A grammar of Palula
Free

A grammar of Palula

By Henrik Liljegren
Free
Book Description

This grammar provides a grammatical description of Palula, an Indo-Aryan language of the Shina group. The language is spoken by about 10,000 people in the Chitral district in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. This is the first extensive description of the formerly little-documented Palula language, and is one of only a few in-depth studies available for languages in the extremely multilingual Hindukush-Karakoram region. The grammar is based on original fieldwork data, collected over the course of about ten years, commencing in 1998. It is primarily in the form of recorded, mainly narrative, texts, but supplemented by targeted elicitation as well as notes of observed language use. All fieldwork was conducted in close collaboration with the Palula-speaking community, and a number of native speakers took active part in the process of data gathering, annotation and data management. The main areas covered are phonology, morphology and syntax, illustrated with a large number of example items and utterances, but also a few selected lexical topics of some prominence have received a more detailed treatment as part of the morphosyntactic structure. Suggestions for further research that should be undertaken are given throughout the grammar. The approach is theory-informed rather than theory-driven, but an underlying functional-typological framework is assumed. Diachronic development is taken into account, particularly in the area of morphology, and comparisons with other languages and references to areal phenomena are included insofar as they are motivated and available. The description also provides a brief introduction to the speaker community and their immediate environment.

Table of Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Abbreviations
  • 1 Introduction
    • 1.1 Language name
    • 1.2 The general setting
      • 1.2.1 Where and by whom the language is spoken
      • 1.2.2 The socioeconomic environment
      • 1.2.3 Local history and cultural identity
    • 1.3 The linguistic setting
      • 1.3.1 Genealogical affiliation
      • 1.3.2 Areal affinities
      • 1.3.3 ``Next-door'' linguistic neighbours
      • 1.3.4 Patterns of language use
    • 1.4 Internal variation
    • 1.5 Previous research
    • 1.6 Current study
    • 1.7 Palula as a written language
    • 1.8 Remarks on transcription and glossing
  • 2 Typological overview
    • 2.1 Phonology
    • 2.2 Morphology
    • 2.3 Syntax
  • 3 Phonology
    • 3.1 Consonants
      • 3.1.1 Consonant inventory
      • 3.1.2 Distribution and variation
    • 3.2 Vowels
      • 3.2.1 Vowel inventory
      • 3.2.2 Distribution and variation
      • 3.2.3 Vowel neutralisation
      • 3.2.4 The status of diphthongs
    • 3.3 Phonotactics
      • 3.3.1 Syllable structure
      • 3.3.2 Consonant clusters
    • 3.4 Suprasegmentals
      • 3.4.1 Aspiration and breathiness
      • 3.4.2 Nasalisation
      • 3.4.3 Pitch accent
    • 3.5 Morphophonology
      • 3.5.1 Morphophonemic alternations relating to accent
      • 3.5.2 Morphophonemic alternations relating to syllable structure
      • 3.5.3 Umlaut
  • 4 Parts of speech and the lexical profile
    • 4.1 Part-of-speech categories
    • 4.2 Nouns
      • 4.2.1 Proper nouns
    • 4.3 Verbs
      • 4.3.1 Secondary stems
      • 4.3.2 Conjunct verbs
    • 4.4 Adjectives
    • 4.5 Adverbs
      • 4.5.1 Spatial adverbs
      • 4.5.2 Temporal adverbs
      • 4.5.3 Manner adverbs
      • 4.5.4 Degree adverbs
      • 4.5.5 Sentence adverbs
    • 4.6 Pronouns
      • 4.6.1 Personal pronouns
      • 4.6.2 Demonstrative pronouns
      • 4.6.3 Indefinite-interrogative pronouns
      • 4.6.4 Reflexive pronouns
      • 4.6.5 Reciprocal pronouns
    • 4.7 Determiners
