A grammar of Rapa Nui
Free

A grammar of Rapa Nui

By Paulus Kieviet
Free
Book Description

This book is a comprehensive description of the grammar of Rapa Nui, the Polynesian language spoken on Easter Island. After an introductory chapter, the grammar deals with phonology, word classes, the noun phrase, possession, the verb phrase, verbal and nonverbal clauses, mood and negation, and clause combinations. The phonology of Rapa Nui reveals certain issues of typological interest, such as the existence of strict conditions on the phonological shape of words, word-final devoicing, and reduplication patterns motivated by metrical constraints. For Polynesian languages, the distinction between nouns and verbs in the lexicon has often been denied; in this grammar it is argued that this distinction is needed for Rapa Nui. Rapa Nui has sometimes been characterised as an ergative language; this grammar shows that it is unambiguously accusative. Subject and object marking depend on an interplay of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic factors. Other distinctive features of the language include the existence of a ‘neutral’ aspect marker, a serial verb construction, the emergence of copula verbs, a possessive-relative construction, and a tendency to maximise the use of the nominal domain. Rapa Nui’s relationship to the other Polynesian languages is a recurring theme in this grammar; the relationship to Tahitian (which has profoundly influenced Rapa Nui) especially deserves attention. The grammar is supplemented with a number of interlinear texts, two maps and a subject index.

Table of Contents
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of abbreviations
  • 1 Introduction
    • 1.1 Rapa Nui: the island and the language
      • 1.1.1 The island and its name
      • 1.1.2 Origins
      • 1.1.3 Snippets of history
    • 1.2 Genetic affiliation
      • 1.2.1 Rapa Nui in the Polynesian language family
      • 1.2.2 Evidence for Eastern Polynesian and Central-Eastern Polynesian
        • Morphology
          • Lexicon
            • Sporadic sound changes
            • Phonology
            • Morphology
            • Syntax
            • Lexicon & semantics
            • Sporadic sound changes
    • 1.3 The Rapa Nui language: typology and innovations
      • 1.3.1 General typology
      • 1.3.2 Innovations and losses in Rapa Nui
    • 1.4 Sociolinguistic situation
      • 1.4.1 Influence from Tahitian
      • 1.4.2 Influence from Spanish
      • 1.4.3 Language use and vitality
      • 1.4.4 Orthography
    • 1.5 Previous work on the language
      • 1.5.1 Lexicon
      • 1.5.2 Grammar and sociolinguistics
    • 1.6 About this grammar
      • 1.6.1 A corpus-based study
      • 1.6.2 The corpus
      • 1.6.3 Organisation of this grammar
  • 2 Phonology
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Phonemes
      • 2.2.1 Consonants
        • Inventory
          • Contrastive sets
            • Derivation
      • 2.2.2 Vowels
      • 2.2.3 Phoneme frequencies
      • 2.2.4 The glottal plosive
      • 2.2.5 The glottal plosive in particles
    • 2.3 Phonotactics
      • 2.3.1 Syllable structure
      • 2.3.2 Word structure
        • 2.3.2.1 Constraints on word structure
        • 2.3.2.2 Minimal words
        • 2.3.2.3 Vowel sequences
        • 2.3.2.4 Common and uncommon patterns
      • 2.3.3 Cooccurrence restrictions
        • 2.3.3.1 Between vowels
        • 2.3.3.2 Between vowels and consonants
        • 2.3.3.3 Between consonants
    • 2.4 Suprasegmentals
      • 2.4.1 Stress
      • 2.4.2 Intonation
        • 2.4.2.1 In declarative clauses
        • 2.4.2.2 In questions
    • 2.5 Phonological processes
      • 2.5.1 Regular processes
        • 2.5.1.1 Word-final vowel devoicing
        • 2.5.1.2 Pre-stress lengthening
        • 2.5.1.3 Elision
      • 2.5.2 Lexicalised sound changes
        • Metathesis
