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The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4) A Plain Story Simply Told

By J. Arthur (John Arthur) Thomson
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Table of Contents
  • THE OUTLINE OF SCIENCE
    • A PLAIN STORY SIMPLY TOLD
      • EDITED BY J. ARTHUR THOMSON REGIUS PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN
        • IN FOUR VOLUMES
        • G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS NEW YORK AND LONDON The Knickerbocker press
      • IN FOUR VOLUMES
      • G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS NEW YORK AND LONDON The Knickerbocker press
    • EDITED BY J. ARTHUR THOMSON REGIUS PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN
      • IN FOUR VOLUMES
      • G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS NEW YORK AND LONDON The Knickerbocker press
    • IN FOUR VOLUMES
    • G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS NEW YORK AND LONDON The Knickerbocker press
    • INTRODUCTORY NOTE
    • CONTENTS
    • ILLUSTRATIONS
  • The Outline of Science
    • INTRODUCTION
    • I
    • THE ROMANCE OF THE HEAVENS
      • THE SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE—THE SOLAR SYSTEM
      • § 1
        • The Heavenly Bodies
      • The Heavenly Bodies
      • § 2
        • The Scale of the Universe
        • Are there other Universes?
      • The Scale of the Universe
      • Are there other Universes?
      • THE SOLAR SYSTEM
      • THE SUN
      • § 1
        • The Solar System
        • The Sun
        • Regions of the Sun
      • The Solar System
      • The Sun
      • Regions of the Sun
      • § 2
        • The Surface of the Sun
        • Sun-spots
        • A WONDERFUL INSTRUMENT AND WHAT IT REVEALS
        • A Unique Discovery
        • Measuring the Speed of Light
      • The Surface of the Sun
      • Sun-spots
      • A WONDERFUL INSTRUMENT AND WHAT IT REVEALS
      • A Unique Discovery
      • Measuring the Speed of Light
      • IS THE SUN DYING?
      • § 3
      • THE PLANETS
      • LIFE IN OTHER WORLDS?
      • § 1
        • The Planet Venus
        • Is there Life on Mars?
      • The Planet Venus
      • Is there Life on Mars?
      • § 2
        • Jupiter and Saturn
      • Jupiter and Saturn
      • THE MOON
        • A Dead World
        • The Mountains of the Moon
      • A Dead World
      • The Mountains of the Moon
      • METEORS AND COMETS
        • Millions of Meteorites
        • A Great Comet
      • Millions of Meteorites
      • A Great Comet
      • THE STELLAR UNIVERSE
      • § 1
        • The Evolution of Stars
        • The Age of Stars
      • The Evolution of Stars
      • The Age of Stars
      • THE NEBULAR THEORY
      • § 2
        • Spiral Nebulæ
      • Spiral Nebulæ
      • THE BIRTH AND DEATH OF STARS
      • § 3
        • Variable, New, and Dark Stars: Dying Suns
        • The Death and Birth of Stars
      • Variable, New, and Dark Stars: Dying Suns
      • The Death and Birth of Stars
      • THE SHAPE OF OUR UNIVERSE
      • § 4
        • Our Universe a Spiral Nebula
      • Our Universe a Spiral Nebula
      • ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS
      • § 1
        • The Telescope
      • The Telescope
      • § 2
        • The Spectroscope
      • The Spectroscope
      • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • THE SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE—THE SOLAR SYSTEM
    • § 1
      • The Heavenly Bodies
    • The Heavenly Bodies
    • § 2
      • The Scale of the Universe
      • Are there other Universes?
    • The Scale of the Universe
    • Are there other Universes?
    • THE SOLAR SYSTEM
    • THE SUN
    • § 1
      • The Solar System
      • The Sun
      • Regions of the Sun
    • The Solar System
    • The Sun
    • Regions of the Sun
    • § 2
      • The Surface of the Sun
      • Sun-spots
      • A WONDERFUL INSTRUMENT AND WHAT IT REVEALS
      • A Unique Discovery
      • Measuring the Speed of Light
    • The Surface of the Sun
    • Sun-spots
    • A WONDERFUL INSTRUMENT AND WHAT IT REVEALS
    • A Unique Discovery
    • Measuring the Speed of Light
    • IS THE SUN DYING?
