A grammar of Palula
Henrik Liljegren
Politics & Social Sciences
A grammar of Palula
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This grammar provides a grammatical description of Palula, an Indo-Aryan language of the Shina group. The language is spoken by about 10,000 people in the Chitral district in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. This is the first extensive description of the formerly little-documented Palula language, and is one of only a few in-depth studies available for languages in the extremely multilingual Hindukush-Karakoram region. The grammar is based on original fieldwork data, collected over the course of about ten years, commencing in 1998. It is primarily in the form of recorded, mainly narrative, texts, but supplemented by targeted elicitation as well as notes of observed language use. All fieldwork was conducted in close collaboration with the Palula-speaking community, and a number of native speakers took active part in the process of data gathering, annotation and data management. The main areas covered are phonology, morphology and syntax, illustrated with a large number of example items and utterances, but also a few selected lexical topics of some prominence have received a more detailed treatment as part of the morphosyntactic structure. Suggestions for further research that should be undertaken are given throughout the grammar. The approach is theory-informed rather than theory-driven, but an underlying functional-typological framework is assumed. Diachronic development is taken into account, particularly in the area of morphology, and comparisons with other languages and references to areal phenomena are included insofar as they are motivated and available. The description also provides a brief introduction to the speaker community and their immediate environment.

1 Introduction
1.1 Language name
1.2 The general setting
1.2.1 Where and by whom the language is spoken
1.2.2 The socioeconomic environment
1.2.3 Local history and cultural identity
1.3 The linguistic setting
1.3.1 Genealogical affiliation
1.3.2 Areal affinities
1.3.3 ``Next-door'' linguistic neighbours
1.3.4 Patterns of language use
1.4 Internal variation
1.5 Previous research
1.6 Current study
1.7 Palula as a written language
1.8 Remarks on transcription and glossing
2 Typological overview
2.1 Phonology
2.2 Morphology
2.3 Syntax
3 Phonology
3.1 Consonants
3.1.1 Consonant inventory
3.1.2 Distribution and variation
3.2 Vowels
3.2.1 Vowel inventory
3.2.2 Distribution and variation
3.2.3 Vowel neutralisation
3.2.4 The status of diphthongs
3.3 Phonotactics
3.3.1 Syllable structure
3.3.2 Consonant clusters
3.4 Suprasegmentals
3.4.1 Aspiration and breathiness
3.4.2 Nasalisation
3.4.3 Pitch accent
3.5 Morphophonology
3.5.1 Morphophonemic alternations relating to accent
3.5.2 Morphophonemic alternations relating to syllable structure
3.5.3 Umlaut
4 Parts of speech and the lexical profile
4.1 Part-of-speech categories
4.2 Nouns
4.2.1 Proper nouns
4.3 Verbs
4.3.1 Secondary stems
4.3.2 Conjunct verbs
4.4 Adjectives
4.5 Adverbs
4.5.1 Spatial adverbs
4.5.2 Temporal adverbs
4.5.3 Manner adverbs
4.5.4 Degree adverbs
4.5.5 Sentence adverbs
4.6 Pronouns
4.6.1 Personal pronouns
4.6.2 Demonstrative pronouns
4.6.3 Indefinite-interrogative pronouns
4.6.4 Reflexive pronouns
4.6.5 Reciprocal pronouns
4.7 Determiners
4.8 Quantifiers
4.9 Postpositions
4.10 Auxiliaries
4.11 Mood markers
4.12 Conjunctions
4.13 Discourse markers
4.14 Interjections
4.15 Other words or word-like elements
5 Nouns
5.1 The noun and its properties
5.2 Noun morphology
5.2.1 Inflectional morphology
5.2.2 Derivational morphology
5.3 Gender
5.3.1 Gender assignment
5.3.2 Gender stability and consistency
5.3.3 Gender markedness
5.4 Number
5.4.1 Non-count nouns
5.4.2 Collective nouns
5.4.3 Proper names
5.5 Case
5.5.1 Nominative case
5.5.2 Oblique case
5.5.3 Genitive case
5.5.4 Other cases or case-like categories
5.6 Declensions
5.6.1 a-declension
5.6.2 i-declension
5.6.3 m-declension
5.6.4 Smaller declensions and irregular nouns
6 Pronouns
6.1 Introduction and overview
6.2 Personal pronouns
6.3 Demonstratives
6.3.1 Relationship to the larger pro-form system
6.3.2 Demonstratives and third person
6.3.3 Exophoric use
6.3.4 Anaphoric use
6.3.5 Discourse-deictic use
6.3.6 Article-like uses
6.3.7 Spatial specification
6.4 Possessive pronouns
6.5 Reflexive pronouns
6.6 Reciprocal pronouns
6.7 Indefinite-interrogative pronouns
6.8 Relative pronouns
7 Adjectives and quantifiers
7.1 The adjective and its properties
7.2 Semantic properties of adjectives
7.2.1 Dimensional adjectives
7.2.2 Colour adjectives
7.2.3 Age adjectives
7.2.4 Value adjectives
7.2.5 Physical-property adjectives
7.2.6 Speed adjectives
