution.
      • The Theory of Ionization.
      • Main Assumptions of Arrhenius's Theory of Ionization.
      • The Theory of Ionization and the Electron Theory of Electricity and of Matter.
      • The Validity of the Theory of Ionization.
      • Ionization and Electrical Conductivity.
      • Electrolysis.
      • Conductivity and Dilution.
      • Degree of Ionization of an Electrolyte.
      • Clausius's Theory of Ionization and the Modern Theory.
      • Mobilities or Partial Conductivities of Ions: Principle of Kohlrausch.
      • Faraday's Law.
      • Diffusion of Ions and Concentration Cells.
      • The Rôle of the Solvent in Ionization.
      • The Ionizing Power of Solvents Related to the Unsaturated Condition of their Simple Molecules and to their Power of Association.
      • Chapter IV Footnotes
    • Gaseous Dissociation.
    • Molecular Weight Determinations in Solution.
    • The Theory of Ionization.
    • Main Assumptions of Arrhenius's Theory of Ionization.
    • The Theory of Ionization and the Electron Theory of Electricity and of Matter.
    • The Validity of the Theory of Ionization.
    • Ionization and Electrical Conductivity.
    • Electrolysis.
    • Conductivity and Dilution.
    • Degree of Ionization of an Electrolyte.
    • Clausius's Theory of Ionization and the Modern Theory.
    • Mobilities or Partial Conductivities of Ions: Principle of Kohlrausch.
    • Faraday's Law.
    • Diffusion of Ions and Concentration Cells.
    • The Rôle of the Solvent in Ionization.
    • The Ionizing Power of Solvents Related to the Unsaturated Condition of their Simple Molecules and to their Power of Association.
    • Chapter IV Footnotes
    • Chapter V. The Theory of Ionization. II.
      • Quantitative Evidence.
      • The Chemical Composition of the Ions of Electrolytes.
      • Ionization and Chemical Activity.
      • Dry Salts and their Aqueous Solutions.
      • Behavior of Fused Salts.
      • Dry Salts at Ordinary Temperatures.
      • Influence of Light and Heat.
      • Conclusions.
      • Quantitative Relations.
      • Summary.
      • Chemical Activity of Non-ionized Molecules.
      • Reactions in Non-aqueous Solutions.
      • Some Applications of the Chemical Activity of Ions to Qualitative Analysis.
      • Chapter V Footnotes
    • Quantitative Evidence.
    • The Chemical Composition of the Ions of Electrolytes.
    • Ionization and Chemical Activity.
    • Dry Salts and their Aqueous Solutions.
    • Behavior of Fused Salts.
    • Dry Salts at Ordinary Temperatures.
    • Influence of Light and Heat.
    • Conclusions.
    • Quantitative Relations.
    • Summary.
    • Chemical Activity of Non-ionized Molecules.
    • Reactions in Non-aqueous Solutions.
    • Some Applications of the Chemical Activity of Ions to Qualitative Analysis.
    • Chapter V Footnotes
    • Chapter VI. Chemical Equilibrium. The Law of Mass Action
      • The Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
      • Limitations to the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
      • The Factors of the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
      • Chemical Equilibrium of Electrolytes.
      • The Ionization of Various Acids.
      • The Ionization of Polybasic Acids.
      • The Ionization of Bases.
      • The Ionization of Salts.
      • The Ionization of Strong Electrolytes and the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
      • The "Salt Effect".
      • Some Applications of the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
      • The Exceptional Ionization of Mercuric Cyanide and Its Consequences.
      • Chapter VI Footnotes
    • The Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
    • Limitations to the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
    • The Factors of the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
    • Chemical Equilibrium of Electrolytes.
    • The Ionization of Various Acids.
    • The Ionization of Polybasic Acids.
    • The Ionization of Bases.
    • The Ionization of Salts.
    • The Ionization of Strong Electrolytes and the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
    • The "Salt Effect".