          • Vowel changes
            • The liquid r
            • Glottals
            • The consonant h
            • Nasal consonants
            • Monophthongisation
            • Elision
      • 2.5.3 The phonology of borrowings
        • 2.5.3.1 Borrowings from lan]SpanishSpanish
          • 2.5.3.1.1 Phoneme level
            • Voiceless plosivessbj]Plosive and nasals
            • Voiced plosives
            • Fricatives
            • Affricates
            • Liquids
            • Other
          • 2.5.3.1.2 Phonotactics
            • Final consonants
            • Consonant clusters
            • Word shortening
            • Vowel lengthening
        • 2.5.3.2 Borrowings from lan]TahitianTahitian
    • 2.6 Reduplication
      • 2.6.1 Patterns of reduplication
        • 2.6.1.1 The morphology of type 1 reduplication
        • 2.6.1.2 The morphology of type 2 reduplication
          • Bimoraic words (patterns a–b)
            • Trisyllabic words (patterns c–f)
            • Quadrumoraic words (patterns g–h)
      • 2.6.2 Functions of reduplication
        • 2.6.2.1 Type 1: plurality
        • 2.6.2.2 Type 2: iterativity and intensity
          • 2.6.2.2.1 Repetition
          • 2.6.2.2.2 Distributive
          • 2.6.2.2.3 Intensity
          • 2.6.2.2.4 Lexicalised meanings
          • 2.6.2.2.5 Reduplication as basic form
          • 2.6.2.2.6 Conversion
          • 2.6.2.2.7 Attenuative
      • 2.6.3 Reduplications without base form
    • 2.7 Conclusions
  • 3 Nouns and verbs
    • 3.1 Introduction: word classes in Rapa Nui
    • 3.2 Nouns and verbs
      • 3.2.1 The noun/verb distinction
        • 3.2.1.1 Reasons to maintain a lexical noun/verb distinction
        • 3.2.1.2 Prototypicality
      • 3.2.2 Lexical noun/verb correspondences
        • 3.2.2.1 Homophonous noun/verb pairs
          • 3.2.2.1.1 Concrete entities
            • Instrument
            • Product
            • Utterance
            • Patient
            • Agent
            • Location
          • 3.2.2.1.2 Abstract words
            • Natural phenomena
            • Human experiences
            • Other abstract words
        • 3.2.2.2 Lexical nominalisation involving a suffix
        • 3.2.2.3 Cross-categorial use of borrowings
      • 3.2.3 Syntactic nominalisation
        • 3.2.3.1 Uses of zero and suffixed nominalisation
          • 3.2.3.1.1 Nominalised main clauses
            • The actor-emphatic
            • Ko S te V
            • He V te aŋa
            • Ko te V
            • Other main clauses
            • Reason clause
          • 3.2.3.1.2 Subordinate clauses
            • ꞌO + nominalised verb
            • ꞌI + nominalised verb
            • Temporal clauses
            • Circumstantial clauses
            • Purpose clauses
          • 3.2.3.1.3 Nominal roles
            • Subject
            • Direct object
            • Possessives
            • After prepositions
            • Nominal predicates
        • 3.2.3.2 The form of the nominalising suffix
        • 3.2.3.3 The nominalised phrase
          • Verb phrase elements
            • Noun & verb phrase elements
            • Noun phrase elements
      • 3.2.4 Nouns used as VP nucleus
      • 3.2.5 Nominal drift
        • Complements
          • Compounding
            • Arguments as possessives
    • 3.3 Nouns
      • 3.3.1 Classification of nouns
      • 3.3.2 Proper nouns
        • 3.3.2.1 Proper names of persons
          • 3.3.2.2 Personal pronouns
            • 3.3.2.3 Kinship terms
            • 3.3.2.4 General terms referring to people
            • 3.3.2.5 The collective marker
            • 3.3.2.6 Names of months
            • 3.3.2.7 Horasbj]hora ‘summer’ ‘summer’
            • 3.3.2.8 Definite numerals
    • 3.4 Verbs
      • 3.4.1 Classification of verbs
      • 3.4.2 Active, stative, intransitive
    • 3.5 Adjectives
      • 3.5.1 Does Rapa Nui have adjectives?