    • § 3
    • THE PLANETS
    • LIFE IN OTHER WORLDS?
    • § 1
      • The Planet Venus
      • Is there Life on Mars?
    • The Planet Venus
    • Is there Life on Mars?
    • § 2
      • Jupiter and Saturn
    • Jupiter and Saturn
    • THE MOON
      • A Dead World
      • The Mountains of the Moon
    • A Dead World
    • The Mountains of the Moon
    • METEORS AND COMETS
      • Millions of Meteorites
      • A Great Comet
    • Millions of Meteorites
    • A Great Comet
    • THE STELLAR UNIVERSE
    • § 1
      • The Evolution of Stars
      • The Age of Stars
    • The Evolution of Stars
    • The Age of Stars
    • THE NEBULAR THEORY
    • § 2
      • Spiral Nebulæ
    • Spiral Nebulæ
    • THE BIRTH AND DEATH OF STARS
    • § 3
      • Variable, New, and Dark Stars: Dying Suns
      • The Death and Birth of Stars
    • Variable, New, and Dark Stars: Dying Suns
    • The Death and Birth of Stars
    • THE SHAPE OF OUR UNIVERSE
    • § 4
      • Our Universe a Spiral Nebula
    • Our Universe a Spiral Nebula
    • ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • § 1
      • The Telescope
    • The Telescope
    • § 2
      • The Spectroscope
    • The Spectroscope
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • II
    • THE STORY OF EVOLUTION
      • INTRODUCTORY
      • THE BEGINNING OF THE EARTH—MAKING A HOME FOR LIFE—THE FIRST LIVING CREATURES
      • § 1
      • § 2
        • The Beginning of the Earth
        • The Nebular Hypothesis
        • The Growth of the Earth
      • The Beginning of the Earth
      • The Nebular Hypothesis
      • The Growth of the Earth
      • § 3
        • Making a Home for Life
        • Origin of Living Creatures upon the Earth
      • Making a Home for Life
      • Origin of Living Creatures upon the Earth
      • § 4
        • The First Organisms upon the Earth
      • The First Organisms upon the Earth
      • FIRST GREAT STEPS IN EVOLUTION
        • THE FIRST PLANTS—THE FIRST ANIMALS—BEGINNINGS OF BODIES—EVOLUTION OF SEX—BEGINNING OF NATURAL DEATH
      • THE FIRST PLANTS—THE FIRST ANIMALS—BEGINNINGS OF BODIES—EVOLUTION OF SEX—BEGINNING OF NATURAL DEATH
      • § 1
        • The Contrast between Plants and Animals
      • The Contrast between Plants and Animals
      • § 2
        • The Beginnings of Land Plants
        • The Protozoa
      • The Beginnings of Land Plants
      • The Protozoa
      • § 3
        • The Making of a Body
        • The Beginning of Sexual Reproduction
      • The Making of a Body
      • The Beginning of Sexual Reproduction
      • § 4
        • The Evolution of Sex
      • The Evolution of Sex
      • § 5
        • The Beginning of Natural Death
      • The Beginning of Natural Death
      • § 6
        • Great Acquisitions
      • Great Acquisitions
      • THE INCLINED PLANE OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
      • § 1
        • Evolution of Mind
        • The Trial and Error Method
        • Reflex Actions
        • What are Called Tropisms
      • Evolution of Mind
      • The Trial and Error Method
      • Reflex Actions
      • What are Called Tropisms
      • § 2
        • Instinctive Behaviour
        • Animal Intelligence
      • Instinctive Behaviour
      • Animal Intelligence
      • § 3
        • Evolution of Parental Care
      • Evolution of Parental Care
      • § 4
        • The Cradle of the Open Sea
        • The Great Deeps
        • The Freshwaters
        • Conquest of the Dry Land
        • Methods of Mastering the Difficulties of Terrestrial Life
        • Conquering the Air
      • The Cradle of the Open Sea
      • The Great Deeps
      • The Freshwaters
      • Conquest of the Dry Land
      • Methods of Mastering the Difficulties of Terrestrial Life
      • Conquering the Air
      • THE PROCESSION OF LIFE THROUGH THE AGES
      • § 1
        • The Rock Record
        • The Use of Fossils
      • The Rock Record
      • The Use of Fossils
      • § 2
        • The Geological Time-table
        • The Establishment of Invertebrate Stocks
      • The Geological Time-table
      • The Establishment of Invertebrate Stocks
      • § 3
        • The Era of Ancient Life (Palæozoic)
      • The Era of Ancient Life (Palæozoic)
      • EVOLUTION OF LAND ANIMALS
      • § 1
        • Giant Amphibians and Coal-measures
        • The Acquisitions of Amphibians.