    • Some Applications of the Law of Chemical Equilibrium.
    • The Exceptional Ionization of Mercuric Cyanide and Its Consequences.
    • Chapter VI Footnotes
    • Chapter VII. Physical Or Heterogeneous Equilibrium.—The Colloidal Condition
      • Applications of the Law of Physical Equilibrium.
      • Supersaturated Solutions.
      • Solubility of Fine Powders.
      • The Colloidal Condition
      • Colloidal Gold.
      • Colloidal Silver.
      • Colloidal Ferric Hydroxide.
      • Solution Theory of the Colloidal Condition.
      • The Suspension Theory of the Colloidal Condition.
      • The General Character and the Definition of the Colloidal Condition.
      • Relations to Analysis.
      • Electrical Conditions of Colloids.
      • The Source of the Electrical Charges on Colloids.
      • Precipitation of Colloids by Electrolytes and by Colloids.
      • The Precipitating Power of Electrolytes and the Valence of their Ions.
      • Nonprecipitation of Nonelectrified Colloids by Electrolytes.
      • Protective Action of Colloids on Other Colloids.
      • Applications in Analysis.
      • Chapter VII Footnotes
    • Applications of the Law of Physical Equilibrium.
    • Supersaturated Solutions.
    • Solubility of Fine Powders.
    • The Colloidal Condition
    • Colloidal Gold.
    • Colloidal Silver.
    • Colloidal Ferric Hydroxide.
    • Solution Theory of the Colloidal Condition.
    • The Suspension Theory of the Colloidal Condition.
    • The General Character and the Definition of the Colloidal Condition.
    • Relations to Analysis.
    • Electrical Conditions of Colloids.
    • The Source of the Electrical Charges on Colloids.
    • Precipitation of Colloids by Electrolytes and by Colloids.
    • The Precipitating Power of Electrolytes and the Valence of their Ions.
    • Nonprecipitation of Nonelectrified Colloids by Electrolytes.
    • Protective Action of Colloids on Other Colloids.
    • Applications in Analysis.
    • Chapter VII Footnotes
    • Chapter VIII. Simultaneous Chemical and Physical Equilibrium.—The Solubility- or Ion-product.
      • Earlier Derivation of the Solubility-Product Principle.
      • The Solubility- or Ion-Product Principle.
      • Criticism of the Derivation of the Principle.
      • Influence of a Common Ion.
      • Precipitation.
      • Applications in Analysis.
      • Washing of Precipitates.
      • The Solubility-Product in Volumetric Analysis.
      • Effect of Electrolytes with No Ion in Common with the Precipitate.
      • Solution of Precipitates.
      • Summary.
      • Further Considerations Concerning Precipitation and Solution.
      • Solubility and Solvent.
      • Chapter VIII Footnotes
    • Earlier Derivation of the Solubility-Product Principle.
    • The Solubility- or Ion-Product Principle.
    • Criticism of the Derivation of the Principle.
    • Influence of a Common Ion.
    • Precipitation.
    • Applications in Analysis.
    • Washing of Precipitates.
    • The Solubility-Product in Volumetric Analysis.
    • Effect of Electrolytes with No Ion in Common with the Precipitate.
    • Solution of Precipitates.
    • Summary.
    • Further Considerations Concerning Precipitation and Solution.
    • Solubility and Solvent.
    • Chapter VIII Footnotes
  • Part II. Systematic Analysis and the Application of Fundamental Principles
    • Chapter IX. Systematic Analysis for the Common Metal Ions. The Ions of the Alkalies and of the Alkaline Earths. Order of Precipitation of Difficultly Soluble Salts With a Common Ion
      • The Silver Group.
      • The Copper and the Arsenic Groups.
      • The Aluminium and the Zinc Groups.
      • The Alkaline Earth Group.
      • The Alkalies.
      • The Alkali Group.
      • The Alkaline Earth Group.