        • 3.5.1.1 Adjectives as a prototypical category
        • 3.5.1.2 Morphology of adjectives
        • 3.5.1.3 Syntactic function: adnominal and other uses
        • 3.5.1.4 Adnominal adjectives versus adnominal nouns and verbs
        • 3.5.1.5 Predicate adjectives
          • The contiguity marker kasbj]ka (aspect marker)
            • Imperfective esbj]e (imperfective)
            • Perfect kosbj]ko V ꞌā (perfect aspect) V ꞌā
            • Neutral hesbj]he (aspect marker)
            • Other preverbal markers
        • 3.5.1.6 Nominal use of adjectives
        • 3.5.1.7 Conclusions
      • 3.5.2 Degrees of comparison
        • 3.5.2.1 The comparative
        • 3.5.2.2 The superlative
        • 3.5.2.3 The equative
    • 3.6 Locationals
      • 3.6.1 Introduction
      • 3.6.2 Relative locationals
        • 3.6.2.1 Adverbial expressions
        • 3.6.2.2 Locationals with complement: prepositional expressions
        • 3.6.2.3 The semantics of some locationals
        • 3.6.2.4 Temporal use of locationals
      • 3.6.3 Absolute locationals
        • 3.6.3.1 Tai ‘seashore’; ꞌuta ‘inland’
        • 3.6.3.2 Tahatai ‘seashore’
        • 3.6.3.3 Kampō ‘countryside’
        • 3.6.3.4 Kōnui ‘far’
      • 3.6.4 Temporal locationals
        • 3.6.4.1 Ra ꞌe ‘first’
      • 3.6.5 The locational phrase
    • 3.7 Conclusions
  • 4 Closed word classes
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Pronouns
      • 4.2.1 Personal pronouns
        • 4.2.1.1 Forms
      • 4.2.2 Possessive pronouns
        • 4.2.2.1 T-possessives
          • 4.2.2.1.1 Singular possessors
          • 4.2.2.1.2 Plural possessors
        • 4.2.2.2 Ø-possessives
      • 4.2.3 Benefactive pronouns
      • 4.2.4 Uses of pronouns
        • 4.2.4.1 Generic pronouns: ‘one’
        • 4.2.4.2 Second person pronouns of personal involvement
    • 4.3 Numerals
      • 4.3.1 Forms of the numerals
        • 4.3.1.1 Basic and alternative forms
          • 4.3.1.1.1 One to ten
          • 4.3.1.1.2 11 to 100
          • 4.3.1.1.3 Above 100
          • 4.3.1.1.4 Etymology of the numerals
        • 4.3.1.2 Other uses of the alternative numerals
          • 4.3.1.2.1 Days and dates
          • 4.3.1.2.2 Telling time
          • 4.3.1.2.3 Measuring space and time
        • 4.3.1.3 Old numerals
      • 4.3.2 The numeral phrase
        • 4.3.2.1 Neutral e
        • 4.3.2.2 The contiguity marker ka
        • 4.3.2.3 The person marker hoko
        • 4.3.2.4 Modifiers in the numeral phrase
      • 4.3.3 Ordinal numerals
      • 4.3.4 Definite numerals
      • 4.3.5 Fractions
    • 4.4 Quantifiers
      • 4.4.1 Overview
      • 4.4.2 Ta ꞌato ꞌa ‘all’
        • Te N ta ꞌato ꞌa
          • Te ta ꞌato ꞌa N
            • Ta ꞌato ꞌa te N
            • Ta ꞌato ꞌa N
            • (Te) ta ꞌato ꞌa
            • With pronoun
      • 4.4.3 Paurō ‘each’
      • 4.4.4 Ananake ‘together’
        • 4.4.4.1 Modern use
        • 4.4.4.2 Ananake in older Rapa Nui
      • 4.4.5 Rauhuru ‘diverse’
        • Rauhuru te N
          • Te rauhuru N
            • Rauhuru N
            • (Te) N rauhuru
            • As a noun
      • 4.4.6 Tētahi ‘some, other’
        • 4.4.6.1 Syntax of tētahi: te + tahi?