        • Evolution of the Voice
      • Giant Amphibians and Coal-measures
      • The Acquisitions of Amphibians.
      • Evolution of the Voice
      • § 2
        • The Early Reptiles
        • Disappearance of many Ancient Types
      • The Early Reptiles
      • Disappearance of many Ancient Types
      • THE GEOLOGICAL MIDDLE AGES
      • § 1
        • The Mesozoic Era
        • The Flying Dragons
        • The First Known Bird
      • The Mesozoic Era
      • The Flying Dragons
      • The First Known Bird
      • § 2
        • The Cenozoic or Tertiary Era
      • The Cenozoic or Tertiary Era
      • § 3
        • The Ascent of Man
      • The Ascent of Man
      • The Evolving System of Nature
        • Parasitism
      • Parasitism
      • THE EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION—HOW IT CAME ABOUT
      • § 1
        • Progress in Evolution
        • Evidences of Evolution
      • Progress in Evolution
      • Evidences of Evolution
      • § 2
        • Factors in Evolution
      • Factors in Evolution
      • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • INTRODUCTORY
    • THE BEGINNING OF THE EARTH—MAKING A HOME FOR LIFE—THE FIRST LIVING CREATURES
    • § 1
    • § 2
      • The Beginning of the Earth
      • The Nebular Hypothesis
      • The Growth of the Earth
    • The Beginning of the Earth
    • The Nebular Hypothesis
    • The Growth of the Earth
    • § 3
      • Making a Home for Life
      • Origin of Living Creatures upon the Earth
    • Making a Home for Life
    • Origin of Living Creatures upon the Earth
    • § 4
      • The First Organisms upon the Earth
    • The First Organisms upon the Earth
    • FIRST GREAT STEPS IN EVOLUTION
      • THE FIRST PLANTS—THE FIRST ANIMALS—BEGINNINGS OF BODIES—EVOLUTION OF SEX—BEGINNING OF NATURAL DEATH
    • THE FIRST PLANTS—THE FIRST ANIMALS—BEGINNINGS OF BODIES—EVOLUTION OF SEX—BEGINNING OF NATURAL DEATH
    • § 1
      • The Contrast between Plants and Animals
    • The Contrast between Plants and Animals
    • § 2
      • The Beginnings of Land Plants
      • The Protozoa
    • The Beginnings of Land Plants
    • The Protozoa
    • § 3
      • The Making of a Body
      • The Beginning of Sexual Reproduction
    • The Making of a Body
    • The Beginning of Sexual Reproduction
    • § 4
      • The Evolution of Sex
    • The Evolution of Sex
    • § 5
      • The Beginning of Natural Death
    • The Beginning of Natural Death
    • § 6
      • Great Acquisitions
    • Great Acquisitions
    • THE INCLINED PLANE OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
    • § 1
      • Evolution of Mind
      • The Trial and Error Method
      • Reflex Actions
      • What are Called Tropisms
    • Evolution of Mind
    • The Trial and Error Method
    • Reflex Actions
    • What are Called Tropisms
    • § 2
      • Instinctive Behaviour
      • Animal Intelligence
    • Instinctive Behaviour
    • Animal Intelligence
    • § 3
      • Evolution of Parental Care
    • Evolution of Parental Care
    • § 4
      • The Cradle of the Open Sea
      • The Great Deeps
      • The Freshwaters
      • Conquest of the Dry Land
      • Methods of Mastering the Difficulties of Terrestrial Life
      • Conquering the Air
    • The Cradle of the Open Sea
    • The Great Deeps
    • The Freshwaters
    • Conquest of the Dry Land
    • Methods of Mastering the Difficulties of Terrestrial Life
    • Conquering the Air
    • THE PROCESSION OF LIFE THROUGH THE AGES
    • § 1
      • The Rock Record
      • The Use of Fossils
    • The Rock Record
    • The Use of Fossils
    • § 2
      • The Geological Time-table
      • The Establishment of Invertebrate Stocks
    • The Geological Time-table
    • The Establishment of Invertebrate Stocks
    • § 3
      • The Era of Ancient Life (Palæozoic)
    • The Era of Ancient Life (Palæozoic)
    • EVOLUTION OF LAND ANIMALS
    • § 1
      • Giant Amphibians and Coal-measures
      • The Acquisitions of Amphibians.