      • Fractional Precipitation.
      • Precipitation by a Weak Base in the Presence of its Salts.
      • Chapter IX Footnotes
    • The Silver Group.
    • The Copper and the Arsenic Groups.
    • The Aluminium and the Zinc Groups.
    • The Alkaline Earth Group.
    • The Alkalies.
    • The Alkali Group.
    • The Alkaline Earth Group.
    • Fractional Precipitation.
    • Precipitation by a Weak Base in the Presence of its Salts.
    • Chapter IX Footnotes
    • Chapter X. Aluminium; Amphoteric Hydroxides; Hydrolysis of Salts. The Aluminium and Zinc Groups
      • Aluminium Hydroxide an Amphoteric Hydroxide.
      • Common Occurrence of Amphoteric Hydroxides.
      • Amphoteric Character of Hydroxides Considered in Analysis.
      • Self-Neutralization of Amphoteric Substances.
      • Hydrolysis of Salts
      • Ionization of Water.
      • Water is An Acid.
      • Water as a Base.
      • Action of Water on a Salt of a Strong Base and a Strong Acid.
      • Action of Water on the Salt of a Strong Base with a Weak Acid.
      • Action of Water on a Salt of a Strong Acid with a Weak Base.
      • Action of Water on a Salt of a Base and an Acid, Both of which are Weak.
      • Self-Neutralization of Amphoteric Hydroxides.
      • The Analysis of the Aluminium and Zinc Groups.
      • Separation of the Aluminium Group from the Zinc Group by Means of Ammonium Chloride and Ammonium Hydroxide.
      • Separation of Cobalt and Nickel from the Other Members of the Zinc and Aluminium Groups.
      • Separation of the Aluminium and Zinc Groups by Means of Barium Carbonate.
      • Analysis of the Aluminium Group.
      • The Favorable Conditions for a Maximum Precipitation of an Amphoteric Hydroxide.
      • Chapter X Footnotes
    • Aluminium Hydroxide an Amphoteric Hydroxide.
    • Common Occurrence of Amphoteric Hydroxides.
    • Amphoteric Character of Hydroxides Considered in Analysis.
    • Self-Neutralization of Amphoteric Substances.
    • Hydrolysis of Salts
    • Ionization of Water.
    • Water is An Acid.
    • Water as a Base.
    • Action of Water on a Salt of a Strong Base and a Strong Acid.
    • Action of Water on the Salt of a Strong Base with a Weak Acid.
    • Action of Water on a Salt of a Strong Acid with a Weak Base.
    • Action of Water on a Salt of a Base and an Acid, Both of which are Weak.
    • Self-Neutralization of Amphoteric Hydroxides.
    • The Analysis of the Aluminium and Zinc Groups.
    • Separation of the Aluminium Group from the Zinc Group by Means of Ammonium Chloride and Ammonium Hydroxide.
    • Separation of Cobalt and Nickel from the Other Members of the Zinc and Aluminium Groups.
    • Separation of the Aluminium and Zinc Groups by Means of Barium Carbonate.
    • Analysis of the Aluminium Group.
    • The Favorable Conditions for a Maximum Precipitation of an Amphoteric Hydroxide.
    • Chapter X Footnotes
    • Chapter XI. The Copper and Silver Groups. Precipitation With Hydrogen Sulphide
      • The Ionization of Hydrogen Sulphide.
      • Precipitation of Sulphides by Hydrogen Sulphide.
      • Theory of the Separation of Sulphides by Precipitation with Hydrogen Sulphide. I. Precipitation of Ferrous Sulphide.
      • II. Precipitation of Zinc Sulphide.
      • III. Precipitation of Cadmium Sulphide.
      • The Separation of the Copper and Arsenic Groups from the Zinc Group.
      • The Effect of a Large Excess of Acid.
      • The Desirable Concentration of Acid (of Hydrogen-ion) and an Indicator for Correct Acidification.