        • 4.4.6.2 Use of tētahi
      • 4.4.7 Me ꞌe rahi and rahi ‘much, many’
        • 4.4.7.1 Me ꞌe rahi: from noun phrase to quantifier
        • 4.4.7.2 Rahi ‘many, much’
          • Predicate
            • Adverb
            • Noun
            • Adjective
      • 4.4.8 Other quantifiers
        • 4.4.8.1 Kē ‘some, others’
        • 4.4.8.2 Kā ‘every’
        • 4.4.8.3 Pura ‘mere, only’
      • 4.4.9 Tahi ‘all’
      • 4.4.10 The quantifier phrase
      • 4.4.11 Conclusions
    • 4.5 Adverbs
      • 4.5.1 Verb phrase adverbs
      • 4.5.2 Sentential adverbs
      • 4.5.3 Individual adverbs
        • 4.5.3.1 Iho ‘just then’
        • 4.5.3.2 Tako ꞌa ‘also’
        • 4.5.3.3 Hoki ‘also’
        • 4.5.3.4 Haka ꞌou ‘again’
      • 4.5.4 Sentential particles
        • 4.5.4.1 Deictic particles
          • 4.5.4.1.1 ꞌī ‘here’
          • 4.5.4.1.2 ꞌAi ‘there is’
          • 4.5.4.1.3 Nā ‘there near you’
        • 4.5.4.2 Ho ꞌi and pa ꞌi
          • 4.5.4.2.1 Pa ꞌi ‘in fact’
          • 4.5.4.2.2 Ho ꞌi ‘indeed’
        • 4.5.4.3 Ia ‘so, then’
        • 4.5.4.4 The intensifier rā
        • 4.5.4.5 Asseverative ꞌō
        • 4.5.4.6 Dubitative hō
    • 4.6 Demonstratives
      • 4.6.1 Forms
      • 4.6.2 Neutral demonstrative determiners
        • 4.6.2.1 The t-demonstrative: form and function
        • 4.6.2.2 The demonstrative hū
      • 4.6.3 Postnominal demonstratives
        • 4.6.3.1 Distal/neutral era
        • 4.6.3.2 Proximal nei
        • 4.6.3.3 Medial ena
      • 4.6.4 Demonstrative determiners
        • 4.6.4.1 Distal/neutral rā
        • 4.6.4.2 Proximal nei
        • 4.6.4.3 Proximal nī
        • 4.6.4.4 Medial nā
      • 4.6.5 Deictic locationals
        • 4.6.5.1 Nei, nā and rā as deictic locationals
        • 4.6.5.2 The anaphoric locational ira
      • 4.6.6 Demonstrative pronouns
    • 4.7 Prepositions
      • 4.7.1 Introduction
      • 4.7.2 The preposition ꞌi/i ‘in, at, on’
        • 4.7.2.1 Locative ꞌi
        • 4.7.2.2 General-purpose i
      • 4.7.3 Causes and reasons: ꞌi and ꞌo
      • 4.7.4 The preposition ki ‘to’
      • 4.7.5 The preposition mai ‘from’
      • 4.7.6 The preposition pe ‘toward’
      • 4.7.7 The preposition a ‘along; towards’
      • 4.7.8 The benefactive prepositions mo and mā
      • 4.7.9 The preposition pa/pē ‘like’
      • 4.7.10 The instrumental preposition hai
      • 4.7.11 The deictic preposition ꞌai
      • 4.7.12 The prominence marker ko
        • 4.7.12.1 Ko in lists and in isolation
        • 4.7.12.2 Ko as a locative preposition
        • 4.7.12.3 Lexicalised ko
        • 4.7.12.4 What is ko?
