Jackie Sharman
Business & Money
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Accounting principles:A business perspective
The accounting environment
Accounting defined
Financial accounting versus managerial accounting
Development of financial accounting standards
Ethical behavior of accountants
1. Accounting and its use in business decisions
Forms of business organizations
Types of activities performed by business organizations
Financial statements of business organizations
The financial accounting process
Analyzing and using the financial results—the equity ratio
2. Recording business transactions
The account and rules of debit and credit
The accounting cycle
The journal
The ledger
The accounting process in operation
3. Adjustments for financial reporting
Cash versus accrual basis accounting
Classes and types of adjusting entries
Adjustments for deferred items
Adjustments for accrued items
4. Completing the accounting cycle
The accounting cycle summarized
The work sheet
Preparing financial statements from the work sheet
Journalizing adjusting entries
The closing process
Accounting systems: From manual to computerized
A classified balance sheet
Analyzing and using the financial results — the current ratio
5. Accounting theory
Traditional accounting theory
Other basic concepts
The measurement process in accounting
The major principles
Modifying conventions (or constraints)
The financial accounting standards board's conceptual framework project
Objectives of financial reporting
Qualitative characteristics
Recognition and measurement in financial statements
6. Merchandising transactions
Introduction to inventories and the classified income statement
Two income statements compared— Service company and merchandising company
Sales revenues
Cost of goods sold
Classified income statement
Analyzing and using the financial results—Gross margin percentage
7. Measuring and reporting inventories
Inventories and cost of goods sold
Determining inventory cost
Departures from cost basis of inventory measurement
Analyzing and using financial results—inventory turnover ratio
8. Control of cash
Internal control
Controlling cash
The bank checking account
Bank reconciliation
Petty cash funds
Analyzing and using the financial results—The quick ratio
9. Receivables and payables
Accounts receivable
Current liabilities
Notes receivable and notes payable
Short-term financing through notes payable
Analyzing and using the financial results—Accounts receivable turnover and number of days' sales in accounts receivable
10. Property, plant, and equipment
Nature of plant assets
Initial recording of plant assets
Depreciation of plant assets
Subsequent expenditures (capital and revenue) on assets
Subsidiary records used to control plant assets
Analyzing and using the financial results—Rate of return on operating assets
11. Plant asset disposals, natural resources, and intangible assets
Disposal of plant assets
Intangible assets
Analyzing and using the financial results—Total assets turnover
12. Stockholders' equity: Classes of capital stock
The corporation
Documents, books, and records relating to capital stock
Par value and no-par capital stock
Other values commonly associated with capital stock
Capital stock authorized and outstanding
Classes of capital stock
Types of preferred stock
Balance sheet presentation of stock
Stock issuances for cash
Capital stock issued for property or services
Balance sheet presentation of paid-in capital in excess of par (or stated) value—Common or preferred
Analyzing and using the financial results—Return on average common stockholders' equity
13. Corporations: Paid-in capital, retained earnings, dividends, and treasury stock
Paid-in (or contributed) capital
Retained earnings
Paid-in capital and retained earnings on the balance sheet
Retained earnings appropriations
Statement of retained earnings
Statement of stockholders' equity
Treasury stock
Net income inclusions and exclusions
Analyzing and using the financial results—Earnings per share and price-earnings ratio
14. Stock investments
Cost and equity methods
Consolidated balance sheet at time of acquisition
Accounting for income, losses, and dividends of a subsidiary
Consolidated financial statements at a date after acquisition
Uses and limitations of consolidated statements
Analyzing and using the financial results—Dividend yield on common stock and payout ratios
15. Long-term financing: Bonds
Bonds payable
Bond prices and interest rates
Analyzing and using the financial results—Times interest earned ratio
16. Analysis using the statement of cash flows
Purposes of the statement of cash flows
Uses of the statement of cash flows
Information in the statement of cash flows
Cash flows from operating activities
Steps in preparing statement of cash flows
Analysis of the statement of cash flows
Analyzing and using the financial results—Cash flow per share of common stock, cash flow margin, and cash flow liquidity ratios
Appendix: Use of a working paper to prepare a statement of cash flows
17. Analysis and interpretation of financial statements
Objectives of financial statement analysis
Sources of information
Horizontal analysis and vertical analysis: An illustration
Trend percentages
Ratio analysis
18. Managerial accounting concepts/job costing
Compare managerial accounting with financial accounting
Merchandiser and manufacturer accounting: Differences in cost concepts
Financial reporting by manufacturing companies
The general cost accumulation model
Job costing
Predetermined overhead rates
19. Process: Cost systems
Nature of a process cost system
Process costing illustration
Process costing in service organizations
20. Using accounting for quality and cost management
Importance of good accounting information
Quality and customer satisfaction measures
Just-in-time method
Activity-based costing and management
Methods used for activity-based costing
Impact of new production environment on cost drivers
Activity-based costing in marketing
Strategic use of activity-based management
Behavioral and implementation issues
Opportunities to improve activity-based costing in practice
21. Cost-volume-profit analysis
Cost behavior patterns
Methods for analyzing costs
Cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis
Finding the break-even point
Cost-volume-profit analysis illustrated
Assumptions made in cost-volume-profit analysis
Using computer spreadsheets for CVP analysis
Effect of automation on cost-volume-profit analysis
22. Short-term decision making: Differential analysis
Contribution margin income statements
Differential analysis
Applications of differential analysis
Applying differential analysis to quality
23. Budgeting for planning and control
The budget—For planning and control
The master budget illustrated
Budgeting in merchandising companies
Budgeting in service companies
Additional concepts related to budgeting
24. Control through standard costs
Uses of standard costs
Advantages and disadvantages of using standard costs
Computing variances
Goods completed and sold
Investigating variances from standard
Disposing of variances from standard
Nonfinancial performance measures
Activity-based costing, standards, and variances
25. Responsibility accounting: Segmental analysis
Responsibility accounting
Responsibility reports
Responsibility centers
Transfer prices
Use of segmental analysis
Concepts used in segmental analysis
Investment center analysis
Economic value added and residual income
Segmental reporting in external financial statements
26. Capital budgeting:Long-range planning
Capital budgeting defined
Profitability index
Investments in working capital
The postaudit
Investing in high technology projects
Capital budgeting in not-for-profit organizations
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