      • Chapter XI Footnotes
    • The Ionization of Hydrogen Sulphide.
    • Precipitation of Sulphides by Hydrogen Sulphide.
    • Theory of the Separation of Sulphides by Precipitation with Hydrogen Sulphide. I. Precipitation of Ferrous Sulphide.
    • II. Precipitation of Zinc Sulphide.
    • III. Precipitation of Cadmium Sulphide.
    • The Separation of the Copper and Arsenic Groups from the Zinc Group.
    • The Effect of a Large Excess of Acid.
    • The Desirable Concentration of Acid (of Hydrogen-ion) and an Indicator for Correct Acidification.
    • Chapter XI Footnotes
    • Chapter XII. The Copper and Silver Groups (continued).—The Theory of Complex Ions
      • Action of Ammonia on Silver Nitrate.
      • The Complex Silver-Ammonium425-Ion.
      • Application in Analysis.
      • Complex Metal-Ammonium Ions of Copper, Cadmium, etc.
      • The Complex Cyanide Ions.
      • The Argenticyanide-Ion.
      • Cuprocyanide and Cadmicyanide Ions.
      • Cobalticyanide and Nickelocyanide Ions.
      • Applications and Precautions in Analysis.
      • Ferrocyanide and Ferricyanide Ions.
      • The Aurocyanide-Ion.
      • The Reacting Components in Solutions of the Complex Cyanide Ions.
      • The Structure of Complex Ions.
      • Complex Halide, Sulphide, Oxide and Oxonium Ions.
      • Complex Ions of Organic Oxygen Derivatives.
      • Chapter XII Footnotes
    • Action of Ammonia on Silver Nitrate.
    • The Complex Silver-Ammonium425-Ion.
    • Application in Analysis.
    • Complex Metal-Ammonium Ions of Copper, Cadmium, etc.
    • The Complex Cyanide Ions.
    • The Argenticyanide-Ion.
    • Cuprocyanide and Cadmicyanide Ions.
    • Cobalticyanide and Nickelocyanide Ions.
    • Applications and Precautions in Analysis.
    • Ferrocyanide and Ferricyanide Ions.
    • The Aurocyanide-Ion.
    • The Reacting Components in Solutions of the Complex Cyanide Ions.
    • The Structure of Complex Ions.
    • Complex Halide, Sulphide, Oxide and Oxonium Ions.
    • Complex Ions of Organic Oxygen Derivatives.
    • Chapter XII Footnotes
    • Chapter XIII. The Arsenic Group. Sulpho-acids and Sulpho-salts
      • Sulpho-Salts.
      • Sulpho-Acids.
      • Sulpho-Bases.
      • Sulphoxy-Salts.
      • Complex Sulphide Ions.
      • Sulphurization of Sulphides.
      • Behavior of Arsenic Acid toward Hydrogen Sulphide.
      • Chapter XIII Footnotes
    • Sulpho-Salts.
    • Sulpho-Acids.
    • Sulpho-Bases.
    • Sulphoxy-Salts.
    • Complex Sulphide Ions.
    • Sulphurization of Sulphides.
    • Behavior of Arsenic Acid toward Hydrogen Sulphide.
    • Chapter XIII Footnotes
    • Chapter XIV. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. I
      • Definitions of Oxidation and Reduction in Electric Terms.
      • Oxidations and Reductions by Electric Currents.
      • Production of Electric Currents by Means of Oxidation and Reduction Reactions.
      • Effects of Ion Concentrations on the Current.
      • Further Illustrations.
      • Summary.
      • Need of the Study of the Quantitative Relations.
      • Oxidation and Reduction Reactions as Reversible Reactions.
      • Condition of Equilibrium.
      • Applications.
      • The Equilibrium Relations between Two Metals and Their Ions.
      • General Principles Concerning Equilibrium in Reversible Oxidation and Reduction Reactions.