      • Evolution of the Voice
    • Giant Amphibians and Coal-measures
    • The Acquisitions of Amphibians.
    • Evolution of the Voice
    • § 2
      • The Early Reptiles
      • Disappearance of many Ancient Types
    • The Early Reptiles
    • Disappearance of many Ancient Types
    • THE GEOLOGICAL MIDDLE AGES
    • § 1
      • The Mesozoic Era
      • The Flying Dragons
      • The First Known Bird
    • The Mesozoic Era
    • The Flying Dragons
    • The First Known Bird
    • § 2
      • The Cenozoic or Tertiary Era
    • The Cenozoic or Tertiary Era
    • § 3
      • The Ascent of Man
    • The Ascent of Man
    • The Evolving System of Nature
      • Parasitism
    • Parasitism
    • THE EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION—HOW IT CAME ABOUT
    • § 1
      • Progress in Evolution
      • Evidences of Evolution
    • Progress in Evolution
    • Evidences of Evolution
    • § 2
      • Factors in Evolution
    • Factors in Evolution
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • III
    • ADAPTATIONS TO ENVIRONMENT
      • ADAPTATIONS TO ENVIRONMENT
      • I. THE SHORE OF THE SEA
        • The Seaweed Area
        • Conditions of Shore Life
        • Keen Struggle for Existence
        • Shifts for a Living
        • Parental Care on the Shore
      • The Seaweed Area
      • Conditions of Shore Life
      • Keen Struggle for Existence
      • Shifts for a Living
      • Parental Care on the Shore
      • II. THE OPEN SEA
        • The Floating Sea-meadows
        • Swimmers and Drifters
        • Hunger and Love
      • The Floating Sea-meadows
      • Swimmers and Drifters
      • Hunger and Love
      • III. THE DEEP SEA
        • Physical Conditions
        • Biological Conditions
        • Adaptations to Deep-sea Life
      • Physical Conditions
      • Biological Conditions
      • Adaptations to Deep-sea Life
      • IV. THE FRESH WATERS
      • V. THE DRY LAND
        • Difficulties and Results of the Transition from Water to Land
      • Difficulties and Results of the Transition from Water to Land
      • VI. THE AIR
      • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • ADAPTATIONS TO ENVIRONMENT
    • I. THE SHORE OF THE SEA
      • The Seaweed Area
      • Conditions of Shore Life
      • Keen Struggle for Existence
      • Shifts for a Living
      • Parental Care on the Shore
    • The Seaweed Area
    • Conditions of Shore Life
    • Keen Struggle for Existence
    • Shifts for a Living
    • Parental Care on the Shore
    • II. THE OPEN SEA
      • The Floating Sea-meadows
      • Swimmers and Drifters
      • Hunger and Love
    • The Floating Sea-meadows
    • Swimmers and Drifters
    • Hunger and Love
    • III. THE DEEP SEA
      • Physical Conditions
      • Biological Conditions
      • Adaptations to Deep-sea Life
    • Physical Conditions
    • Biological Conditions
    • Adaptations to Deep-sea Life
    • IV. THE FRESH WATERS
    • V. THE DRY LAND
      • Difficulties and Results of the Transition from Water to Land
    • Difficulties and Results of the Transition from Water to Land
    • VI. THE AIR
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • IV
    • THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE
      • ANIMAL AND BIRD MIMICRY AND DISGUISE
      • § 1
        • Colour Permanently Like That of Surroundings
      • Colour Permanently Like That of Surroundings
      • § 2
        • Gradual Change of Colour
        • Seasonal Change of Colouring
      • Gradual Change of Colour
      • Seasonal Change of Colouring
      • § 3
        • Rapid Colour-change
        • The Case of Chameleons
      • Rapid Colour-change
      • The Case of Chameleons
      • § 4
        • Likeness to Other Things
      • Likeness to Other Things