    • 4.8 Quantifiers
    • 4.9 Postpositions
    • 4.10 Auxiliaries
    • 4.11 Mood markers
    • 4.12 Conjunctions
    • 4.13 Discourse markers
    • 4.14 Interjections
    • 4.15 Other words or word-like elements
  • 5 Nouns
    • 5.1 The noun and its properties
    • 5.2 Noun morphology
      • 5.2.1 Inflectional morphology
      • 5.2.2 Derivational morphology
    • 5.3 Gender
      • 5.3.1 Gender assignment
      • 5.3.2 Gender stability and consistency
      • 5.3.3 Gender markedness
    • 5.4 Number
      • 5.4.1 Non-count nouns
      • 5.4.2 Collective nouns
      • 5.4.3 Proper names
    • 5.5 Case
      • 5.5.1 Nominative case
      • 5.5.2 Oblique case
      • 5.5.3 Genitive case
      • 5.5.4 Other cases or case-like categories
    • 5.6 Declensions
      • 5.6.1 a-declension
      • 5.6.2 i-declension
      • 5.6.3 m-declension
      • 5.6.4 Smaller declensions and irregular nouns
  • 6 Pronouns
    • 6.1 Introduction and overview
    • 6.2 Personal pronouns
    • 6.3 Demonstratives
      • 6.3.1 Relationship to the larger pro-form system
      • 6.3.2 Demonstratives and third person
      • 6.3.3 Exophoric use
      • 6.3.4 Anaphoric use
      • 6.3.5 Discourse-deictic use
      • 6.3.6 Article-like uses
      • 6.3.7 Spatial specification
    • 6.4 Possessive pronouns
    • 6.5 Reflexive pronouns
    • 6.6 Reciprocal pronouns
    • 6.7 Indefinite-interrogative pronouns
    • 6.8 Relative pronouns
  • 7 Adjectives and quantifiers
    • 7.1 The adjective and its properties
    • 7.2 Semantic properties of adjectives
      • 7.2.1 Dimensional adjectives
      • 7.2.2 Colour adjectives
      • 7.2.3 Age adjectives
      • 7.2.4 Value adjectives
      • 7.2.5 Physical-property adjectives
      • 7.2.6 Speed adjectives
      • 7.2.7 Human-propensity adjectives
      • 7.2.8 Summary of findings
    • 7.3 Morphological properties of adjectives
      • 7.3.1 Inflectional morphology
      • 7.3.2 Substantivisation
      • 7.3.3 Comparison of degree
      • 7.3.4 Derivational morphology
    • 7.4 Quantifiers
      • 7.4.1 Cardinal numerals
      • 7.4.2 Substantivised numerals
      • 7.4.3 Ordinal numerals
      • 7.4.4 Adjectival quantifiers
  • 8 Adverbs and postpositions
    • 8.1 Adverbs
      • 8.1.1 Symmetrical adverb sets
      • 8.1.2 Spatial adverbs
      • 8.1.3 Temporal adverbs
      • 8.1.4 Manner adverbs
      • 8.1.5 Degree adverbs
      • 8.1.6 Sentence adverbs
    • 8.2 Postpositions
      • 8.2.1 Postpositions vis-à-vis case inflection
      • 8.2.2 Simple postpositions
      • 8.2.3 Compound postpositions
      • 8.2.4 Postpositional sequences
  • 9 Verbs
    • 9.1 The verb and its properties
    • 9.2 Stems and verb classes
    • 9.3 Morphological verb classes
      • 9.3.1 Consonant-ending L-verbs
      • 9.3.2 a-ending L-verbs
      • 9.3.3 e-ending L-verbs
      • 9.3.4 Other L-verbs
      • 9.3.5 Consonant-ending T-verbs
      • 9.3.6 e-ending T-verbs
      • 9.3.7 Accent-shifting T-verbs
      • 9.3.8 aand-verbs
      • 9.3.9 i-ending T-verbs
      • 9.3.10 u-ending T-verb
      • 9.3.11 Suppletive verbs
      • 9.3.12 Irregular verbs and verbs with highly grammaticalised functions
    • 9.4 Inflectional categories
      • 9.4.1 Agreement morphology
      • 9.4.2 Verb forms derived from the imperfective stem
      • 9.4.3 Verb forms derived from the perfective stem
    • 9.5 Valency-changing morphology
      • 9.5.1 Valency addition
      • 9.5.2 Valency reduction
    • 9.6 Complex predicates
      • 9.6.1 Conjunct verbs
      • 9.6.2 Compound verbs
  • 10 Verbal categories
    • 10.1 Tense-aspect categories and their functions
      • 10.1.1 Basic tense-aspect categories
      • 10.1.2 Future
      • 10.1.3 Present
      • 10.1.4 Simple Past
      • 10.1.5 Periphrastic tense-aspect categories
      • 10.1.6 Past Imperfective