      • Applications; Reduction of Ferric Salts and Oxidation of Ferrous Salts.
      • Intensity of Reactions.
      • Reduction of Ferric Salts by Iodides.
      • Action of Chlorides on Ferric Salts.
      • Summary.
      • Chapter XIV Footnotes
    • Definitions of Oxidation and Reduction in Electric Terms.
    • Oxidations and Reductions by Electric Currents.
    • Production of Electric Currents by Means of Oxidation and Reduction Reactions.
    • Effects of Ion Concentrations on the Current.
    • Further Illustrations.
    • Summary.
    • Need of the Study of the Quantitative Relations.
    • Oxidation and Reduction Reactions as Reversible Reactions.
    • Condition of Equilibrium.
    • Applications.
    • The Equilibrium Relations between Two Metals and Their Ions.
    • General Principles Concerning Equilibrium in Reversible Oxidation and Reduction Reactions.
    • Applications; Reduction of Ferric Salts and Oxidation of Ferrous Salts.
    • Intensity of Reactions.
    • Reduction of Ferric Salts by Iodides.
    • Action of Chlorides on Ferric Salts.
    • Summary.
    • Chapter XIV Footnotes
    • Chapter XV. Oxidation and Reduction. II. Oxidation by Oxygen, Permanganates, Etc.; Oxidation of Organic Compounds
      • Oxidation of Hydrogen by Oxygen.
      • Summary.
      • Interpretation of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Terms of the Oxygen-Hydrogen Gas Cell.
      • Interpretation of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Terms of Direct Transfers of Electric Charges.
      • Arsenic Acid as an Oxidizing Agent.
      • Permanganic Acid, Chromic Acids, etc., as Oxidizing Agents.
      • Nitric Acid.
      • Summary.
      • Oxidation of Organic Compounds.
      • Summary.
      • Tables and Summaries.
      • Chapter XV Footnotes
    • Oxidation of Hydrogen by Oxygen.
    • Summary.
    • Interpretation of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Terms of the Oxygen-Hydrogen Gas Cell.
    • Interpretation of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Terms of Direct Transfers of Electric Charges.
    • Arsenic Acid as an Oxidizing Agent.
    • Permanganic Acid, Chromic Acids, etc., as Oxidizing Agents.
    • Nitric Acid.
    • Summary.
    • Oxidation of Organic Compounds.
    • Summary.
    • Tables and Summaries.
    • Chapter XV Footnotes
    • Chapter XVI. Systematic Analysis for Acid Ions
      • Grouping of Acid Ions.
      • Systematic Analysis for Acid Ions, Based on the Removal of Metal Ions other than the Alkali Metal Ions.
      • Systematic Analysis for Acid Ions in Acid Solution.
      • Desirability of Experience with Both Methods.
      • The Groups of Acid Ions.
      • Applications of Physico-Chemical Principles and Theories.
      • Fractional Precipitation of Salts with a Common Ion.
      • Complex Ions.
      • Complex Ions of Acid Ions with Other Acids.
      • Oxidation and Reduction.
      • Oxidation of Hydroiodic Acid by Air.
      • Oxidation of Potassium Iodide by Air.
      • Chapter XVI Footnotes
    • Grouping of Acid Ions.
    • Systematic Analysis for Acid Ions, Based on the Removal of Metal Ions other than the Alkali Metal Ions.
    • Systematic Analysis for Acid Ions in Acid Solution.
    • Desirability of Experience with Both Methods.
    • The Groups of Acid Ions.
    • Applications of Physico-Chemical Principles and Theories.
    • Fractional Precipitation of Salts with a Common Ion.
    • Complex Ions.
    • Complex Ions of Acid Ions with Other Acids.
    • Oxidation and Reduction.
    • Oxidation of Hydroiodic Acid by Air.
    • Oxidation of Potassium Iodide by Air.
    • Chapter XVI Footnotes
  • Index
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