      • § 5
        • Mimicry in the True Sense
        • Masking
      • Mimicry in the True Sense
      • Masking
      • § 6
        • Other Kinds of Elusiveness
      • Other Kinds of Elusiveness
    • ANIMAL AND BIRD MIMICRY AND DISGUISE
    • § 1
      • Colour Permanently Like That of Surroundings
    • Colour Permanently Like That of Surroundings
    • § 2
      • Gradual Change of Colour
      • Seasonal Change of Colouring
    • Gradual Change of Colour
    • Seasonal Change of Colouring
    • § 3
      • Rapid Colour-change
      • The Case of Chameleons
    • Rapid Colour-change
    • The Case of Chameleons
    • § 4
      • Likeness to Other Things
    • Likeness to Other Things
    • § 5
      • Mimicry in the True Sense
      • Masking
    • Mimicry in the True Sense
    • Masking
    • § 6
      • Other Kinds of Elusiveness
    • Other Kinds of Elusiveness
    • V
    • THE ASCENT OF MAN
      • THE ASCENT OF MAN
      • § 1
        • Anatomical Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
      • Anatomical Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
      • § 2
        • Physiological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
        • Embryological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
      • Physiological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
      • Embryological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
      • § 3
        • Man's Pedigree
        • Man's Arboreal Apprenticeship
      • Man's Pedigree
      • Man's Arboreal Apprenticeship
      • § 4
        • Tentative Men
        • Primitive Men
        • Retrospect
        • Races of Mankind
        • Steps in Human Evolution
        • Factors in Human Progress
      • Tentative Men
      • Primitive Men
      • Retrospect
      • Races of Mankind
      • Steps in Human Evolution
      • Factors in Human Progress
      • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • THE ASCENT OF MAN
    • § 1
      • Anatomical Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
    • Anatomical Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
    • § 2
      • Physiological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
      • Embryological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
    • Physiological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
    • Embryological Proof of Man's Relationship with a Simian Stock
    • § 3
      • Man's Pedigree
      • Man's Arboreal Apprenticeship
    • Man's Pedigree
    • Man's Arboreal Apprenticeship
    • § 4
      • Tentative Men
      • Primitive Men
      • Retrospect
      • Races of Mankind
      • Steps in Human Evolution
      • Factors in Human Progress
    • Tentative Men
    • Primitive Men
    • Retrospect
    • Races of Mankind
    • Steps in Human Evolution
    • Factors in Human Progress
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • VI
    • EVOLUTION GOING ON
      • EVOLUTION GOING ON
        • Evolutionary Prospect for Man
        • The Fountain of Change: Variability
        • The Sporting Jellyfish
      • Evolutionary Prospect for Man
      • The Fountain of Change: Variability
      • The Sporting Jellyfish
      • § 1
        • Evolution of Plants
        • The Romance of the Wheat
      • Evolution of Plants
      • The Romance of the Wheat
      • § 2
        • Changes in the Animal Life of a Country
      • Changes in the Animal Life of a Country
      • § 3
        • The Adventurers
        • The Case of the Robber Crab
        • The Story of the Salmon
        • Interpretation of the Salmon's Story
        • The Romance of the Eel
      • The Adventurers
      • The Case of the Robber Crab
      • The Story of the Salmon
      • Interpretation of the Salmon's Story