    • 4.8 Conclusions
  • 5 The noun phrase
    • 5.1 The structure of the common noun phrase
    • 5.2 The collective marker kuā
      • Proper names
        • Kinship terms
          • Other personal nouns
            • Pronouns
    • 5.3 Determiners
      • 5.3.1 Introduction
      • 5.3.2 The syntax of t-determiners
        • 5.3.2.1 Obligatory t-determiners
        • 5.3.2.2 Contexts in which determiners are excluded
        • 5.3.2.3 Contexts in which t-determiners are optional
      • 5.3.3 The function of the article te
      • 5.3.4 The predicate marker he
        • 5.3.4.1 Uses of he
          • In appositions
            • In isolation
            • In lists
            • After pē ‘like’
            • After the negator ꞌina
            • In topicalisation
        • 5.3.4.2 He is a determiner
      • 5.3.5 Numeral phrases in determiner position
    • 5.4 Numerals in the noun phrase
      • 5.4.1 Numerals before the noun
      • 5.4.2 Numerals after the noun
      • 5.4.3 Optional numeral placement; e tahi ‘one’
    • 5.5 Plural markers
      • 5.5.1 The plural marker ŋā
        • 5.5.1.1 The position of ŋā
        • 5.5.1.2 Use and non-use of ŋā
        • 5.5.1.3 Semantics of ŋā
      • 5.5.2 Co-occurrence of ŋā and the determiner
      • 5.5.3 Other words used as plural markers
        • Mau
          • Nu ꞌu
    • 5.6 The noun: headless noun phrases
      • 5.6.1
        • 5.6.2
          • 5.6.3
            • 5.6.4
            • 5.6.5
    • 5.7 Modifiers in the noun phrase
      • 5.7.1 Introduction: types of modifiers
      • 5.7.2 Compounds
        • 5.7.2.1 Lexical compounds
        • 5.7.2.2 Syntactic compounds
        • 5.7.2.3 Incorporation of objects and verbs
        • 5.7.2.4 Compound verbs
      • 5.7.3 Modifying adjectives
        • 5.7.3.1 Multiple adjectives
        • 5.7.3.2 The adjective phrase
    • 5.8 Adverbs and nō in the noun phrase
      • 5.8.1 Adverbs
      • 5.8.2 The limitative marker nō
        • 5.8.2.1 ‘The only one’
        • 5.8.2.2 ‘Only that one’
        • 5.8.2.3 ‘Just’
        • 5.8.2.4 Contrastive use
    • 5.9 The identity marker ꞌā/ ꞌana
    • 5.10 The deictic particle ai
    • 5.11 Heavy shift
    • 5.12 Appositions
      • 5.12.1 Common nouns in apposition
        • Bare appositions
          • He-marked appositions
            • Ko-marked appositions
      • 5.12.2 Proper nouns in apposition
    • 5.13 The proper noun phrase
      • 5.13.1 Structure of the proper noun phrase
      • 5.13.2 The proper article a
        • 5.13.2.1 Contexts in which a is used
          • Subject
            • After prepositions ending in -i
        • 5.13.2.2 Is a a determiner?
    • 5.14 Conclusions
  • 6 Possession
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Possessive constructions
      • 6.2.1 Possessives in the noun phrase
      • 6.2.2 The partitive construction
      • 6.2.3 Other possessive constructions
        • 6.2.3.1
          • 6.2.3.2
            • 6.2.3.3
            • 6.2.3.4
            • 6.2.3.5
            • 6.2.3.6
      • 6.2.4 Summary: use of possessive forms
    • 6.3 The semantics of possessives
      • 6.3.1 Relationships expressed by possessives
        • 6.3.1.1
          • 6.3.1.2
            • 6.3.1.3
            • 6.3.1.4
            • 6.3.1.5
            • 6.3.1.6
            • 6.3.1.7
            • 6.3.1.8
            • 6.3.1.9
            • 6.3.1.10
      • 6.3.2 A- and o-possessives
      • 6.3.3 Possessive relations marked with a and o
        • 6.3.3.1 Human possessees
          • 6.3.3.1.1 Kinship relations
          • 6.3.3.1.2 Other human relationships
        • 6.3.3.2 Non-human possessees with ꞌa
        • 6.3.3.3 Non-human possessees with o
        • 6.3.3.4 Possession with nominalised verbs
      • 6.3.4 General discussion
        • 6.3.4.1 Summary
        • 6.3.4.2 A general rule?
