The Economics of Food and Agricultural Markets
Free

The Economics of Food and Agricultural Markets

By Andrew Barkley
Free
Book Description

The Economics of Food and Agricultural Markets is written for applied intermediate microeconomics courses. The book showcases the power of economic principles to explain and predict issues and current events in the food, agricultural, agribusiness, international trade, and natural resource sectors. The field of agricultural economics is relevant, important and interesting. The study of market structures, also called industrial organization, provides powerful, timely, and useful tools for any individual or group making personal choices, business decisions, or public policies in food and agriculture industries. Readers will benefit from a large number of real-world examples and applications of the economic concepts under discussion. The book introduces economic principles in a succinct and reader-friendly format, providing students and instructors with a clear, up-to-date, and straightforward approach to learning how a market-based economy functions, and how to use simple economic principles for improved decision making. The principles are applied to timely, interesting, and important real-world issues through words, graphs, and simple algebra and calculus. This book is intended for students who study agricultural economics, microeconomics, rural development and environmental policy.

Table of Contents
  • Table of Contents
  • Chapter 1. Introduction to Economics
    • 1.1 Introduction to the Study of Economics
      • 1.1.1 Economics is Important and Interesting!
      • 1.1.2 Scarcity
      • 1.1.3 Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
      • 1.1.4 Economic Models and Theories
      • 1.1.4.1 The Scientific Method
      • 1.15 Positive Economics and Normative Economics
    • 1.2 Supply and Demand
      • 1.2.1 Supply
      • 1.2.1.1 Properties of Supply
      • 1.2.1.2 The Determinants of Supply
      • 1.2.1.3 Movements Along vs. Shifts In Supply
      • 1.2.2 Demand
      • 1.2.2.1 Properties of Demand
      • 1.2.2.2 The Determinants of Demand
      • 1.2.2.3 Movements Along vs. Shifts In Demand
    • 1.3 Markets: Supply and Demand
      • 1.3.1 Competitive Market Properties
      • 1.3.2 Outcomes of Competitive Markets
      • 1.3.3 Supply and Demand Shift Examples
        • 1.3.3.1 Demand Increase
        • 1.3.3.2 Demand Decrease
        • 1.3.3.3 Supply Decrease
        • 1.3.3.4 Supply Increase
      • 1.3.4 Mathematics of Supply and Demand
    • 1.4 Elasticities
      • 1.4.1 Introduction to Elasticities
      • 1.4.2 Own Price Elasticity of Demand: Ed
        • 1.4.2.1 Price Elasticity of Demand Example
        • 1.4.2.2 Elastic and Inelastic Demand Examples
      • 1.4.3 Own Price Elasticity of Supply: Es
      • 1.4.4 Income Elasticity: Ei
      • 1.4.5 Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand: Edxy
      • 1.4.6 Cross-Price Elasticity of Supply: Esxy
      • 1.4.7 Price Elasticities and Time
      • 1.4.8 Elasticity of Demand along a Linear Demand Curve
      • 1.4.9 Agricultural Policy Example of Elasticity of Demand
      • 1.4.10 Calculation of Market Supply and Demand Elasticities
    • 1.5 Welfare Economics: Consumer and Producer Surplus
      • 1.5.1 Introduction to Welfare Economics
      • 1.5.2 Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus
      • 1.5.3 Mathematics of Consumer and Producer Surplus: Phone Market
    • 1.6 The Motivation for and Consequences of Free Trade
      • 1.6.1 The Motivation for Free Trade and Globalization
      • 1.6.2 Excess Supply and Excess Demand
      • 1.6.3 Three Panel Diagram of Free Trade between Two Nations
      • 1.6.4 Welfare Impacts of International Trade
  • Chapter 2. Welfare Analysis of Government Policies
    • 2.1 Price Ceiling
      • 2.1.1 Welfare Analysis
      • 2.1.2 Quantitative Analysis
    • 2.2 Price Support
      • 2.2.1 Case One: Price Support with No Surplus
      • 2.2.2 Case Two: Price Support When Surplus Exists