      • The Romance of the Eel
      • § 4
        • Forming New Habits
        • Experiments in Locomotion
        • New Devices
        • In Conclusion
      • Forming New Habits
      • Experiments in Locomotion
      • New Devices
      • In Conclusion
    • EVOLUTION GOING ON
      • Evolutionary Prospect for Man
      • The Fountain of Change: Variability
      • The Sporting Jellyfish
    • Evolutionary Prospect for Man
    • The Fountain of Change: Variability
    • The Sporting Jellyfish
    • § 1
      • Evolution of Plants
      • The Romance of the Wheat
    • Evolution of Plants
    • The Romance of the Wheat
    • § 2
      • Changes in the Animal Life of a Country
    • Changes in the Animal Life of a Country
    • § 3
      • The Adventurers
      • The Case of the Robber Crab
      • The Story of the Salmon
      • Interpretation of the Salmon's Story
      • The Romance of the Eel
    • The Adventurers
    • The Case of the Robber Crab
    • The Story of the Salmon
    • Interpretation of the Salmon's Story
    • The Romance of the Eel
    • § 4
      • Forming New Habits
      • Experiments in Locomotion
      • New Devices
      • In Conclusion
    • Forming New Habits
    • Experiments in Locomotion
    • New Devices
    • In Conclusion
    • VII
    • THE DAWN OF MIND
      • THE DAWN OF MIND
      • § 1
        • Two Extremes to be Avoided
        • A Caution in Regard to Instinct
      • Two Extremes to be Avoided
      • A Caution in Regard to Instinct
      • § 2
        • A Useful Law
        • Senses of Fishes
        • Interesting Ways of Fishes
        • The Stickleback's Nest
        • The Mind of a Minnow
      • A Useful Law
      • Senses of Fishes
      • Interesting Ways of Fishes
      • The Stickleback's Nest
      • The Mind of a Minnow
      • § 3
        • The Mind of Amphibians
        • Senses of Amphibians
        • Experiments in Parental Care
      • The Mind of Amphibians
      • Senses of Amphibians
      • Experiments in Parental Care
      • § 4
        • The Reptilian Mind
      • The Reptilian Mind
      • § 5
        • Mind in Birds
        • Instinctive Aptitudes
        • Intelligence co-operating with Instinct
        • Using their Wits
        • The Thrush's Anvil
      • Mind in Birds
      • Instinctive Aptitudes
      • Intelligence co-operating with Instinct
      • Using their Wits
      • The Thrush's Anvil
      • § 6
        • The Mind of the Mammal
        • Instinctive Aptitudes
        • Sheer Dexterity
        • Power of Association
        • The Dancing Mouse as a Pupil
        • Learning Tricks
        • Using their Wits
      • The Mind of the Mammal
      • Instinctive Aptitudes
      • Sheer Dexterity
      • Power of Association
      • The Dancing Mouse as a Pupil
      • Learning Tricks
      • Using their Wits
      • § 7
        • Why is there not more Intelligence?
        • Experimentation in Play
        • Other Glimpses of Intelligence
      • Why is there not more Intelligence?
      • Experimentation in Play
      • Other Glimpses of Intelligence
      • THE MIND OF MONKEYS
      • § 8
        • Keen Senses
        • Power of Manipulation
        • Activity for Activity's Sake
        • Sheer Quickness
        • Quick to Learn
        • The Case of Sally
        • The Case of Lizzie
        • Trial and Error
        • Imitation
        • The Case of Peter
        • The Bustle of the Mind
        • "Until at last arose the Man."
      • Keen Senses
      • Power of Manipulation
      • Activity for Activity's Sake
      • Sheer Quickness
      • Quick to Learn
      • The Case of Sally
      • The Case of Lizzie
      • Trial and Error
      • Imitation
      • The Case of Peter
      • The Bustle of the Mind
      • "Until at last arose the Man."