        • 6.3.4.3 o as unmarked possession
        • 6.3.4.4 The o/a distinction and the nominal hierarchy
    • 6.4 Conclusions
  • 7 The verb phrase
    • 7.1 The structure of the verb phrase
    • 7.2 Aspect marking
      • 7.2.1 Introduction
      • 7.2.2 The obligatoriness of aspectuals
      • 7.2.3 Neutral he
        • 7.2.3.1 Introduction
        • 7.2.3.2 Range of use
        • 7.2.3.3 He and postverbal particles
          • 7.2.3.3.1 Demonstratives
          • 7.2.3.3.2 He V rō ꞌai
        • 7.2.3.4 Summary
      • 7.2.4 Perfective i
        • 7.2.4.1 Introduction
        • 7.2.4.2 Neutral he versus perfective i
          • Anteriority
            • Highlighting
            • Intervening events
            • Background
        • 7.2.4.3 Summary
      • 7.2.5 Imperfective e
        • 7.2.5.1 Introduction
        • 7.2.5.2 Bare e
        • 7.2.5.3 e V rō: future
        • 7.2.5.4 E with postverbal demonstratives and with ꞌā/ ꞌana
        • 7.2.5.5 Postverbal demonstratives versus ꞌā; the function of ꞌā
        • 7.2.5.6 Summary
      • 7.2.6 The contiguity marker ka
        • 7.2.6.1 Introduction: ka in Polynesian and in Rapa Nui
        • 7.2.6.2 Ka in subordinate clauses
        • 7.2.6.3 Ka in main clauses
        • 7.2.6.4 Other uses of ka
        • 7.2.6.5 Summary
      • 7.2.7 Perfect aspect ko V ꞌā
        • 7.2.7.1 Anterior events leading to a present situation
        • 7.2.7.2 Present states
        • 7.2.7.3 Ko V era ꞌā: ‘well and truly finished’
        • 7.2.7.4 Perfect ko V ꞌā versus perfective i
        • 7.2.7.5 Summary
      • 7.2.8 Aspectuals and constituent order
    • 7.3 Preverbal particles
      • 7.3.1 Rava ‘given to’
      • 7.3.2 Degree modifiers
        • 7.3.2.1 ꞌApa
          • 7.3.2.2 ꞌAta
            • 7.3.2.3 Placement
    • 7.4 Evaluative markers
      • 7.4.1 The limitative marker nō
      • 7.4.2 The asseverative marker rō
      • 7.4.3 Conclusion
    • 7.5 Directionals
      • 7.5.1 Use of directionals
        • 7.5.1.1 In direct speech
        • 7.5.1.2 In third-person contexts
          • 7.5.1.2.1 Example 1: a stable deictic centre
          • 7.5.1.2.2 Example 2: a shifting deictic centre
        • 7.5.1.3 Directionals with speech verbs
        • 7.5.1.4 Lack of movement: more metaphorical uses
        • 7.5.1.5 Atu indicating extent
      • 7.5.2 Directionals with motion, speech, and perception verbs
        • 7.5.2.1 Motion verbs
          • 7.5.2.2 Speech verbs
            • 7.5.2.3 Perception verbs
      • 7.5.3 To use or not to use a directional
        • Directionality
          • Highlighting
            • Participant reference
            • Distance
    • 7.6 Postverbal demonstratives
      • 7.6.1 Introduction
      • 7.6.2 Proximal nei
      • 7.6.3 Medial ena
      • 7.6.4 Neutral/distal era
      • 7.6.5 Postverbal demonstratives with perfective i
    • 7.7 Serial verb constructions
      • 7.7.1 Introduction
      • 7.7.2 The syntax of SVCs in Rapa Nui
      • 7.7.3 Semantics of SVCs
        • 7.7.3.1 Aspect
          • 7.7.3.2 Direction
            • 7.7.3.3 Manner
            • 7.7.3.4 Other
    • 7.8 Conclusions
  • 8 The verbal clause
    • 8.1 Introduction; constituent order
    • 8.2 Case marking: introduction
      • 8.2.1 Case in Polynesian
      • 8.2.2 Case in Rapa Nui
      • 8.2.3 Preliminaries to the analysis of case marking
    • 8.3 Marking of S/A: the agentive marker e
      • 8.3.1 Syntactic factors
      • 8.3.2 Semantic patterns
      • 8.3.3 E with statives?
      • 8.3.4 Pragmatic/discourse factors
      • 8.3.5 Diachronic developments in the use of e
    • 8.4 Marking of O
      • 8.4.1 Use and non-use of the accusative marker
        • Preverbal
          • Imperative
            • Nominalised verbs
            • Lexical factors
      • 8.4.2 Conclusion: Rapa Nui is an accusative language
    • 8.5 The passive
      • 8.5.1 Passivisation in Rapa Nui
      • 8.5.2 The pseudopassive
      • 8.5.3 Two other uses of e
        • 8.5.3.1
          • 8.5.3.2
    • 8.6 Non-standard verbal clauses
      • 8.6.1 Marked constituent orders
        • 8.6.1.1 Preverbal subjects
        • 8.6.1.2 Preverbal objects
        • 8.6.1.3 Topic-comment constructions
      • 8.6.2 Topicalisation
        • 8.6.2.1 Topicalisation with ko
        • 8.6.2.2 Topicalisation with he
      • 8.6.3 The actor-emphatic construction
        • Perfective
          • Imperfective
            • Nominal
      • 8.6.4 Other non-canonical arguments
        • 8.6.4.1 Possessive S/A arguments
        • 8.6.4.2 Middle verbs: ki-marked objects
          • Perception verbs
            • Emotive verbs
            • Cognitive verbs
            • Speech verbs
            • Other verbs
            • Ki + NP is direct object
        • 8.6.4.3 Patient marked as instrument
          • Throwing
            • Covering/filling
        • 8.6.4.4 Variable argument assignment
        • 8.6.4.5 Ko with non-topicalised arguments
          • Poreko ‘to be born’
            • Naming verbs
            • Perception verbs
        • 8.6.4.6 Object incorporation with rova ꞌa
        • 8.6.4.7 Agentive use of i
    • 8.7 Case marking in nominalised clauses
    • 8.8 Obliques
      • 8.8.1 Indirect object?