7.2.7 Human-propensity adjectives
7.2.8 Summary of findings
7.3 Morphological properties of adjectives
7.3.1 Inflectional morphology
7.3.2 Substantivisation
7.3.3 Comparison of degree
7.3.4 Derivational morphology
7.4 Quantifiers
7.4.1 Cardinal numerals
7.4.2 Substantivised numerals
7.4.3 Ordinal numerals
7.4.4 Adjectival quantifiers
8 Adverbs and postpositions
8.1 Adverbs
8.1.1 Symmetrical adverb sets
8.1.2 Spatial adverbs
8.1.3 Temporal adverbs
8.1.4 Manner adverbs
8.1.5 Degree adverbs
8.1.6 Sentence adverbs
8.2 Postpositions
8.2.1 Postpositions vis-à-vis case inflection
8.2.2 Simple postpositions
8.2.3 Compound postpositions
8.2.4 Postpositional sequences
9 Verbs
9.1 The verb and its properties
9.2 Stems and verb classes
9.3 Morphological verb classes
9.3.1 Consonant-ending L-verbs
9.3.2 a-ending L-verbs
9.3.3 e-ending L-verbs
9.3.4 Other L-verbs
9.3.5 Consonant-ending T-verbs
9.3.6 e-ending T-verbs
9.3.7 Accent-shifting T-verbs
9.3.8 aand-verbs
9.3.9 i-ending T-verbs
9.3.10 u-ending T-verb
9.3.11 Suppletive verbs
9.3.12 Irregular verbs and verbs with highly grammaticalised functions
9.4 Inflectional categories
9.4.1 Agreement morphology
9.4.2 Verb forms derived from the imperfective stem
9.4.3 Verb forms derived from the perfective stem
9.5 Valency-changing morphology
9.5.1 Valency addition
9.5.2 Valency reduction
9.6 Complex predicates
9.6.1 Conjunct verbs
9.6.2 Compound verbs
10 Verbal categories
10.1 Tense-aspect categories and their functions
10.1.1 Basic tense-aspect categories
10.1.2 Future
10.1.3 Present
10.1.4 Simple Past
10.1.5 Periphrastic tense-aspect categories
10.1.6 Past Imperfective
10.1.7 Perfect
10.1.8 Pluperfect
10.2 Non-indicative finite categories and their functions
10.2.1 Imperative
10.2.2 Conditional
10.2.3 Obligative
10.2.4 Hearsay and quotative
10.3 Non-finite forms and their functions
10.3.1 Converb (conjunctive participle)
10.3.2 Perfective Participle
10.3.3 Verbal Noun
10.3.4 Agentive Verbal Noun
10.3.5 Copredicative Participle
10.3.6 Infinitive
11 Noun phrases and non-verbal agreement
11.1 Noun phrase properties
11.1.1 Types of noun phrases
11.1.2 Modifiers in noun phrases
11.1.3 Apposition
11.2 Word order in the noun phrase
11.3 Agreement patterns
11.3.1 Determiner agreement
11.3.2 Adjectival agreement
11.3.3 Predicate agreement
11.3.4 Extended agreement
12 Grammatical relations
12.1 Verb agreement
12.1.1 Accusative alignment
12.1.2 Ergative alignment
12.2 NP case differentiation
12.2.1 Inflectional case marking
12.2.2 Pronominal case differentiation
12.2.3 NP-internal marking
12.3 The split system summarised
12.4 Alignment and split features in the region and beyond
13 Simple clauses and argument structure
13.1 Nonverbal predicates
13.1.1 Copular clauses with nominal predicates
13.1.2 Copular clauses with adjectival predicates
13.1.3 Copular clauses with locative expressions
13.1.4 Other copular or copula-like expressions
13.2 Verbal predicates
13.2.1 Argument structure and transitivity
13.2.2 Simple intransitive verbs
13.2.3 Simple transitive verbs
13.2.4 Intransitive verbs with an indirect object
13.2.5 Transitive verbs with an indirect object
13.2.6 Non-standard valency patterns
13.2.7 Verbs with clausal complements
13.2.8 Valency patterns of conjunct verb constructions
14 Complex constructions
14.1 Introduction and overview
14.2 Coordination
14.2.1 Conjunction
14.2.2 Presection and postsection
14.2.3 Disjunction
14.2.4 Rejection
14.3 Clause chaining
14.3.1 Same-subject chaining
14.3.2 Different-subject chaining
14.4 Clauses with adverbial functions
14.4.1 Temporality and related functions
14.4.2 Purpose
14.4.3 Causality
14.4.4 Conditionality
14.4.5 Clauses with other adverbial functions
14.5 Complement clauses
14.5.1 Complement-taking PCU predicates
14.5.2 Complement-taking modality predicates
14.5.3 Complement-taking manipulation predicates
14.6 Relative clauses
14.6.1 Relative clauses with a full NP
14.6.2 Indefinite-conditional relative clauses
14.6.3 Gapped relative clauses
14.6.4 Gapped relative clauses with a complementiser
14.6.5 Pronominal relative clauses
14.6.6 Nominalisation and the use of participles
14.6.7 Extraposed ki-constructions
15 Sentence modification
15.1 Introduction and overview
15.2 Interrogative sentences
15.2.1 Polar interrogatives
15.2.2 Constituent interrogatives
15.2.3 Subordinate interrogative clauses
15.2.4 Interrogatives in exclamative use
15.3 Negation
15.3.1 Basic sentence negation
15.3.2 Negative pronouns/particles
15.3.3 The scope of negation
15.3.4 The pragmatics of negation
15.3.5 Prohibitive negation
15.4 Switch-topicality
Sample text: Ashret dialect
Sample text: Biori dialect
Name index
Language index
Subject index
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