      • § 9
        • Looking Backwards
        • Body and Mind
        • In conclusion
      • Looking Backwards
      • Body and Mind
      • In conclusion
    • THE DAWN OF MIND
    • § 1
      • Two Extremes to be Avoided
      • A Caution in Regard to Instinct
    • Two Extremes to be Avoided
    • A Caution in Regard to Instinct
    • § 2
      • A Useful Law
      • Senses of Fishes
      • Interesting Ways of Fishes
      • The Stickleback's Nest
      • The Mind of a Minnow
    • A Useful Law
    • Senses of Fishes
    • Interesting Ways of Fishes
    • The Stickleback's Nest
    • The Mind of a Minnow
    • § 3
      • The Mind of Amphibians
      • Senses of Amphibians
      • Experiments in Parental Care
    • The Mind of Amphibians
    • Senses of Amphibians
    • Experiments in Parental Care
    • § 4
      • The Reptilian Mind
    • The Reptilian Mind
    • § 5
      • Mind in Birds
      • Instinctive Aptitudes
      • Intelligence co-operating with Instinct
      • Using their Wits
      • The Thrush's Anvil
    • Mind in Birds
    • Instinctive Aptitudes
    • Intelligence co-operating with Instinct
    • Using their Wits
    • The Thrush's Anvil
    • § 6
      • The Mind of the Mammal
      • Instinctive Aptitudes
      • Sheer Dexterity
      • Power of Association
      • The Dancing Mouse as a Pupil
      • Learning Tricks
      • Using their Wits
    • The Mind of the Mammal
    • Instinctive Aptitudes
    • Sheer Dexterity
    • Power of Association
    • The Dancing Mouse as a Pupil
    • Learning Tricks
    • Using their Wits
    • § 7
      • Why is there not more Intelligence?
      • Experimentation in Play
      • Other Glimpses of Intelligence
    • Why is there not more Intelligence?
    • Experimentation in Play
    • Other Glimpses of Intelligence
    • THE MIND OF MONKEYS
    • § 8
      • Keen Senses
      • Power of Manipulation
      • Activity for Activity's Sake
      • Sheer Quickness
      • Quick to Learn
      • The Case of Sally
      • The Case of Lizzie
      • Trial and Error
      • Imitation
      • The Case of Peter
      • The Bustle of the Mind
      • "Until at last arose the Man."
    • Keen Senses
    • Power of Manipulation
    • Activity for Activity's Sake
    • Sheer Quickness
    • Quick to Learn
    • The Case of Sally
    • The Case of Lizzie
    • Trial and Error
    • Imitation
    • The Case of Peter
    • The Bustle of the Mind
    • "Until at last arose the Man."
    • § 9
      • Looking Backwards
      • Body and Mind
      • In conclusion
    • Looking Backwards
    • Body and Mind
    • In conclusion
    • VIII
    • FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNIVERSE
      • THE WORLD OF ATOMS
      • § 1
        • The Bricks of the Cosmos
      • The Bricks of the Cosmos
      • § 2
        • The Wonder-World of Atoms
        • The Energy of Atoms
      • The Wonder-World of Atoms
      • The Energy of Atoms
      • § 3
      • THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS AND RADIUM
        • The Discovery of Sir Wm. Crookes
      • The Discovery of Sir Wm. Crookes
      • § 4
        • The Discovery of X-rays
        • Discovery of Radium
      • The Discovery of X-rays
      • Discovery of Radium
      • THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON AND HOW IT EFFECTED A REVOLUTION IN IDEAS
      • § 5
        • The Discovery of the Electron
        • The Key to many Mysteries
      • The Discovery of the Electron
      • The Key to many Mysteries
      • § 6
      • THE ELECTRON THEORY, OR THE NEW VIEW OF MATTER
        • The Structure of the Atom
      • The Structure of the Atom
      • § 7
        • The New View of Matter
      • The New View of Matter
      • § 8
        • Other New Views
      • Other New Views
      • § 9
        • The Future
      • The Future
      • WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?