      • 8.8.2 Marking of obliques
        • 8.8.2.1 Ki ‘to’
        • 8.8.2.2 Mo ‘for’
        • 8.8.2.3 Order of constituents
    • 8.9 Reflexive and reciprocal
      • 8.9.1 Reflexive
      • 8.9.2 Reciprocal
    • 8.10 Comitative constructions: ‘with’
      • 8.10.1 Introduction
      • 8.10.2 Pronouns as comitative markers
      • 8.10.3 Ararua and ananake ‘together’ as comitative markers
      • 8.10.4 Koia ko ‘with’
        • 8.10.4.1 Koia ko + noun
        • 8.10.4.2 Koia ko + verb
      • 8.10.5 Ko without comitative marker
      • 8.10.6 Pronouns as NP1: inclusory and exclusory use
      • 8.10.7 The inclusory pronoun construction
    • 8.11 The vocative
    • 8.12 The causative
      • 8.12.1 Introduction
      • 8.12.2 Causativisation of intransitive predicates
      • 8.12.3 Causativisation of transitive verbs
      • 8.12.4 Reflexive and implicit causatives
      • 8.12.5 Lexicalised causatives
      • 8.12.6 The causative prefix with nouns
      • 8.12.7 Lexical causatives
        • 8.12.7.1
          • 8.12.7.2
            • 8.12.7.3
    • 8.13 Conclusions
  • 9 Nonverbal and copular clauses
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 NP NP clauses
      • 9.2.1 Classifying clauses
      • 9.2.2 Identifying clauses
      • 9.2.3 Comparing classifying and identifying clauses
      • 9.2.4 Constituent order in identifying clauses
      • 9.2.5 Split predicates
      • 9.2.6 Clefts
      • 9.2.7 Attributive clauses
    • 9.3 Existential clauses
      • 9.3.1 Verbless and verbal existential clauses
      • 9.3.2 Existential-locative clauses
      • 9.3.3 Possessive clauses
      • 9.3.4 Conclusion
    • 9.4 Prepositional predicates
      • 9.4.1 Locative clauses
      • 9.4.2 Proprietary clauses
      • 9.4.3 Other prepositional predicates
    • 9.5 Numerical clauses
    • 9.6 Copula verbs
      • 9.6.1 Ai ‘to exist’ as a copula verb
      • 9.6.2 Riro ‘to become’
    • 9.7 Conclusions
  • 10 Mood and negation
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Imperative mood
      • 10.2.1 The imperative
      • 10.2.2 Third-person injunctions (jussives)
      • 10.2.3 First-person injunctions (hortatives)
    • 10.3 Interrogatives
      • 10.3.1 Polar questions
      • 10.3.2 Content questions
        • 10.3.2.1 Ai/ ꞌai ‘who’
        • 10.3.2.2 Aha ‘what, why’
        • 10.3.2.3 Hē ‘where, when, how, which’
          • Location
            • Situation
            • Time
            • Adjectival use
        • 10.3.2.4 Hia ‘how much, how many’
      • 10.3.3 Dependent questions
        • Polar questions
          • Content questions
    • 10.4 Exclamatives
      • 10.4.1 Ka in exclamations
      • 10.4.2 Ko in exclamations
      • 10.4.3 ꞌAi in exclamations
    • 10.5 Negation
      • 10.5.1 The neutral negator ꞌina
        • 10.5.1.1 Verbal clauses
        • 10.5.1.2 Nonverbal clauses
        • 10.5.1.3 Independent polarity item
      • 10.5.2 Status and origin of ꞌina
      • 10.5.3 The perfective negator kai
      • 10.5.4 The imperfective negator (e) ko
      • 10.5.5 Negation of the imperative
      • 10.5.6 The constituent negator ta ꞌe
        • 10.5.6.1
          • 10.5.6.2
            • 10.5.6.3
            • 10.5.6.4
            • 10.5.6.5
            • 10.5.6.6
            • 10.5.6.7.