      • 10.1.7 Perfect
      • 10.1.8 Pluperfect
    • 10.2 Non-indicative finite categories and their functions
      • 10.2.1 Imperative
      • 10.2.2 Conditional
      • 10.2.3 Obligative
      • 10.2.4 Hearsay and quotative
    • 10.3 Non-finite forms and their functions
      • 10.3.1 Converb (conjunctive participle)
      • 10.3.2 Perfective Participle
      • 10.3.3 Verbal Noun
      • 10.3.4 Agentive Verbal Noun
      • 10.3.5 Copredicative Participle
      • 10.3.6 Infinitive
  • 11 Noun phrases and non-verbal agreement
    • 11.1 Noun phrase properties
      • 11.1.1 Types of noun phrases
      • 11.1.2 Modifiers in noun phrases
      • 11.1.3 Apposition
    • 11.2 Word order in the noun phrase
    • 11.3 Agreement patterns
      • 11.3.1 Determiner agreement
      • 11.3.2 Adjectival agreement
      • 11.3.3 Predicate agreement
      • 11.3.4 Extended agreement
  • 12 Grammatical relations
    • 12.1 Verb agreement
      • 12.1.1 Accusative alignment
      • 12.1.2 Ergative alignment
    • 12.2 NP case differentiation
      • 12.2.1 Inflectional case marking
      • 12.2.2 Pronominal case differentiation
      • 12.2.3 NP-internal marking
    • 12.3 The split system summarised
    • 12.4 Alignment and split features in the region and beyond
  • 13 Simple clauses and argument structure
    • 13.1 Nonverbal predicates
      • 13.1.1 Copular clauses with nominal predicates
      • 13.1.2 Copular clauses with adjectival predicates
      • 13.1.3 Copular clauses with locative expressions
      • 13.1.4 Other copular or copula-like expressions
    • 13.2 Verbal predicates
      • 13.2.1 Argument structure and transitivity
      • 13.2.2 Simple intransitive verbs
      • 13.2.3 Simple transitive verbs
      • 13.2.4 Intransitive verbs with an indirect object
      • 13.2.5 Transitive verbs with an indirect object
      • 13.2.6 Non-standard valency patterns
      • 13.2.7 Verbs with clausal complements
      • 13.2.8 Valency patterns of conjunct verb constructions
  • 14 Complex constructions
    • 14.1 Introduction and overview
    • 14.2 Coordination
      • 14.2.1 Conjunction
      • 14.2.2 Presection and postsection
      • 14.2.3 Disjunction
      • 14.2.4 Rejection
    • 14.3 Clause chaining
      • 14.3.1 Same-subject chaining
      • 14.3.2 Different-subject chaining
    • 14.4 Clauses with adverbial functions
      • 14.4.1 Temporality and related functions
      • 14.4.2 Purpose
      • 14.4.3 Causality
      • 14.4.4 Conditionality
      • 14.4.5 Clauses with other adverbial functions
    • 14.5 Complement clauses
      • 14.5.1 Complement-taking PCU predicates
      • 14.5.2 Complement-taking modality predicates
      • 14.5.3 Complement-taking manipulation predicates
    • 14.6 Relative clauses
      • 14.6.1 Relative clauses with a full NP
      • 14.6.2 Indefinite-conditional relative clauses
      • 14.6.3 Gapped relative clauses
      • 14.6.4 Gapped relative clauses with a complementiser
      • 14.6.5 Pronominal relative clauses
      • 14.6.6 Nominalisation and the use of participles
      • 14.6.7 Extraposed ki-constructions
  • 15 Sentence modification
    • 15.1 Introduction and overview
    • 15.2 Interrogative sentences
      • 15.2.1 Polar interrogatives
      • 15.2.2 Constituent interrogatives
      • 15.2.3 Subordinate interrogative clauses
      • 15.2.4 Interrogatives in exclamative use
    • 15.3 Negation
      • 15.3.1 Basic sentence negation
      • 15.3.2 Negative pronouns/particles
      • 15.3.3 The scope of negation
      • 15.3.4 The pragmatics of negation
      • 15.3.5 Prohibitive negation
    • 15.4 Switch-topicality
  • Sample text: Ashret dialect
  • Sample text: Biori dialect
  • References
  • Index
    • Name index
    • Language index
    • Subject index
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