      • 2.2.3 Case Three: Price Support When Government Purchases Surplus
      • 2.2.4 Quantitative Analysis of a Price Support
    • 2.3 Quantitative Restriction
    • 2.4 Import Quota
      • 2.4.1 Welfare Analysis of an Import Quota
      • 2.4.2 Quantitative Welfare Analysis of an Import Quota
    • 2.5 Taxes
      • 2.5.1 Welfare Analysis of a Tax
      • 2.5.2 Quantitative Welfare Analysis of a Tax
    • 2.6 Subsidies
      • 2.6.1 Welfare Analysis of a Subsidy
      • 2.6.2 Quantitative Welfare Analysis of a Subsidy
  • Chapter 3. Monopoly and Market Power
    • 3.1 Market Power Introduction
    • 3.2 Monopoly Profit-Maximizing Solution
      • 3.2.1 Monopoly Revenues
      • 3.2.2 Monopoly Costs
      • 3.2.3 Monopoly Profit-Maximizing Solution
    • 3.3 Marginal Revenue and the Elasticity of Demand
      • 3.3.1 The Monopolist’s Tradeoff between Price and Quantity
      • 3.3.2 The Relationship between MR and Ed
      • 3.3.3 Pricing Rule One
    • 3.4 Monopoly Characteristics
      • 3.4.1 The Absence of a Supply Curve for a Monopolist
      • 3.4.2 The Effect of a Tax on a Monopolist’s Price
      • 3.4.3 Multiplant Monopolist
    • 3.5 Monopoly Power
      • 3.5.1 The Lerner Index of Monopoly Power
      • 3.5.2 Welfare Effects of Monopoly
      • 3.5.3 Sources of Monopoly
      • 3.5.4 Natural Monopoly
    • 3.6 Monopsony
      • 3.6.1 Terminology of Monopsony
      • 3.6.2 Welfare Effects of Monopsony
      • 3.6.3 Sources of Monopsony Power
  • Chapter 4. Pricing with Market Power
    • 4.1 Introduction to Pricing with Market Power
    • 4.2 Price Discrimination
      • 4.2.1 First Degree Price Discrimination
      • 4.2.2 Second Degree Price Discrimination
      • 4.2.3 Third Degree Price Discrimination
    • 4.3 Intertemporal Price Discrimination
    • 4.4 Peak Load Pricing
    • 4.5 Two-Part Pricing
    • 4.6 Bundling
      • 4.6.1 Bundling Examples
      • 4.6.2 Tying
    • 4.7 Advertising
      • 4.7.1 Graphical Analysis
      • 4.7.2 General Rule for Advertising
  • Chapter 5. Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly
    • 5.1 Market Structures
      • 5.1.1 Market Structure Spectrum and Characteristics
      • 5.1.2 Review of Perfect Competition
      • 5.1.3 Review of Monopoly
    • 5.2 Monopolistic Competition
      • 5.2.1 Monopolistic Competition in the Short and Long Runs
      • 5.2.2 Economic Efficiency and Monopolistic Competition
    • 5.3 Oligopoly
      • 5.3.1 Strategic Interactions
      • 5.3.2 Cournot Model
      • 5.3.3 Bertrand Model
      • 5.3.4 Stackelberg Model
      • 5.3.5 Collusion and Game Theory
      • 5.3.6 Rigid Prices: Kinked Demand Curve Model
      • 5.3.7 Dominant Firm Model: Price Leadership
      • 5.3.8 Cartels
  • Chapter 6. Game Theory One
    • 6.1 Game Theory Introduction
    • 6.2 Equilibrium in Dominant Strategies
      • 6.2.1 Prisoner’s Dilemma: Dominant Strategy
    • 6.3 Nash Equilibrium
      • 6.3.1 Prisoner’s Dilemma: Nash Equilibrium
    • 6.4 Advertising Game
      • 6.4.1 Advertising: Dominant Strategy
      • 6.4.2 Advertising: Nash Equilibria
    • 6.5 Maximin Strategy (Safety First)
      • 6.5.1 Prisoner’s Dilemma: Maximin Strategy (Safety First)
      • 6.5.2 Advertising Game: Maximin Strategy (Safety First)
    • 6.6 Cooperative Strategy (Collusion)
    • 6.7 Game Theory Example: Steak Pricing Game
      • 6.7.1 Steak Pricing Game: Dominant Strategy
      • 6.7.2 Steak Pricing Game: Nash Equilibrium
      • 6.7.3 Steak Pricing Game: Maximin Equilibrium (Safety First)
      • 6.7.4 Steak Pricing Game: Cooperative Equilibrium (Collusion)
  • Chapter 6. Game Theory Two
    • 6.8 Repeated Games
    • 6.9 Sequential Games
      • 6.9.1 Product Choice Game One
      • 6.9.2 Product Choice Game Two
    • 6.10 First Mover Advantage
      • 6.10.1 First Mover Advantage Example: Ethanol
      • 6.10.2 Empty Threat
      • 6.10.3 Pre-Emptive Strike
    • 6.11 Commitment and Credibility
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