      • 10.5.7 The negator kore
      • 10.5.8 Hia/ia ‘not yet’
    • 10.6 Conclusions
  • 11 Combining clauses
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Coordination
      • 11.2.1 Asyndetic and syndetic coordination
      • 11.2.2 Disjunction
    • 11.3 Clausal arguments
      • 11.3.1 Perception verbs
        • 11.3.1.1 Use of aspectuals
          • Contiguity marker ka
            • Perfect aspect ko V ꞌā
            • Imperfective e
        • 11.3.1.2 NP + clause
      • 11.3.2 Aspectual and manner verbs
        • 11.3.2.1 Ha ꞌamata ‘begin’
        • 11.3.2.2 Oti ‘finish’
        • 11.3.2.3 Hōrou ‘hurry’
        • 11.3.2.4 Oho ‘go, about to’
      • 11.3.3 Cognitive verbs
      • 11.3.4 Speech verbs
      • 11.3.5 Attitude verbs
      • 11.3.6 Modal verbs
      • 11.3.7 Summary
    • 11.4 Relative clauses
      • 11.4.1 Introduction
      • 11.4.2 Relativised constituents
        • 11.4.2.1 Subject
          • 11.4.2.2 Object
            • 11.4.2.3 Oblique
            • 11.4.2.4 Adjunct
            • 11.4.2.5 Possessor
            • 11.4.2.6 Identifying predicates
            • 11.4.2.7 Existential clauses
      • 11.4.3 Aspect marking in relative clauses
      • 11.4.4 Possessive-relative constructions
      • 11.4.5 Bare relative clauses; verb raising
    • 11.5 Subordinating markers
      • 11.5.1 The purpose/conditional marker mo
        • 11.5.1.1 Mo in adverbial clauses
        • 11.5.1.2 Arguments in the mo-clause
          • The S/A argument
            • The O argument
        • 11.5.1.3 Mo in main clauses
      • 11.5.2 The irrealis marker ana
        • 11.5.2.1 Ana in main clauses
        • 11.5.2.2 Ana in subordinate clauses
      • 11.5.3 The purpose/temporal marker ki
        • 11.5.3.1
          • 11.5.3.2
      • 11.5.4 ꞌO ‘lest’
      • 11.5.5 Mai ‘before; while’
      • 11.5.6 Summary
    • 11.6 Adverbial clauses
      • 11.6.1 Adverbial clause strategies
      • 11.6.2 Time
        • 11.6.2.1 Cohesive clauses
        • 11.6.2.2 Other unmarked temporal clauses
          • Perfective i
            • Imperfective e
            • Contiguity marker ka
        • 11.6.2.3 Development of hora ‘time’ into a pseudo-conjunction
        • 11.6.2.4 Anteriority: ‘before’
          • ꞌI ra ꞌe
            • Ante
            • ꞌŌ ira
            • Hia
        • 11.6.2.5 Temporal limit: ‘until’
      • 11.6.3 Purpose: bare purpose clauses
      • 11.6.4 Reason
      • 11.6.5 Result
      • 11.6.6 Condition
      • 11.6.7 Concession
      • 11.6.8 Circumstance
      • 11.6.9 Summary
    • 11.7 Conclusions
  • Appendix A: Interlinear texts
    • Te tātane taŋata – The devilman (R215)
    • Tikitiki ꞌa ꞌAtaraŋa – Tikitiki a Ataranga (R352)
    • He oho iŋa o te nu ꞌu hoko rua rama – The trip of two people who went torch fishing (R357)
  • Appendix B: The text corpus
    • Older texts
    • Texts from the 1970s
    • Programa Lengua Rapa Nui corpus
    • Bible translation
  • References
  • Index
    • Name index
    • Language index
    • Subject index
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