        • The Nature of Electricity
      • The Nature of Electricity
      • § 10
        • What an Electric Current is
        • What the Dynamo does
      • What an Electric Current is
      • What the Dynamo does
      • § 11
        • Magnetism
      • Magnetism
      • ETHER AND WAVES
        • Ether and Waves
        • Below the Limits of Visibility
      • Ether and Waves
      • Below the Limits of Visibility
      • LIGHT—VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE
        • Electrons and Light
        • Sorting out Light-waves
      • Electrons and Light
      • Sorting out Light-waves
      • LIGHTNING
        • The Fate of the World
      • The Fate of the World
      • § 12
        • What the Blue "Sky" means
        • Light without Heat
      • What the Blue "Sky" means
      • Light without Heat
      • ENERGY: HOW ALL LIFE DEPENDS ON IT
        • Forms of Energy
        • What Heat is
      • Forms of Energy
      • What Heat is
      • § 13
        • Substitutes for Coal
      • Substitutes for Coal
      • § 14
        • Dissipation of Energy
        • What a Uniform Temperature would mean
      • Dissipation of Energy
      • What a Uniform Temperature would mean
      • § 15
      • MATTER, ETHER, AND EINSTEIN
      • INFLUENCE OF THE TIDES: ORIGIN OF THE MOON: THE EARTH SLOWING DOWN
      • § 16
        • The Earth Pulled by the Moon
        • The Action of Sun and Moon
      • The Earth Pulled by the Moon
      • The Action of Sun and Moon
      • § 17
        • Origin of the Moon
        • The Earth Slowing down
        • The Day Becoming Longer
      • Origin of the Moon
      • The Earth Slowing down
      • The Day Becoming Longer
      • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • THE WORLD OF ATOMS
    • § 1
      • The Bricks of the Cosmos
    • The Bricks of the Cosmos
    • § 2
      • The Wonder-World of Atoms
      • The Energy of Atoms
    • The Wonder-World of Atoms
    • The Energy of Atoms
    • § 3
    • THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS AND RADIUM
      • The Discovery of Sir Wm. Crookes
    • The Discovery of Sir Wm. Crookes
    • § 4
      • The Discovery of X-rays
      • Discovery of Radium
    • The Discovery of X-rays
    • Discovery of Radium
    • THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON AND HOW IT EFFECTED A REVOLUTION IN IDEAS
    • § 5
      • The Discovery of the Electron
      • The Key to many Mysteries
    • The Discovery of the Electron
    • The Key to many Mysteries
    • § 6
    • THE ELECTRON THEORY, OR THE NEW VIEW OF MATTER
      • The Structure of the Atom
    • The Structure of the Atom
    • § 7
      • The New View of Matter
    • The New View of Matter
    • § 8
      • Other New Views
    • Other New Views
    • § 9
      • The Future
    • The Future
    • WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?
      • The Nature of Electricity
    • The Nature of Electricity
    • § 10
      • What an Electric Current is
      • What the Dynamo does
    • What an Electric Current is
    • What the Dynamo does
    • § 11
      • Magnetism
    • Magnetism
    • ETHER AND WAVES
      • Ether and Waves
      • Below the Limits of Visibility
    • Ether and Waves
    • Below the Limits of Visibility
    • LIGHT—VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE
      • Electrons and Light
      • Sorting out Light-waves
    • Electrons and Light
    • Sorting out Light-waves
    • LIGHTNING
      • The Fate of the World
    • The Fate of the World
    • § 12
      • What the Blue "Sky" means
      • Light without Heat
    • What the Blue "Sky" means
    • Light without Heat
    • ENERGY: HOW ALL LIFE DEPENDS ON IT
      • Forms of Energy
      • What Heat is
    • Forms of Energy
    • What Heat is
    • § 13
      • Substitutes for Coal
    • Substitutes for Coal
    • § 14
      • Dissipation of Energy
      • What a Uniform Temperature would mean
    • Dissipation of Energy
    • What a Uniform Temperature would mean
    • § 15
    • MATTER, ETHER, AND EINSTEIN
    • INFLUENCE OF THE TIDES: ORIGIN OF THE MOON: THE EARTH SLOWING DOWN
    • § 16
      • The Earth Pulled by the Moon
      • The Action of Sun and Moon
    • The Earth Pulled by the Moon
    • The Action of Sun and Moon
    • § 17
      • Origin of the Moon
      • The Earth Slowing down
      • The Day Becoming Longer
    • Origin of the Moon
    • The Earth Slowing down
    • The Day Becoming Longer
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
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